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Riedel, E. Standards as Sources. German Yearbook of International Law, 63(1), 369-417.
Riedel, Eibe "Standards as Sources" German Yearbook of International Law 63.1, 2022, 369-417.
Riedel, Eibe (2022): Standards as Sources, in: German Yearbook of International Law, vol. 63, iss. 1, 369-417, [online]


Standards as Sources

Riedel, Eibe

German Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 63 (2020), Iss. 1 : pp. 369–417

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Article Details


Author Details

Eibe Riedel is Emeritus Professor of German and Comparative Public Law, European and International Law at the University of Mannheim, Germany and a former member and Vice-Chairperson of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights from 1997–2012. He is a member of the Hague Permanent Court of Arbitration and chaired the Board of Trustees of the German Institute of Human Rights, Berlin until 2016. He was Swiss Chair of Human Rights from 2009–2012 at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, Visiting Professor at the Geneva Graduate Institute from 2013–2017, and Honorary Adjunct Professor at the University of Adelaide, Australia until 2018.


Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Eibe Riedel\nStandards as Sources 369
I. Introduction 369
II. The Changing Structure of International Law Sources 372
III. Hard Law Sources of International Law 376
A. Treaties 376
B. Customary International Law 369
C. General Principles of Law 369
IV. Functions of General Principles 369
V. Standards 370
A. The Nature of Standards 370
B. Standards at Common Law 370
C. Standards in the German ‘Topics’ Debate 370
VI. Standards in International Law 370
A. International Economic Law Standards 370
B. ILO-Standards 371
C. Recognised Human Rights Standards 371
1. The UDHR and ICESCR Example 371
2. ILO Convention 190 (2019) on Violence and Harassment in the Workplace 371
3. ILO Recommendation 204 (2015) on the Informal Economy 371
4. Article 12 ICESCR on the Right to Health and Essential Medicines 372
5. Other Right to Health Standards 372
6. WHO Coronavirus Disease Standards 372
VII. Thinking in Standards as a Precept of Practical Reason 372