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German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 53 (2010)

Editors: Giegerich, Thomas | Proelß, Alexander

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 53


Additional Information

Book Details


Cited By

  1. Hopes of Progress: European Integration in the History of International Law

    Goldmann, Matthias

    (2018) [Citations: 1]


The German Yearbook of International Law, founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the University of Kiel. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international and EU law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
BING BING JIA: A Synthesis of the Notion of Sovereignty and the Ideal of the Rule of Law: Reflections on the Contemporary Chinese Approach to International Law 11
I. Introduction 11
II. Sovereignty 14
A. The Concept of Sovereignty: A Brief Retrospect 14
B. The Relevance of the Status of a Third World Country 18
C. The Doctrine of Sovereignty as Part of the Contemporary Legal Order 21
III. The Rule of Law 23
A. The Current International Community 23
B. The Nature of Contemporary International Law: A Tentative View 26
C. The International Rule of Law 30
1. The UN on the International Rule of Law 32
2. China on the International Rule of Law 34
IV. Contemporary Chinese Practice: A Synthesis of the Notion of Sovereignty and Respect for the Rule of Law 36
A. China’s Approach to International Treaties 37
1. Position in the Early Days 38
2. Adherence to Treaties in the Negotiation of Which China has Participated 39
3. The Law on the Procedures for the Conclusion of Treaties 40
4. The Effect of Treaties as Part of Chinese Law 41
B. China’s Approach to Customary Law 43
C. China’s Approach to Certain Important Questions Incidental to its Notion of Sovereignty 45
1. Sovereignty and Remedial Self-Determination 45
2. Sovereignty and State Immunity: The 2004 Convention as a Watershed? 50
3. Sovereignty and Jurisdiction: Need for a Positive Rule 53
V. Conclusions 59
ALEXANDER PROELSS: International Environmental Law and the Challenge of Climate Change 65
I. The Significance of the Precautionary Principle 71
II. Potential Responses Using International Environmental Law 76
A. Principles as Obligations to Optimize 77
B. Transferability to International Law 78
III. Legal Consequences of a Comprehensive, Multi-Functional Understanding of Precaution 81
IV. Conclusion 86
MALGOSIA FITZMAURICE: Responsibility and Climate Change 89
I. Introduction 89
II. General Observations on the Structure of the Norm in International Law 93
A. The Structure of Norms of International Environmental Law: The Issue of Collective Interest 97
B. Conclusions 101
III. Introductory Observations: Primary Rules of International Environmental Law 101
A. Climate Change: Primary Rules 103
1. Climate Change as a “Common Concern of Mankind” 103
2. Short Introduction to the Climate Change Legal Regime 105
a) The UNFCCC Treaty Regime 105
b) The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC 107
3. “Soft law” Obligations 108
a) The Bali Road Map 108
b) The Copenhagen Accord 108
c) Qualified Economy-Wide Emissions Targets of Annex I Parties and the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions of Non-Annex I Parties 110
B. Conclusions 111
IV. Climate Change and Customary International Law on State Responsibility 112
A. Climate Change and State Responsibility: General Observation 112
B. General Principles of Responsibility for Wrongful Acts 113
C. The Wrongful Act and its Attribution 114
D. The “No Significant Harm” Rule 116
E. The Obligation of Due Diligence 119
1. Due Diligence and Climate Change Challenges 121
F. Conclusions 128
V. Climate Change as a Self-Contained Regime 130
A. An Outline of the Problem 130
B. Climate Change as a Self-Contained Regime 133
VI. Soft Law Obligations and Climate Change 136
VII. General Conclusions 137
I. Introduction 140
II. Environmental Law: Principles, UNFCCC and Kyoto II 141
A. Relevance of the Precautionary Principle 142
B. Relevance of the Polluter Pays Principle 146
C. The Current International Climate Policy Framework 148
D. Common but Differentiated Responsibility 150
III. The Human Rights Dimension 152
A. Social and Economic Rights 152
B. Civil and Political Rights 158
IV. The Impact of Trade Regulation 159
A. Defensive Functions of WTO Law 160
1. Border Adjustment Measures 160
2. Carbon Tariffs 164
3. Non-Tariff Measures 166
4. Consumer Taxes 167
B. Proactive Functions of WTO Law 168
1. Framework Energy Agreement 169
a) Liberalization of Trade in Environmental Goods and Services 169
b) Reinforcing Energy Services Commitments and Energy Efficiency 170
c) Framework Conditions for Renewable Energies 171
d) Review of Subsidies Disciplines 172
e) Transit Rights 176
f) Energy Production Controls: OPEC Clause 177
g) Technology Transfer, CDM and Intellectual Property Rights 178
2. Aid for Trade and the Role of Biotechnology 181
V. Investment Protection 183
VI. Conclusions 186
CLIVE SCHOFIELD: Rising Waters, Shrinking States: The Potential Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Claims to Maritime Jurisdiction 189
I. Introduction 189
II. Global Sea Level Rise 191
A. Climate Change and the Oceans 191
B. Rising Waters 193
C. Trying to Detect a Clear Message Through the Static 196
III. Now You See It …? 200
A. The Threats Posed by Sea Level Rise 200
B. Implications for Islands 201
C. Threats to Maritime Jurisdiction 203
D. Threats to the Continued Existence of Small Island States 204
E. Alternative Explanations 205
IV. Parting the Land from the Sea 207
A. Baselines 207
B. Invisible Coasts 208
C. Dynamic Coasts, Ambulatory Baselines and Shifting Limits 210
D. Uneven Impacts 212
V. Options to Counter the Threat of Sea Level Rise to Maritime Claims 214
A. Planned Retreat and Relocation 214
B. Coastal Protection 215
C. Securing the Starting Line 219
1. Choice of Chart 220
2. Applying Straight Baselines 222
3. Declared Baselines 224
D. Fixed Limits 224
E. Options in the Face of Total Inundation of Land Territory 226
VI. Conclusion – The Need for a Fresh Approach? 228
JANE MCADAM AND BEN SAUL: Displacement with Dignity: International Law and Policy Responses to Climate Change Migration and Security in Bangladesh 233
I. Introduction 234
II. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Movement in Bangladesh 237
III. The Likely Nature of Movement 241
A. Internal Displacement 241
B. Cross-Border Migration 243
IV. Security Risks of Climate Change-Related Movement in Bangladesh 248
A. Social Conflict over Scarce Resources 249
B. Risks of Radicalization and Terrorism Within Bangladesh 253
C. Transnational Security Risks of Bangladeshi Migration 257
D. Ethnic Insurgencies 260
E. Religious Terrorism 262
F. Border Securitization 263
V. Options for Law and Policy Reform 265
A. Strengthen In-Country Adaptation 267
B. Implement International Standards on Internal Displacement 269
1. Pre-Displacement Phase 271
2. During Displacement 271
3. Resettlement or Relocation 273
C. Strengthening Protection Under International Treaties 278
D. Temporary Protection Responses 280
E. Encourage Global Labor Mobility and Lawful Migration Pathways 282
VI. Conclusion 285
MICHAEL BOWMAN: Conserving Biological Diversity in an Era of Climate Change: Local Implementation of International Wildlife Treaties 289
I. Introduction 289
II. The Convention on Biodiversity 293
A. General Provisions 293
B. Climate Change 295
III. The Ramsar Wetlands Convention 298
A. General Provisions 299
B. Climate Change 302
IV. The Bonn Convention on Migratory Species 305
A. General Provisions 306
B. Climate Change 308
V. The Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats 311
A. General Provisions 312
B. Climate Change 316
VI. Local Implementation in the UK 317
A. Selecting a Case Study 318
B. Legal and Administrative Context 322
C. Nature Conservation in Practice 324
1. The Peak District National Park 324
2. The City of Derby 328
3. Lowland Derbyshire 332
VII. Conclusions 338
JOYEETA GUPTA: Climate Change: A GAP Analysis Based on Third World Approaches to International Law 341
I. Introduction 342
II. Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) 346
A. Introduction 346
B. Perspectives of the TWAIL School of Thought 347
C. Inferences 350
III. The Climate Change Regime: A History 351
IV. Copenhagen and its Results 357
A. The Key Results 358
B. The Targets 360
C. The Finances 363
D. Inferences: What Next? 364
V. Analysis 364
VI. Conclusions 368
WYBE TH. DOUMA: Legal Aspects of the European Union’s Biofuels Policy: Protection or Protectionism? 371
I. Introduction 371
II. Biofuels: Cure or Curse? 374
III. The Former EU Rules on Transport Biofuel and Their Practical Impacts 378
IV. The Present EU Rules on Transport Biofuels 380
A. The Road Towards the Present Rules 380
B. The Renewable Energy Directive and the Fuel Quality Directive 383
1. General 383
2. Indirect Land Use Change 385
3. Social Impacts 387
4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings 388
C. Land-Use Requirements 391
D. Verification of Compliance with Sustainability Criteria 393
V. WTO Consistency of EU Sustainability Criteria 394
A. Introduction 394
B. Article III GATT 1994, National Treatment 395
1. Purpose and Scope of the Provision 395
2. Regulatory Measure Affecting Internal Sale 398
3. Less Favorable Treatment 398
4. “Like” Products 400
C. Article XI: Quantitative Restrictions 405
D. The Article XX Exception 407
1. General 407
2. Article XX(g): Natural Resources 409
3. Article XX(b): Protection of Human, Animal or Plant Life and Health 412
4. Chapeau of Article XX 418
THOMAS GIEGERICH, ALEXANDER PROELSS: Foreword from the Editors 423
GÜNTHER HANDL: In Re South African Apartheid Litigation and Beyond: Corporate Liability for Aiding and Abetting Under the Alien Tort Statute 425
I. Introduction 425
II. Corporate Liability Under the ATS 431
III. Corporate Aiding and Abetting Liability Under the ATS 438
IV. Aiding and Abetting Liability: The Basic Choice-of-Law Issue 441
V. Specific Aiding and Abetting Standards Under Customary International Law 446
A. The Actus Reus of Aiding and Abetting 447
B. The Applicable Mens Rea Standard 451
C. The Issue of Vicarious Liability 458
VI. Outlook and Conclusions 460
KAI AMBOS: The Crime of Aggression After Kampala 463
I. Preliminary Remarks 464
II. The Kampala Compromise 466
A. The Definition 467
B. The Exercise of Jurisdiction 471
1. The Starting Point 471
2. The Negotiations 473
3. The Final Compromise 475
III. Critical Analysis 478
A. Preliminary Clarifications 478
B. The Definition 482
1. The Dual Nature of the Crime of Aggression and the Threshold Clause 482
2. The Reference to Resolution 3314 486
3. The Special Offense Character of the Crime and the Leadership Clause 489
4. The Conduct Verbs and the Criminalization of Preparatory Acts 493
5. The Mental Element 497
C. The Exercise of Jurisdiction 498
1. The Trigger Procedures and the Role of the Security Council 498
2. Conditions for the Exercise of Jurisdiction and Jurisdictional Limitations (Article 15bis (4) and (5)) 501
IV. Conclusion 508
KERSTIN ODENDAHL: The Scope of Application of the Principle of Territorial Integrity 511
I. Introduction: The ICJ Advisory Opinion on Kosovo 511
II. The Principle of Territorial Integrity in International Documents 514
A. The Birth of a New International Concept 514
B. The Establishment of a New Legal Principle in UN Documents 516
1. The Original Principle: Article 2 (4) UN Charter and its Reaffirmation by UN Documents 516
2. UN Documents Enlarging the Principle 518
3. UN Documents Mentioning the Principle in a General Manner 521
C. The Adoption of the Principle by Regional Documents 521
1. Regional Documents Referring to the Original Principle 522
2. Regional Documents Referring to the Enlarged Principle 523
3. Regional Documents Mentioning the Principle in a General Manner 524
D. Recognition as a Principle of Customary International Law 526
III. External Scope of Application of the Principle of Territorial Integrity 527
IV. Internal Scope of Application of the Principle of Territorial Integrity? 528
A. Security Council Resolutions Condemning Secessionist Movements and/or Declarations of Independence 530
B. General Assembly Resolutions Condemning Secessionist Movements and/or Declarations of Independence 533
C. Territorial Integrity of States as a General and Absolute Principle 534
D. The “Safeguard Clause:” Limiting the Right of Peoples to Self-Determination in Favor of Territorial Integrity 536
V. Conclusion 539
CHARLES RIZIKI MAJINGE: Southern Sudan and the Struggle for Self-Determination in Contemporary Africa: Examining its Basis Under International Law 541
I. Introduction 541
II. Southern Sudan within Sudan 545
III. The CPA and the Constitutional Developments in Sudan 551
IV. The Concept of Self-Determination in International Law 554
V. The Right to Self-Determination in Contemporary Africa 559
A. Biafra 561
B. Eritrea 562
C. Western Sahara 563
VI. The Basis for Southern Sudan’s Claim to the Right to Self-Determination 568
VII. Conclusion 576
ANASTASIOS GOURGOURINIS: Lex Specialis in WTO and Investment Protection Law 579
I. Introduction 579
II. The Dual Typology of Lex Specialis: The Principle of Lex Specialis Derogat Legi Generali and the Lex Specialis/Generalis Qualification 581
A. The Lex Specialis Derogat Legi Generali Principle as Denoting Exclusionar Application of Conflicting International Legal Norms 585
B. The Case of Lex Specialis/Generalis Qualification as Denoting Cumulative Application of Non-Conflicting Norms 593
C. Interim Conclusions: Normative Conflict in the Operative Context of Lex Specialis Derogat Legi Generali and Article 31 (3)(c) VCLT 599
III. An Operative Sketch for Lex Specialis 604
A. The Proper Operation of Lex Specialis Entails a “Norm-by-Norm” Juxtaposition 604
B. The Proper Operation of Lex Specialis Requires a High Degree of Rationae Materiae Sameness Shared by the Juxtaposed Norms 610
C. The Relationship Between Lex Specialis Derogat Legi Generali and Lex Posterior Derogat Legi Priori 618
IV. Conclusion 621
ANNE PETERS: Extraterritorial Naturalizations: Between the Human Right to Nationality, State Sovereignty and Fair Principles of Jurisdiction 623
I. Introduction 624
II. Basic Concepts 625
A. Nationality 625
B. Original and Derivative Acquisition of Nationality 627
III. The Duality of Nationality: Domestic Affairs Within International Legal Limits 628
IV. The Practice of Extraterritorial Naturalization 632
A. The Russian “Passportization” Policy in South Ossetia and Abkhazia Since 2002 634
1. International Legal Background 635
2. Georgian Nationality of Residents of South Osssetia and Abkhazia 638
3. Inopposability of Abkhazian and South Ossetian “Nationality” 640
4. Naturalization of Georgian Citizens Residing in Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Russia 641
B. Russian “Passportization” Policy in Transnistria (Moldova) 644
C. Hungarian Extraterritorial Nationality 645
D. The Romanian Policy of Extraterritorial Restitution of Nationality 647
E. Extraterritorial German Nationality and “Status” Between 1949 and 1990 649
1. The One and Single German Nationality Beyond the Territorial Scope of the Basic Law 651
2. Status-Germans Residing in the Former Eastern Territories of Germany 653
F. Cypriot Nationality of the Inhabitants of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus 656
V. Principles Governing Extraterritorial Naturalizations 657
A. The Interests at Stake 657
B. Powers of the Naturalizing State 658
C. Rights of the Concerned Individuals 658
1. The Right to Change One’s Nationality Through Naturalization 659
a) A Human Right to Nationality? 659
b) The Rights to Acquire, to Retain, and to Change One’s Nationality 661
c) The Right to Change as a Prohibition of an Arbitrary Refusal to Release a National 662
2. The Right Not to be Discriminated Against in the Context of Naturalization 664
3. The Right Not to be Naturalized Against One’s Will 666
a) Legal Basis of the Consent Requirement 666
b) Vitiation of the Individual’s Consent 668
4. Limits to the Individual Choice of Nationality 668
D. Interests of the Former Patron State 669
1. Preserving Statehood 669
2. Jurisdiction over Persons 671
3. Territorial Sovereignty 672
E. Principles Serving Global Public Interests 673
1. Good Neighborliness 674
2. Repartition of Jurisdiction 674
3. The Prohibition of an Abuse of Rights 675
VI. Striking the Balance: International Legal Limits on Naturalizations 677
A. The Prohibition of an Arbitrary Refusal to Release One’s Nationals 678
B. The Requirement of a Factual Connection Between Applicants and the Naturalizing State 680
1. Rationales 681
2. Manifestation of the General Principle of Effectiveness 682
3. Intensity: No “Genuine” Link Requirement 684
a) Nottebohm and the Ensuing Controversy 684
b) Appropriate Connections Suffice 686
C. No per se Illegality of Individual Extraterritorial Naturalizations 689
1. The Traditional Requirement of Residence 689
2. Abandonment of the Residence Requirement for Individual Naturalizations 690
D. Collective Naturalizations 691
1. The Requirement of an Individual Right of Refusal 692
2. The Requirement of Residence for Collective Naturalizations 693
3. Collective Naturalization in the Context of State Succession 694
a) No “Automatic” Collective Change of Nationality 695
b) No Customary Right of Option 696
4. De facto Collective Naturalizations 698
VII. Application of the Principles to the Cases 700
A. The Russian “Passportization” Policy in South Ossetia and Abkhazia May Result in Exorbitant Naturalizations 700
1. Overstepping the Limits of the Individual Right to Change One’s Nationality 700
2. Doubtful Voluntariness 700
3. Lacking Factual Connection 702
4. De facto Collective Naturalization 704
5. Abuse of Rights 705
B. Germany, Cyprus, Hungary, and Romania 705
VIII. Consequences of Exorbitant Naturalizations Under International Law 709
A. Illegality and Non-Opposability 709
B. Non-Opposability Through Non-Recognition 712
1. Non-Recognition by International Bodies and by Any Other State 712
2. Non-Recognition from a Choice of Law Perspective 715
3. Non-Recognition Only if Serious Doubts 716
a) The General Presumption of Lawfulness of a Naturalization 716
b) No Such Presumption for Extraterritorial Naturalizations 718
4. Possible Preclusion of Wrongfulness or Waiver 718
C. Consequences of Exorbitant Naturalizations for the Former Nationality 719
D. Illegality of Extraterritorial Governmental Acts Related to Naturalizations 722
IX. Conclusions 723
PIETRO PUSTORINO: Failed States and International Law: The Impact of UN Practice on Somalia in Respect of Fundamental Rules of International Law 727
I. The Legal Definition of Failed States 727
II. The Principle of Effectiveness and Failed States 731
III. The Application of the Principles of Prohibition on the Use of Force and Self-Determination of Peoples to Failed States 733
IV. The General Objectives of the UN in Regard to Somalia 734
V. An Overview of UN Practice on Somalia 736
A. The Practice of the General Assembly and Other UN Organs on Somalia 736
B. The Security Council’s Practice on Somalia: The Problem of the Consent to the Exercise of International Subsidiary Functions in the Failed States 739
C. The Specific Content of the Sovereign Subsidiary Functions Authorized by the Security Council in Somalia 741
VI. Relevance of the UN Practice on Somalia for the Progressive Importance of Human Rights and for the Role of People in International Law 746
VII. Effects of UN Practice on Somalia with Regard to the Principle of Effectiveness and the Principle of Territorial Integrity 748
VIII. The Issue of the International Responsibility of Failed States and the Applicability of Norms on Succession of States 749
IX. Conclusions 751
PATRICK KROKER: Transitional Justice Policy in Practice: Victim Participation in the Khmer Rouge Tribunal 753
I. Introduction 753
A. Victims’ Interests in International Criminal Justice 755
B. The Cambodian Transitional Justice Context 758
II. The Genesis and Development of Victim Participation at the ECCC 763
A. The Negotiations Between Cambodia and the UN 763
B. Determining the Procedural Law – the Internal Rules 764
C. Managing Victim Participation 767
D. Early Stages of Victim Participation: From Initial Enthusiasm to First Restrictions 767
E. Civil Parties in the First Trial Before the ECCC 771
F. The Big Shift: The Fifth Amendment of the Internal Rules 774
G. Victim Participation and the Limited Scope of Investigations: the Case of the Khmer Krom 777
H. Victims and the First Verdict of the ECCC 780
III. Conclusions 784
A. Limitations of Criminal Trials 784
B. Shortcomings and Recommendations 786
1. Recognizing and Communicating Limitations 786
2. Provide Adequate Funding for Victim Participation 787
3. Management of Victim Participation 788
4. Establishing a System of Representation 789
5. Cooperation with Civil Society 790
KARIN OELLERS-FRAHM: Problematic Question or Problematic Answer? Observations on the International Court of Justice’s Advisory Opinion Concerning Kosovo’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence 793
I. Introduction 793
II. The Factual Background to the Request 794
III. The Adoption of GA Resolution 63/3 of 8 September 2008 797
IV. The Opinion of the Court 799
A. Procedural Aspects 799
1. Jurisdiction 800
2. Discretion 800
B. Scope and Meaning of the Question 803
1. “Conformity of the Declaration of Independence with International Law” 803
2. The “Authors” of the Declaration 805
C. Judicial Appreciation of the Declaration of Independence 807
1. General International Law 808
a) Non-Existence of a Rule Prohibiting Declarations of Independence 808
b) Declarations of Independence and the Principle of Territorial Integrity 809
c) The Right to Self-Determination and Declarations of Independence 811
d) Appraisal of the Court’s Findings on General International Law 812
(1) The Lotus Principle 812
(2) Permissive Rules of Secession in the Case of Kosovo 814
2. SC Resolution 1244 of 10 June 1999 817
a) Applicability of the Resolution 817
b) Interpretation of the Resolution 818
c) The Authors of the Declaration of Independence 820
d) Did the Authors of the Declaration Act in Violation of SC Resolution 1244 of 10 June 1999? 821
e) Appraisal of the Court’s Findings on SC Resolution 1244 of 10 June 1999 822
V. Consequences of the Declaration of Independence on the Validity of the Resolution 825
VI. Concluding Remarks 828
WOLFF HEINTSCHEL VON HEINEGG AND PETER DREIST: The 2009 Kunduz Air Attack: The Decision of the Federal Prosecutor-General on the Dismissal of Criminal Proceedings Against Members of the German Armed Forces 833
I. Introduction 833
II. The Facts Established by the Federal Prosecutor-General 834
A. The Capture of the Tank Trucks 835
B. The Situation Prior to the Attack 836
C. The Attack of 4 September 2009 838
D. Damage and Casualties 840
III. Legal Evaluation of the September 2009 Air Attack by the Federal Prosecutor-General 841
A. Criminal Liability Under the Code of Crimes Against International Law (CCAIL) 842
1. The Legal Nature of the Conflict in Afghanistan 842
2. Criminal Liability According to Section 11 (1) No. 3 CCAIL 843
3. Other Offenses under the CCAIL 845
B. Criminal Liability According to Section 211 of the German Criminal Code 846
1. Objective and Subjective Elements 846
2. Justification According to International Humanitarian Law 846
a) Taliban Fighters as Lawful Targets 846
b) Civilians Directly Participating in Hostilities 847
c) Collateral Damage 848
d) Precautions in Attack 849
e) The Relevance of RoE 850
IV. Comment 850
A. Legal Nature of the Conflict 850
B. Lawful Targets 857
1. Trucks and Taliban Fighters 857
2. Civilians Directly Participating in Hostilities 859
C. Collateral Damage and Precautions in Attack 863
V. Concluding Remarks 864
THOMAS GIEGERICH: The Federal Constitutional Court’s Non-Sustainable Role as Europe’s Ultimate Arbiter: From Age Discrimination to the Saving of the Euro 867
I. Introduction 867
II. Age Discrimination in Employment Case 869
III. Judicial Abstention in Financial Emergencies 880
THOMAS GIEGERICH AND OLIVER DAUM: Chechen Rebels as “bona fide refugees”? The Judgment of the Federal Administrative Court of 24 November 2009 885
DANJA BLÖCHER: Retraction of Definitive Administrative Acts After a Change in Case Law 897
PHILIPP WENNHOLZ: Refugee Protection for a Leading War Criminal? The Judgment of the Munich Higher Administrative Court of 11 January 2010 907
HENDRIK WIEDUWILT: The German Federal Constitutional Court Puts the Data Retention Directive on Hold 917
ALEXANDER PROELSS: Enforcement of the Obligation to Refer to the European Court of Justice Under Article 267 (3) TFEU 927
MONIKA KRIVICKAITE AND HANS-CHRISTIAN SCHRÖDER: The New German Federal Nature Conservation Act in the Context of the International Law of the Sea 935
BERENIKE SCHRIEWER: Gäfgen v. Germany Revisited 945
WIEBKE STAFF: Germany’s National Preventive Mechanism Under the Optional Protocol to the UN Convention Against Torture 953
TOBIAS THIENEL: Human Rights of Biological Fathers v. Hard and Fast Rules: The Case of Anayo v. Germany 963
JULE SIEGFRIED, BERENIKE SCHRIEWER AND PATRICK BRAASCH: The Withdrawal of Germany’s Unilateral Statement on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 973
PATRICK BRAASCH: Deportation of Foreign Nationals Under Article 12 (4) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 981
FELIX BIEKER AND LORENZ FRAHM: Follow-Up: The Implementation of the ECtHR’s Judgment in the Case M. v. Germany 987
AMIR MAKEE MOSA AND FRIEDERIKE SEESKO: Can the 2008 Framework Decision on the Fight Against Organized Crime Influence German Criminal Law? 993
PIERRE ZICKERT: German Legal Protection Against the European Patent Organisation and Other International Organizations 999
OLIVER DAUM: Follow-Up: The Zaunegger v. Germany Case 1003
PATRICK BRAASCH: Follow-Up: The European Court of Human Rights’ Pilot Judgment on Excessive Length of Proceedings Before German Courts 1007
Hirad Abtahi/Philippa Webb: The Genocide Convention: The Travaux Préparatoires (CHRISTIAN J. TAMS) 1013
M. Cherif Bassiouni (ed.): The Pursuit of International Criminal Justice: A World Study on Conflicts, Victimization and Post-Conflict Justice (BJÖRN ELBERLING) 1014
Markus Benzing: Das Beweisrecht vor internationalen Gerichten und Schiedsgerichten in zwischenstaatlichen Streitigkeiten (CHRISTIAN J. TAMS) 1017
Michelle T. Grando: Evidence, Proof, and Fact-Finding in WTO Dispute Settlement (CHRISTIAN J. TAMS) 1017
Anthony Cullen: The Concept of Non-International Armed Conflict in International Humanitarian Law (ROBIN GEISS) 1019
Yoram Dinstein: The International Law of Belligerent Occupation (BENJAMIN M. CLARKE) 1021
Yuval Ginbar: Why Not Torture Terrorists? Moral, Practical and Legal Aspects of the ‘Ticking Bomb’ Justification for Torture (BERENIKE SCHRIEWER) 1024
Jeremy Waldron: Torture, Terror and Trade-Offs – Philosophy for the White House (BERENIKE SCHRIEWER) 1024
Vaughan Lowe/Stefan Talmon: The Legal Order of the Oceans (BING BING JIA) 1027
Noam Lubell: Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non-State Actors (ROBIN GEISS) 1028
Daniel Thürer: Völkerrecht als Fortschritt und Chance – Grundidee Gerechtigkeit (STEPHAN HOBE) 1031
David Weissbrodt: The Human Rights of Non-Citizens (KATE C. PURCELL) 1035
Carl-Sebastian Zoellner: Das Transparenzprinzip im internationalen Wirtschaftsrecht – Konturen und Perspektiven des transparenzrelevanten Einwirkens auf die innerstaatliche Rechts- und Verwaltungspraxis (MARKUS KRAJEWSKI) 1042