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Delbrück, J. Giegerich, T. Zimmermann, A. (Eds.) (2009). German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht. Vol. 51 (2008). Duncker & Humblot.
; Delbrück, Jost; Giegerich, Thomas and Zimmermann, Andreas. German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 51 (2008). Duncker & Humblot, 2009. Book.
Delbrück, J, Giegerich, T, Zimmermann, A (eds.) (2009): German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 51 (2008), Duncker & Humblot, [online]


German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 51 (2008)

Editors: Delbrück, Jost | Giegerich, Thomas | Zimmermann, Andreas

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 51


Additional Information

Book Details



The German Yearbook of International Law was founded in 1948 as the "Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht" by Rudolf Laun and Hermann von Mangoldt and is now edited by the Institute for International Law at the University of Kiel. Since its inception it has endeavoured to contribute to the development of international law. Originally it has done this mainly by providing German scholars with an opportunity to publish the results of their works, but increasingly also by offering an international forum.

In view of the desirability of obtaining for the Yearbook the largest possible international audience, the editors in 1976 have decided to use the present English title and to accept for publication preferably contributions written in English, or - to a lesser degree - in French. Naturally, the Yearbook also contains contributions written in German. This policy to overcome traditional language barriers appears to have proven successful both in informing the international law community about research done in German academic institutions and in presenting international viewpoints on various topics to the German audience.

The Yearbook provides an annual report on the work of international organizations and bodies including the International Court of Justice and the European Court and Commission of Human Rights. Fully aware of the paramount importance of practical aspects in this field, the editors from the beginning also have sought to include contributions from practitioners of international law.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Contents 5
Pieter Jan Kuijper: Superpower Frustrated? The Costs of Non-Lisbon in EU External Affairs 9
A. Introduction 9
B. An Overview of the Most Important Reforms of Lisbon in the Field of Foreign Relations 10
I. Institutional Reforms 10
II. Substantive Reforms 14
C. What Would be the Implications of Non-Lisbon? 22
D. What Could Possibly Be Saved? 24
I. Single Union, Two Treaties? 24
II. The High Representative and his Staff 26
III. The EEAS and Representation Abroad 29
IV. Semi-permanent Presidency of the European Council 31
V. Powers of the European Parliament 32
VI. Substantive Reforms 33
E. Conclusion 36
Margot E. Salomon: Poverty, Privilege and International Law: The Millennium Development Goals and the Guise of Humanitarianism 39
A. The Rules of the Game 39
I. Neoliberalism and the Millennium Development Goals 44
II. Affluence under the International Human Rights Legal Regime 48
B. The Legal Construction of Poverty 49
I. The Myth of Neutrality and Inevitability 51
II. Poverty as Endogenous to Developing States 53
C. The Millennium Development Goals and the Guise of Humanitarianism 55
I. Advancing the Interests of Wealthy States: The Notion of Common Benefit 57
II. Advancing the Interests of Wealthy States: Explicit Unilateral Benefits 61
D. Revisiting International Human Rights Law 64
I. The Minimum Essential Level of Rights and the Capping of Entitlements 64
II. “Maximum Available Resources” 66
III. International Obligations 69
E. Conclusion 71
Christine Kaufmann and Mirina Grosz: Poverty, Hunger and International Trade: What’s Law Got to Do with It? Current Mechanisms and the Doha Development Agenda 75
A. Facing the Global Food Crisis 75
B. Notions of Poverty: Who Are We Calling Poor? 76
C. Poverty as a Legal Challenge? 79
I. Poverty as a Denial of Human Rights 79
1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 79
2. The UN Covenants on Human Rights 80
3. Legal Consequences of the Dichotomy 82
4. Recent Developments 84
II. Law as a Means for Empowerment 85
D. Addressing Poverty in Existing World Trade Law 87
I. Rationale for Addressing Poverty under World Trade Law 87
II. Poverty Alleviation under the Marrakesh Agreement 89
1. Trade and Development: The Linkage Debate 89
2. Food Security in Existing Trade Law 93
a) Agreement on Agriculture 93
b) Marrakesh Decision on Least-Developed and Net-Food Importing Developing Countries 95
c) Conclusion: Mission Unaccomplished 96
E. Poverty Eradication and the Doha Development Round 97
I. The Doha Round as a Development Round 97
II. Aid for Trade and Integrated Framework as a New Area of Cooperation 99
1. Raison d’être and Objectives 99
2. Participating Institutions 100
3. Structure and Legal Framework 101
a) Integrated Framework and Enhanced Integrated Framework 101
b) Aid for Trade 102
4. Deficits of the Current Structure 103
a) Integrated Framework and Enhanced Integrated Framework 103
b) Aid for Trade 104
III. The World Food Crisis and the Doha Round 105
1. The July 2008 Package 105
2. Assessment 106
3. Which Way Forward? 107
F. Conclusion: What’s Trade Law Got to Do with Hunger and Poverty? 107
Daniel Bradlow: Developing Countries Debt Crises, International Financial Institutions, and International Law: Some Preliminary Thoughts 111
A. Introduction 111
B. The IFIs and their International Legal Obligations 113
I. The World Bank Group 113
II. IMF 115
III. The General Principles of International Law Applicable to IFIs and Sovereign Debt 118
IV. Interpretation of the IFIs’ Articles of Agreement 119
C. IFIs and Third World Debt Crisis 121
I. Stage 1: Enforcing Pacta Sunt Servanda (1982–1985) 122
II. Stage 2: Struggle to Balance Pacta Sunt Servanda and Rebus Sic Stantibus (1985–1988) 124
III. Stage 3: The “Triumph” of Rebus Sic Stantibus (1988–2007) 127
1. Different Treatment for the Debts of LICs and MICs 129
a) The HIPC Initiative and its Aftermath 129
b) Treatment of the MICs 131
2. Search for New Approaches 133
a) The Case of Iraq 133
b) Sovereign Debt Renegotiation Mechanism (SDRM) 134
c) International Investment Arbitration 135
D. Evaluating the IFIs Conduct and International Law 135
I. Customary International Law 136
II. Articles of Agreement 136
III. Accountability 139
E. Conclusion 141
Edith Brown Weiss and Tanya Karina Lat: Engaging the World’s Poor People in Sustainable Development 143
A. Introduction 143
B. Participation of Local People as Indispensable to Sustainable Development 146
C. The Pillars of the Participation of Local People 150
I. Access to Information 151
II. Access to Decision-Making 152
III. Access to Grievance and Redress Procedures 153
D. The Evolution in International Law of Participation of Local People in Sustainable Development 155
I. International Environmental Law 155
1. Environmental Impact Assessments 155
2. Environmental Emergencies and Disasters 156
3. Environmental Decision-Making in General 158
II. International Human Rights Law 161
III. Policies and Procedures of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) 162
1. Overview 162
2. Local People’s Participation 163
a) Access to Information 164
b) Access to Decision-Making 166
c) Access to Grievance Proceedings 167
d) The Equator Principles 169
E. Local Participation and Environmental Protection: Selected Examples 170
I. The Desertification Convention and the Bottom-Up Approach 170
1. The Problem of Desertification and Land Degradation 170
2. The Desertification Convention 172
a) National Action Programmes 173
b) Local People’s Participation 174
c) Improved Coordination and Cooperation 175
3. Effectiveness of the Desertification Convention 175
II. The Biological Diversity Convention and Indigenous Peoples 177
1. The PROBLEM of Biodiversity Loss 177
2. The Mexico Indigenous and Community Biodiversity (COINBIO) Project 179
F. Concluding Observations 181
Vincent Chetail: Paradigm and Paradox of the Migration-Development Nexus: The New Border for North-South Dialogue 183
A. Introductory Remarks: Migration in the Age of Globalization 183
B. The Root Causes Approach of Migration: More Development for Less Migration 187
I. Origin and Rationale of the Root Causes Approach of Migration 187
II. Use and Misuse of the Root Causes Approach of Migration 192
C. Managing Migration: Better Migration for More Development 199
I. Moving towards a Collaborative Approach of the Migration-Development Nexus in the European Union and Beyond 200
II. The Way Forward: Crossing the Bridge from Rhetoric to Reality 205
D. Conclusion: While Waiting for Godot – Legalizing Migration for More Development 212
Karin Arts: The European Community’s Contribution to the Fight Against Poverty in Developing Countries: Normative and Real? 217
A. Introduction 217
B. The Legal Framework for EC Development Cooperation and the Fight Against Poverty 219
I. Europe’s Constituent Treaties 219
II. Development Cooperation Instruments 223
1. External Development Cooperation Instruments 224
2. Internal Development Cooperation Instruments 230
C. The Poverty Focus of Selected EC Policy Documents 233
D. A Review of the Means to Combat Poverty and the Actual Anti-Poverty Performance of EC Development Cooperation 238
I. Donor Roles, Means of Development Cooperation and Complications in Assessing their Effectiveness 239
II. The Poverty Focus of Financial Allocations and Disbursements 241
III. Gender 246
E. A Few Concluding Remarks 248
Malcolm Langford: Poverty in Developed States: International Human Rights Law and the Right to a Remedy 251
A. Introduction 251
B. Courts, Poverty and Human Rights in Historical Perspective 256
I. Legislative Powers and Social Welfare Objectives 258
II. Administrative Law 261
C. Rise of Social Rights Adjudication 266
I. Character of the Rights 267
II. Legitimacy 273
III. Institutional Competence 275
D. The Optional Protocol: A New International Complaints Procedure 277
I. Background to the Adoption of the Optional Protocol 277
II. Scope of the Procedure 282
E. Conclusion: A Challenge to Poverty? 286
Robin Geiß: The Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflicts 289
A. Introduction 289
B. Protection Against Dangers Emanating from Combat Operations 293
I. Protection of Journalists and War Correspondents as Civilians 293
II. Loss of Protection 295
III. Media Equipment and Broadcasting Stations as Military Objectives? 297
IV. Precautions and Proportionality 300
1. Denial of Access to the Contact Zone? 302
2. Deliberate Risk-Exposure 305
C. Protection in the Case of Capture or Arrest 306
I. The Protection Accorded to War Correspondents 307
II. Administrative Detention of Journalists 311
III. Distinguishing Lawful Newsgathering from Espionage 312
D. “Special Protection” for Journalists de lege ferenda? 313
I. Definition by Accreditation? 315
II. A Press-Specific Emblem? 317
E. Conclusion 318
Sabine von Schorlemer: Compliance with the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: Reflections on the Elbe Valley and the Dresden Waldschlösschen Bridge 321
A. Introduction 321
I. Preliminary Remarks 321
II. Open Questions 324
B. UNESCO World Heritage Conservation: Recent Developments 328
I. Increase in the Number of World Heritage Sites and Related Problems 328
II. Operational Guidelines as a Form of UNESCO Governance 331
III. Experiences with the Concept of “Cultural Landscape” 333
IV. “Reinforced Monitoring” as a New Implementation Tool 337
C. Overview of the Conflict with UNESCO (2003–2008) 339
I. Background: The Dresden Elbe Valley 339
II. Application for the World Heritage Title and Early Construction Plans 340
III. Inscription on the World Heritage List (2004) and Aftermath 342
IV. Inscription on the Red List (Vilnius 2006) 343
V. The World Heritage Committee’s Decision of Christchurch (2007) 344
VI. The Québec Session of the World Heritage Committee (2008) 344
D. International Dispute Settlement Efforts 346
I. Negotiation and Consultation 346
II. Fact-Finding 348
III. Mediation and Conciliation 350
IV. Judicial Proceedings 353
V. Résumé: The Search for Alternative Solutions 355
E. The Question of State Responsibility 361
I. “State Organs” in a Federation 361
II. The Effect of the Listing 362
III. Potential Breaches of the World Heritage Convention 365
IV. Inner-State Bindingness of the 1972 World Heritage Convention 367
V. The Role of the Referendum of Dresden Citizens (2005) 371
VI. Contentious Information and the Role of ICOMOS 372
VII. The Position of the Federal Republic of Germany 376
F. Critical Appraisal 379
I. Tension Between State Sovereignty and International World Heritage Conservation 380
II. Legitimacy of UNESCO Decisions 383
III. The Loss of the World Heritage Title: A “Sanction” by UNESCO? 385
G. Conclusion: Lessons Learned 388
Christian J. Tams and Andreas Zimmermann: “[T]he Federation Shall Accede to Agreements Providing for General, Comprehensive and Compulsory International Arbitration” – The German Optional Clause Declaration of 1 May 2008 – 391
A. Introduction 391
B. The End of a Long Journey: Germany and the Compulsory Jurisdiction of the World Court 394
I. Germany and the Compulsory Jurisdiction of the Permanent Court of International Justice 394
II. Germany and the Compulsory Jurisdiction of the ICJ (1946–1973) 395
III. Germany and the Compulsory Jurisdiction of the ICJ (1973–2008) 396
IV. The Drafting of the German Declaration 399
C. Restrictions and Reservations Accompanying Germany’s Declaration 401
I. Restrictions ratione temporis 401
1. General Remarks 401
2. Protection against Surprise Proceedings 403
3. Exclusion of Retroactive Effects 404
II. Restrictions ratione materiae 407
1. Competing Means of Dispute Settlement 407
2. Military Matters 410
a) General Remarks 410
b) Participation in Military Missions Abroad, para. (ii)(a) 412
c) Use of German Territory or Other Areas of Jurisdiction, para. (ii)(b) 413
D. Concluding Observations 415
Alexander Proelss: Marine Genetic Resources under UNCLOS and the CBD 417
A. Factual Background 418
B. Marine Genetic Resources Located in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction under the CBD and UNCLOS 420
I. Marine Genetic Resources under the CBD 421
II. Marine Genetic Resources under the Law of the Sea Convention 422
1. Applicability of the Principle of Common Heritage of Mankind 422
2. Applicability of the Regime of the High Seas 430
3. Outcome of CBD and UNCLOS Discussions 432
4. Should Part XI UNCLOS be Expanded to Include Marine Genetic Resources? 438
C. Marine Genetic Resources Within Areas under National Jurisdiction 440
I. Internal Waters and Territorial Sea 440
II. Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf 442
D. Conclusion and Prospects 443
Hiroshi Taki: Opinio Juris and the Formation of Customary International Law: A Theoretical Analysis 447
Yoshifumi Tanaka: Rethinking Lex Ferenda in International Adjudication 467
A. Introduction 467
B. Effect of Lex Ferenda in the Application of Lex Lata: the 1974 Fisheries Jurisdiction Case Revisited 472
I. Two Contrasting Opinions 472
1. Arguments Concerning the Application of Lex Lata 472
2. Arguments Concerning Lex Ferenda 475
II. Effect of Lex Ferenda in the Fisheries Jurisdiction Judgment 480
C. Lex Ferenda as an Element of Interpretation of Lex Lata 482
I. A Case Study: The Precautionary Approach as Lex Ferenda 482
II. Consideration of the Precautionary Approach in the 1999 Southern Bluefin Tuna Case 489
D. Conclusion 493
Patrick Braasch und Sirko Fuhrmann: Die Rechtsprechung des Internationalen Gerichtshofes im Jahre 2008 497
A. Einleitung 497
B. Die im Jahr 2008 anhängigen Verfahren im Überblick 498
C. Sovereignty over Pedra Branca/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge (Malaysia v. Singapore) 501
I. Hintergrund des Falles und Anträge der Parteien 501
II. Rechtliche Erwägungen des Gerichtshofes 502
1. Souveränität über Pedra Branca/Pulau Batu Puteh 502
a) Rechtlicher Status vor 1844 502
b) Rechtlicher Status nach 1844 503
aa) Anwendbares Recht 503
bb) Die Standortwahl, Errichtung und Inbetriebnahme des Leuchtturms 504
cc) Das Verhalten der Parteien (1852–1952) 504
dd) Der Briefwechsel von 1953 505
ee) Das Verhalten der Parteien nach 1953 506
ff) Ergebnis 508
2. Souveränität über Middle Rocks und South Ledge 508
III. Entscheidungsformel 509
IV. Abweichende Meinungen, Erklärungen und Sondervoten 509
1. Erklärungen 509
2. Sondervoten 510
3. Abweichende Meinungen 511
D. Certain Questions of Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters (Republic of Djibouti v. France) 513
I. Hintergrund des Falles 513
II. Rechtliche Erwägungen des Gerichtshofes 514
1. Zuständigkeit des Gerichtshofes 514
2. Verletzung des Kooperations- und Freundschaftsvertrages 516
3. Verletzung des Übereinkommens über gegenseitige Hilfe in Strafsachen 517
4. Verletzung der Verpflichtung zur Verhütung von Angriffen auf das Individuum, die Freiheit und die Würde einer international geschützten Person 518
III. Entscheidungsformel 519
IV. Erklärungen, Sondervoten und abweichende Meinungen 520
1. Sondervoten 520
2. Erklärungen 522
E. Request for Interpretation of the Judgment of 31 March 2004 in the Case Concerning Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v. United States of America) (Mexico v. United States of America) 523
I. Hintergrund des Falles und Anträge der Parteien 523
II. Rechtliche Erwägungen des Gerichtshofes 525
1. Zuständigkeit in der Hauptsache nach Art. 60 Satz 2 IGH-Statut 525
2. Erlass vorsorglicher Maßnahmen 526
III. Entscheidungsformel 526
IV. Abweichende Meinungen 527
F. Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation) 528
I. Hintergrund des Falles 529
II. Rechtliche Erwägungen des Gerichtshofes 529
III. Entscheidungsformel 531
IV. Erklärungen, Sondervoten und abweichende Meinungen 532
1. Gemeinsame abweichende Meinung des Vizepräsidenten Al-Khasawneh und der Richter Ranjeva, Shi, Koroma, Tomka, Bennouna und Skotnikov 532
2. Erklärung des ad hoc-Richters Gaja 532
G. Case Concerning Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide – Preliminary Objections (Croatia v. Serbia) 533
I. Hintergrund des Falles und Anträge der Parteien 533
II. Rechtliche Erwägungen des Gerichtshofes 534
1. Klagegegner 534
2. Bedeutung früherer Entscheidungen des Gerichtshofes 535
3. Erste preliminary objection Serbiens 535
a) Parteifähigkeit Serbiens 535
b) Jurisdiktion des Gerichtshofes ratione materiae 537
4. Zweite preliminary objection Serbiens 540
5. Dritte preliminary objection Serbiens 541
III. Entscheidungsformel 541
IV. Abweichende Meinungen, Erklärungen und Sondervoten 542
1. Erklärungen 542
2. Sondervoten 543
3. Abweichende Meinungen 544
Henrike Martin, Katharina Will und Simon Hentrei: Die Rechtsprechung des Europäischen Gerichtshofes für Menschenrechte im Jahre 2008 547
A. Einleitung 547
B. Zulässigkeitsvoraussetzungen 548
I. Jurisdiktion eines Vertragsstaates 548
II. Zulässigkeit nach Art. 34 Satz 1 549
III. Zulässigkeit nach Art. 35 550
C. Materielle Bestimmungen 551
I. Das Recht auf Leben, Art. 2 551
II. Das Verbot von Folter und unmenschlicher Behandlung, Art. 3 553
III. Das Recht auf Freiheit und Sicherheit, Art. 5 557
1. Die Rechtmäßigkeit der Haft, Art. 5 Abs. 1 557
2. Das Recht auf Mitteilung der Gründe der Festnahme, Art. 5 Abs. 2 559
3. Richterliche Vorführung und Haftdauer, Art. 5 Abs. 3 559
4. Das Recht auf Haftprüfung, Art. 5 Abs. 4 561
5. Das Recht auf Schadenersatz, Art. 5 Abs. 5 561
IV. Verfahrensgarantien, Art. 6 562
1. Anwendbarkeit des Art. 6 562
2. Verfahrensgarantien des Art. 6 Abs. 1 563
a) Anforderungen an das nationale Gericht, Art. 6 Abs. 1 563
b) Grundsätze des fairen Verfahrens, Art. 6 Abs. 1 564
3. Die Unschuldsvermutung, Art. 6 Abs. 2 566
4. Die Verfahrensgarantien für den Beschuldigten, Art. 6 Abs. 3 568
V. Keine Strafe ohne Gesetz, Art. 7 568
VI. Die Freiheitsrechte 570
1. Die einzelnen Schutzbereiche 570
a) Recht auf Achtung des Privat- und Familienlebens, Art. 8 570
b) Recht auf Gedanken-, Gewissens- und Religionsfreiheit, Art. 9 573
c) Freiheit der Meinungsäußerung, Art. 10 574
d) Versammlungs- und Vereinigungsfreiheit, Art. 11 575
2. Rechtfertigung der Art. 8–11, gemeinsame Merkmale 577
VII. Recht auf wirksame Beschwerde, Art. 13 579
VIII. Verbot der Diskriminierung, Art. 14 580
IX. Schutz des Eigentums, Art. 1 ZP I 583
X. Das Recht auf Bildung, Art. 2 ZP I 585
XI. Das Recht auf freie Wahlen, Art. 3 ZP I 585
XII. Das Recht auf Freizügigkeit und Ausreisefreiheit, Art. 2 ZP IV 587
D. Sonstige Bestimmungen 588
I. Die wirksame Ausübung von Rechten, Art. 34 Satz 2 588
E. Folgen einer Konventionsverletzung 588
I. Gerechte Entschädigung gemäß Art. 41 588
II. Weitere Folgen nach Art. 46 590
F. Rechtsgutachten nach Artikel 47 590
G. Ausblick 591
Clemens A. Müller and Tara Smith: The Work of the International Criminal Court in 2008 593
A. Introduction 593
B. Developments in the Institutional Structure and Exterior Relations of the Court 593
C. Overview of Situations and Cases Before the Court 598
I. The Situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Cases of Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, and Bosco Ntaganda 598
1. The Case Against Thomas Lubanga Dyilo 598
2. The Case Against Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui 604
3. The Case against Bosco Ntaganda 607
II. Situation in Northern Uganda and the Case against Joseph Kony et al. 609
III. The Situation in Darfur, the Sudan 613
1. The Case against Ahmad Harun and Ali Kushayb 613
2. The Prosecutor’s Application for a Warrant of Arrest against Omar Hassan Al-Bashir 615
3. The Prosecutor’s Application for Warrants of Arrest against Three Rebel Commanders in the Haskanita Case 620
IV. The Situation in the Central African Republic and the Case against Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo 622
D. Substantive Legal Questions Addressed by the Organs of the Court 625
I. Fundamental Rights of the Accused 625
1. The Right of an Accused Person to be Provided with Relevant Material in a Language that he or she Fully Understands and Speaks 625
2. Interim Release of the Accused 626
II. Gravity 629
III. Individual Criminal Responsibility and the Notion of Control of an Organized Apparatus of Power 631
IV. Major Developments in Victim Participation before the International Criminal Court 635
E. Conclusion and Outlook 638
Eleonor Fernández Muñoz, Britta Krings and Karl Molle: The Work of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in the Year 2008 641
A. Introduction 641
B. Changes to the Legal Bases and the Composition of the Tribunal 642
I. Amendments to the Rules of Procedure and Evidence (RPE) 643
II. Changes to the Personal Composition of the Tribunal 643
C. Proceedings Before the Tribunal 644
I. Pre-Trial Proceedings 644
1. Arrests, Indictments, Joinders 644
a) Prosecutor v. Vlastimir Ðorđević 644
b) Prosecutor v. Radovan Karadžić 645
c) Prosecutor v. Mićo Stanišić and Stojan Župljanin 647
d) Prosecutor v. Zdravko Tolimir 648
2. Referrals of Cases Pursuant to Rule 11bis RPE 649
II. Judgments and Proceedings Before the Trial Chambers 649
1. Judgments 649
a) Prosecutor v. Ramush Haradinaj, Idriz Balaj, and Lahi Brahimaj 649
aa) Findings on the Counts 651
bb) Individual Criminal Responsibility 651
cc) Sentencing 652
b) Prosecutor v. Lujbe Boškoski and Johan Tarčulovski 653
aa) Findings on the Counts 654
bb) Individual Criminal Responsibility 655
cc) Sentencing 656
c) Prosecutor v. Rasim Delić 657
aa) Finding on the Counts 658
bb) Individual Criminal Responsibility 659
cc) Sentencing 660
2. Current Trial Proceedings 660
a) Prosecutor v. Ante Gotovina et al. 660
b) Prosecutor v. Milan Lukić and Sredoje Lukić 661
c) Prosecutor v. Milutinović et al. 661
d) Prosecutor v. Momčilo Perišić 662
e) Prosecutor v. Vujadin Popović et al. 662
f) Prosecutor v. Prlić et al. 662
g) Prosecutor v. Vojislav Šešelj 663
h) Prosecutor v. Franko Simatović and Jovica Stanišić 663
i) The Case Against Florence Hartmann 664
III. Judgments and Proceedings Before the Appeals Chamber 665
1. Judgments 665
a) Prosecutor v. Enver Hadžihasanović and Amir Kubura 665
aa) Hadžihasanović 665
bb) Kubura 666
b) Prosecutor v. Naser Orić 667
aa) Naser Orić’s Grounds of Appeal 667
bb) The Prosecution’s Grounds of Appeal 668
cc) The Declaration of Judge Shahabuddeen and the Separate Opinions of Judge Schomburg and Judge Liu 669
c) Prosecutor v. Pavle Strugar 670
d) Prosecutor v. Milan Martić 672
aa) Grounds of Appeal of the Defense 673
bb) The Prosecution’s Ground of Appeal 673
cc) Judge Schomburg’s Separate Opinion on the Individual Criminal Responsibility 675
2. Proceedings Pending 675
a) Prosecutor v. Mile Mrkšić et al. 676
b) Prosecutor v. Momčilo Krajišnik 676
c) Prosecutor v. Dragomir Milošević 676
D. Outlook 677
Mareike Fröhlich und Anja Trautmann: Die Rechtsprechung des WTO-Streitbeilegungsgremiums im Jahre 2008 679
A. Einführung 679
B. Die WTO-Rechtsprechung zu den einzelnen Handelsabkommen 680
I. Multilaterale Übereinkommen zum Warenhandel 680
1. Allgemeines Zoll- und Handelsabkommen (GATT 1994) 680
a) India – Additional and Extra-Additional Duties on Imports from the United States 681
b) China – Measures Affecting Imports of Automobile Parts 684
2. Übereinkommen zur Durchführung des Artikels VI des GATT 1994 (ADÜ) 688
a) United States – Final Anti-Dumping Measures on Stainless Steel from Mexico 688
b) United States – Measures Relating to Shrimp from Thailand and United States – Customs Bond Directive for Merchandise Subject to Anti-Dumping/Countervailing Duties 691
c) United States – Continued Existence and Application of Zeroing Methodology 694
3. Übereinkommen über Subventionen und Ausgleichsmaßnahmen (SCM) 696
4. Übereinkommen über die Anwendung gesundheitspolitischer und pflanzenschutzrechtlicher Maßnahmen (SPS) 699
C. Ausblick 703
Julia Glocke und Saskia Klatte: Die Tätigkeit der International Law Commission im Jahre 2008 705
A. Einleitung 705
B. Gemeinsame natürliche Ressourcen 705
I. Angenommene Artikel 706
II. Weiteres Vorgehen 707
C. Auswirkungen Bewaffneter Konflikte auf Verträge 708
I. Vierter Bericht des Sonderberichterstatters 708
II. Angenommene Artikel 709
D. Vorbehalte zu Verträgen 710
I. Diskutierte Richtlinien 710
II. Angenommene Richtlinien 712
E. Verantwortlichkeit Internationaler Organisationen 713
I. Die Angenommenen Artikel 46 bis 53 713
II. Debatte in der Kommission 715
III. Weiteres Vorgehen 716
F. Ausweisung von Ausländern 716
G. Schutz von Personen in Katastrophensituationen 718
I. Vorläufiger Bericht des Sonderberichterstatters 719
II. Debatte in der Kommission 719
III. Weiteres Vorgehen 721
H. Immunität von Staatsbeamten vor Ausländischer Strafgerichtsbarkeit 721
I. Vorläufiger Bericht 721
II. Debatte 723
I. Verpflichtung zur Strafverfolgung oder Auslieferung (aut dedere aut judicare) 725
I. Dritter Bericht des Sonderberichterstatters 725
II. Debatte 726
J. Ausblick 727
Philip Allott: Towards the International Rule of Law: Essays in Integrated Constitutional Theory (Christian J. Tams) 729
Armin von Bogdandy/Peter M. Huber (Hrsg.): Handbuch Ius Publicum Europaeum – Band I: Grundlagen und Grundzüge staatlichen Verfassungsrecht; Band II: Offene Staatlichkeit – Wissenschaft vom Verfassungsrecht (Thomas Giegerich) 731
Bill Bowring: The Degradation of the International Legal Order? The Rehabilitation of Law and the Possibility of Politics (Björn Elberling) 738
Giuliana Ziccardi Capaldo: The Pillars of Global Law (Christian J. Tams) 741
Olivier Corten: Le droit contre la guerre (Christian J. Tams) 742
Arthur Eyffinger: The 1907 Hague Peace Conference “The Conscience of the Civilized World” (Karin Oellers-Frahm) 745
Dieter Fleck (ed.): The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law (Christian Johann) 750
Ulrike Heckötter: Die Bedeutung der Europäischen Menschenrechtskonvention und der Rechtsprechung des EGMR für die deutschen Gerichte (Heiko Leitsch) 752
Robert Kolb/Richard Heyde: An Introduction to the International Law of Armed Conflicts (Robin Geiß) 754
Manfred Nowak/Elizabeth McArthur (eds.): The United Nations Convention Against Torture, A Commentary (Robin Geiß) 757
Otto Triffterer (ed.): Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court – Observer’s Notes, Article by Article (Björn Elberling) 759
Helmut Volger (Hrsg.): Grundlagen und Strukturen der Vereinten Nationen (Christian Tietje) 762