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Delbrück, J., Giegerich, T., Zimmermann, A. (Eds.) (2008). German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht. Vol. 50 (2007). Duncker & Humblot.
Delbrück, Jost; Giegerich, Thomas and Zimmermann, Andreas. German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 50 (2007). Duncker & Humblot, 2008. Book.
Delbrück, J, Giegerich, T, Zimmermann, A (eds.) (2008): German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 50 (2007), Duncker & Humblot, [online]


German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 50 (2007)

Editors: Delbrück, Jost | Giegerich, Thomas | Zimmermann, Andreas

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 50


Additional Information

Book Details



The German Yearbook of International Law was founded in 1948 as the "Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht" by Rudolf Laun and Hermann von Mangoldt and is now edited by the Institute for International Law at the University of Kiel. Since its inception it has endeavoured to contribute to the development of international law. Originally it has done this mainly by providing German scholars with an opportunity to publish the results of their works, but increasingly also by offering an international forum.

In view of the desirability of obtaining for the Yearbook the largest possible international audience, the editors in 1976 have decided to use the present English title and to accept for publication preferably contributions written in English, or - to a lesser degree - in French. Naturally, the Yearbook also contains contributions written in German. This policy to overcome traditional language barriers appears to have proven successful both in informing the international law community about research done in German academic institutions and in presenting international viewpoints on various topics to the German audience.

The Yearbook provides an annual report on the work of internatioal organizations and bodies including the International Court of Justice and the European Court and Commission of Human Rights. Fully aware of the paramount importance of practical aspects in this field, the editors from the beginning also have sought to include contributions from practitioners of international law.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Contents 5
Thomas Giegerich and Andreas Zimmermann: Introduction 15
Anthony Carty: The Evolution of International Legal Scholarship in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimarer Republik (1871–1933) 29
A. Introduction and Issues of Methodology 29
B. Germany’s Security Situation Following Unification in 1871 as Background to the Outbreak of the First World War: Political History (Hegelianism) and International Law 38
C. Legal Responsibility for the Outbreak of the First World War, English and French Views of German International Law after the Outbreak of War 56
D. Some German International Law Reflections in the Course and after the First World War on the Causes of the War 68
Michael Stolleis: Against Universalism – German International Law under the Swastika: Some Contributions to the History of Jurisprudence 1933–1945 91
A. The Situation after 1933 91
B. Between State and “Volk” 94
C. Between “Volk” and “Reich” 95
D. “Geopolitik” and “Großraum” 99
E. Periodicals 101
F. Institutions 104
G. Textbooks 106
H. The last Stance 109
Knut Ipsen: International Legal Scholarship in West Germany after World War II 111
A. The Period of First Orientations 113
I. The “German Question” and other Post-War Problems 114
II. The Attempt of new Approaches 116
III. The Concentration on Concrete Urgent Problems as a Command of Circumstances 117
B. The Period of Stabilization 119
I. The Perception of International Law in General 121
II. The New Dimension of the “German Question” 125
III. From Stabilization to Normalization 128
C. The Period of Normalization 129
I. A Fundamental Concept of International Law 130
II. The Broadening of the Subjects of Research 132
D. Conclusions 135
Walter Poeggel: The Development of Teaching and Research in the Field of Public International Law at the Universities of the Former German Democratic Republic 139
A. Teaching Public International Law 139
B. International Legal Scholarship 142
Theodor Schweisfurth: The Science of Public International Law in the German Democratic Republic 149
A. Preliminary Remarks 149
B. Construction Work on Devastated Areas 150
C. Publications – Subjects, Standard, Style 152
D. The Principal Approach – The Communist Conception of the World 158
E. Unity of International Law: Peaceful Coexistence and Socialist Internationalism 160
I. Peaceful Coexistence as a Legal Principle – “General-Democratic” International Law 160
II. The Principle of Socialist Internationalism – “Socialist” International Law 162
III. Relationship between the Basic Principles of International Law and the Principle of Socialist Internationalism 164
F. Special Topics of Research 167
I. An Incomplete Survey 168
II. UN Codification Projects 174
1. State Responsibility 174
2. State Succession 177
3. International Criminal Law 179
4. Jurisdictional Immunity of States 181
5. Law of the Sea 182
III. The German Question 183
1. State Continuity or Extinction 183
2. “Potsdam Agreement” 186
3. German Territories 188
a) Eastern Territories 188
b) Berlin 188
4. Statehood and Sovereignty of the GDR 189
5. Conclusion of a Peace Treaty 192
6. Relationship between the two German States 193
a) Recognition – Special Relationship 193
b) German Citizenship 195
7. Reunification 195
G. Concluding Remarks 197
Robert Kolb: German Legal Scholarship as Reflected in Hague Academy Courses on Public International Law 201
A. Introduction 201
B. Overview of German Courses 207
C. German Legal Scholarship at the Hague Academy: from “Constitutionalization” to “Communautarization” of International Law 209
I. German Legal Scholarship between 1923 and 1939 at the Hague Academy: State-Centered Versions versus Community-Centered Versions 211
1. General Outlook 211
2. State-Centered (Sovereignist) Views: Prolonging the Lines of Tradition 215
3. International Community-Centered Views: Breaking New Ground 220
a) Vienna School 221
b) Pacifist School 228
II. German Legal Scholarship at the Hague Academy since 1947: Prevalence of Community-Centered Versions 230
D. Conclusion 240
Stephan Hobe and Karsten Nowrot: Whither the Sovereign State? 243
A. Statehood and Sovereignty – A Specific Concern to German Scholars of International Law? 244
B. Whither the Sovereign State? – Assessing German Perspectives 250
I. International Cooperation – Why Bother? The Notion of “Closed Statehood” Prevailing in German Legal Thinking until 1945 250
II. The Changing Understanding of Sovereignty and its Consequences for Statehood after 1945 263
1. “Sovereignty Subject to International Law” – The Lowest Common Denominator? 264
2. The Sovereign State in a Changing International System 268
a) The Interdependent and Permeable State: Cooperation and Community Interests 268
b) The Marginalized and Disaggregated State (?): Processes of Globalization and Internationalization of Administrative Relations 274
3. Consequences for the Sovereign State: Reconceptualizing Statehood 279
a) A Slow Farewell to the Closed Nation State: The Model of the ‘Open State’ 279
b) … and Sovereignty? 282
III. Discovering Legal and Conceptual Interactivity: The Sovereign State as a Model for the Changing International Legal System? 284
C. The Large and Many-Voiced German Chorus on “Whither the Sovereign State:” A Speculative Look behind the Curtain 287
D. Outlook: “Whither the Sovereign State?” and the Future of General Theory of the State 300
Stefan Kadelbach and Thomas Kleinlein: International Law – a Constitution for Mankind? An Attempt at a Re-appraisal with an Analysis of Constitutional Principles 303
A. Introduction 303
B. Constitutional Approaches Beyond the State 304
I. Structure of the Debate 304
II. The Concept of Constitution 308
III. Conditions for International Constitutionalism in German Legal Writings 310
C. Constitutional Norms in Public International Law 313
I. Fundamental Norms 314
II. The UN Charter and its Article 103 317
III. Constitutional Law of International Organizations 319
1. The European Union 320
2. The World Trade Organization 323
3. The Role of NGOs – and the ICRC and ILO as Two Organizations Neglected in the Debate 324
IV. Constitutionalism as a Response to Restrictions on the Domaine Réservé of States 327
V. Interim Conclusions 328
D. Constitutional Norms as Principles 330
I. The Constitutional Approach to Public International Law as a Value-oriented Approach 330
1. Values in German Public International Law Scholarship and Constitutional Doctrine 330
2. Deficits of the Value Approach 333
II. Hierarchy of Values 336
III. Reconstruction of the Constitutional Approach as a Theory of Constitutional Principles 337
1. The Formulation of Constitutional Norms as General Principles 338
2. Qualification of the Legal Norm as a Principle 342
3. Application of the Principle 345
E. Conclusions 347
Matthias Herdegen and Thilo Rensmann: Is There a Specific German Approach to the Prohibition of the Use of Force? 349
A. Introduction 349
B. The “Constitutionalization” of the United Nations System of Collective Security 350
C. Rearmament: Self-Defense as an Inherent Right 353
D. The Hungarian Uprising: A Disillusioned Shift to Realism 356
E. Cold War and Détente: Pragmatic Positivism 358
F. From Enemy State to Full Membership: The Demise of Formal Positivism 363
G. Reunification: From the Defense of German Territory to the Defense of International Peace and Security 367
H. The Humanitarian Intervention in the Kosovo Crisis as a Turning Point 369
I. The Iraq War and Preventive Self-Defense 371
J. Conclusion 373
Pierre-Marie Dupuy: Taking International Law Seriously: The German Approach to International Law 375
A. Introduction 375
B. Between Historical Responsibility and Vision 376
C. International Law as a Unified Legal System 382
D. Constitutionalization of the International Community 386
E. Conclusion 390
Eyal Benvenisti: The Conception of International Law as a Legal System 393
A. Introduction 393
B. The Systemic Vision of International Law 393
C. The Systemic Vision as a Delegation of Authority 396
D. Achievements and Challenges for the Systemic Vision of International Law 398
I. Toward Pragmatism in the Global Counter-terrorism Effort? 400
II. The Fragmentation of International Law 402
III. The Turn to Informal or Privatized Forms of International Coordination 403
E. Conclusion 404
Andrea Gattini: Post 1945 German International Law and State Responsibility 407
A. Introduction 407
B. Post 1945 German International Law 410
C. Post 1945 German International Law and State Responsibility 412
Luzius Wildhaber: A Sensible and Serious Approach to International Law? 415
Władysław Czapliński: The German Doctrine of International Law and Polish-German Relations (Past and Future) 419
A. Introduction 419
B. Diverse Polish and German Legal Positions Arising from the End of World War II 421
C. Conclusion 429
Lauri Hannikainen: Juridically Solid, Politically … What? Personal Reflections on the German Approach to International Law 431
A. The Cold War Period 432
B. My First Years and Decades in International Legal Science 433
C. An Effort to Analyze the Present German Approach to International Law 436
I. Legal Education 436
II. Political Factors 437
III. Closer Look at the German Approach 438
D. The German Judge at the International Court of Justice 439
E. My Present Contacts with German-speaking Scholars 443
Fred L. Morrison: German Scholars in the Invisible College of International Lawyers 445
A. The Major Difference: Choice of Topic 445
B. Background Influences 449
I. Thoroughness 450
II. The Rejection of Positivism 452
III. Personal Involvement in the Practice of Public International Law 452
C. Some Technical Differences 454
D. Conclusion 455
Stefan Oeter: The Dismemberment of Yugoslavia: An Update on Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Montenegro 457
A. Introduction 457
B. From Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro: Dismemberment v. Identity 470
C. The 2001 Succession Agreement as Decisive Step towards the Resolution of Open Succession Disputes 475
D. Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sovereign Statehood under International Supervision 479
I. The Civil War in Bosnia and the Road to Dayton 479
II. The Dayton Accord: Setting the Framework for a “Quasi-Protectorate” 484
III. The High Representative: Coordinator of International Assistance or Colonial “Pro-Consul?” 490
IV. Are there Chances of Constitutional Reform? 493
V. Partition as an Alternative? 495
E. Kosovo: From Humanitarian Intervention to “Conditional Independence” 496
I. The Events Prior to Resolution 1244 496
II. UNMIK: Mandate, Structure, Problems 501
III. Negotiations on the Final Status and the “Ahtisaari Plan” 506
IV. Moving towards “Conditional” Independence 510
V. Issues of State Succession 513
F. Montenegro: From Union with Serbia to Independent Statehood 515
G. Conclusions 518
Alexander Szodruch: Necessity and Beyond – The Legal Aftermath of the Argentine Financial Crisis before the German Federal Constitutional Court 523
A. A New Era of State Insolvencies: The Argentine Crisis 523
B. Proceedings before German Courts 525
C. The Preliminary Ruling Procedure 527
D. State of Necessity as a Defense for a Payment Default: The Ruling of 8 May 2007 529
I. General Recognition of the Necessity Defense in International Law 529
II. Applicability of Necessity in Contractual Relationships: The Majority Opinion 530
III. Dissenting opinion by Judge Lübbe-Wolff 532
IV. Analysis 533
E. Enforcing Judgments against Argentina 536
I. The Ruling of 6 December 2006 Regarding Embassy Accounts 537
II. Argentine Financial Activities Outside the Diplomatic Mission 539
F. Conclusion 541
Tobias Thienel: The Burden and Standard of Proof in the European Court of Human Rights 543
A. Introduction 543
B. The Burden of Proof 544
I. The Terminology and the Existence of a Burden of Proof in the ECtHR 545
1. The “Burden of Producing Evidence” 545
2. The “Persuasive” or “Legal” Burden 548
3. Consequences for the Application of “Judicial Notice” 549
II. The Incidence of the Burden 550
1. In General 550
2. Exceptions, Justifications and Defenses 551
III. The “Shifting” Burden 554
C. The Standard of Proof 555
I. What is a Standard of Proof? 555
1. A Question of Procedural Law 555
2. Questions of Fact v. Questions of Law 556
a) The Interpretation of the Law 556
b) The Application of the Law 556
c) Domestic Law 558
3. Assessment of Risks v. Standard of Proof? 561
II. The Strasbourg Authorities 563
1. Early Case Law 563
2. Later Developments 564
III. The Source of the Standard of Proof 566
1. The Common Law Tradition 567
2. The Civil Law Tradition 569
3. The Practice of Other International Courts 571
4. Conclusions on the Source of the Standard of Proof 575
IV. The Standard of Proof “Beyond Reasonable Doubt” in Principle 578
1. The Standard of Proof “Beyond Reasonable Doubt” in Criminal Law 578
2. The Standard of Proof “Beyond Reasonable Doubt” and the Court’s Task 579
V. Indications on the Proper Standard of Proof 581
VI. The Standard of Proof where the Burden is on the State 583
VII. The Standard of Proof on the Question of a “Real Risk” (Soering) 586
VIII. Conclusions on the Standard of Proof 586
D. Conclusion 587
Saskia Klatte und Jonas S. Dörschner: Die Rechtsprechung des Internationalen Gerichtshofes im Jahre 2007 589
A. Einleitung 589
B. Anhängige Verfahren im Jahre 2007 589
C. Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay) 592
I. Hintergrund des Falles 592
II. Rechtliche Erwägungen des Gerichtshofs 593
III. Entscheidungsformel 593
IV. Erklärungen, Sondervoten und abweichende Meinungen 593
1. Erklärung des Richters Koroma 593
2. Erklärung des Richters Buergenthal 594
3. Abweichende Meinung des ad hoc-Richters Torres Bernárdez 594
D. Ahmadou Sadio Diallo (Republic of Guinea v. Democratic Republic of the Congo) 594
I. Hintergrund des Falles 595
II. Rechtliche Erwägungen des Gerichtshofs 595
III. Entscheidungsformel 597
IV. Erklärungen, Sondervoten und abweichende Meinungen 597
1. Erklärung des ad hoc-Richters Mahiou 597
2. Sondervotum des ad hoc-Richters Mampuya 598
E. Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicaragua v. Colombia) 598
I. Hintergrund des Falles 598
II. Die rechtlichen Erwägungen 599
III. Entscheidungsformel 601
IV. Erklärungen, Sondervoten und abweichende Meinungen 601
1. Abweichende Meinung des Vize-Präsidenten Al-Khasawneh 601
2. Sondervotum des Richters Ranjeva 602
3. Erklärung des Richters Parra-Aranguren 602
4. Erklärung des Richters Simma 602
5. Erklärung des Richters Tomka 602
6. Sondervotum des Richters Abraham 603
7. Erklärung des Richters Keith 603
8. Abweichende Meinung des Richters Bennouna 603
9. Erklärung des ad hoc-Richters Gaja 604
F. Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro) 604
I. Gang des Verfahrens 604
II. Klagegegner 606
III. Zuständigkeit des IGH 606
IV. Die Anwendbarkeit der Völkermordkonvention 608
1. Notwendigkeit des Dolus Specialis 609
2. Ethische Säuberungen als eigener Tatbestand 609
3. Definition der geschützten Gruppe 610
V. Beweisfragen 611
VI. Verwirklichung des Tatbestandes 612
VII. Verantwortung Serbiens 612
1. Eingeständnis 613
2. Die Zurechnung aufgrund des Verhaltens der Organe 613
3. Zurechnung aufgrund von Kontrolle 614
4. Verantwortlichkeit nach Artikel III (b) bis (e) Völkermordkonvention 615
5. Verantwortlichkeit für den Verstoß gegen die Verpflichtung, Völkermord zu verhüten und bestrafen 615
6. Verantwortlichkeit bezüglich der vom Gerichtshof angeordneten vorläufigen Maßnahmen 616
VIII. Rechtsfolgen und Entschädigung 616
IX. Entscheidungsformel 617
X. Sondervoten, Erklärungen und abweichende Meinungen 618
1. Abweichende Meinung von Vizepräsident Al-Khasawneh 618
2. Abweichende Meinung von Richter Ranjeva, Shi und Koroma 618
3. Sondervotum von Richter Ranjeva 619
4. Gemeinsame Erklärung von Richter Shi und Koroma 619
5. Sondervotum von Richter Owada 619
6. Sondervotum des Richters Tomka 620
7. Erklärung des Richters Keith 620
8. Erklärung des Richters Bennouna 620
9. Erklärung des Richters Skotnikov 621
10. Abweichende Meinung von ad-hoc Richter Mahiou 621
11. Sondervotum des ad hoc-Richters Kreća 621
G. Case Concerning Territorial and Maritime Dispute between Nicaragua and Honduras in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Honduras) 622
I. Hintergrund des Falles und Anträge der Parteien 622
II. Rechtliche Erwägungen des Gerichtshofes 623
1. Souveränität über die Inseln 623
2. Bestimmung des seewärtigen Grenzverlaufes 624
III. Entscheidungsformel 625
IV. Sondervoten, Erklärungen und abweichende Meinungen 626
1. Sondervotum von Richter Ranjeva 626
2. Sondervotum von Richter Koroma 626
3. Abweichende Meinung von ad-hoc Richter Torres Bernárdez 626
4. Erklärungen von Richter Parra-Aranguren und ad-hoc Richter Gaja 627
H. Ausblick 627
Patrick Braasch und Julia Glocke: Die Rechtsprechung des Europäischen Gerichtshofes für Menschenrechte im Jahre 2007 629
A. Einleitung 629
B. Zulässigkeitsvoraussetzungen 630
I. Jurisdiktion eines Vertragsstaates 630
II. Zulässigkeit nach Art. 34 Satz 1 632
III. Zulässigkeit nach Art. 35 632
C. Materielle Bestimmungen 633
I. Das Recht auf Leben, Art. 2 633
II. Das Verbot von Folter und unmenschlicher Behandlung, Art. 3 636
III. Das Recht auf Freiheit und Sicherheit, Art. 5 640
1. Die Rechtmäßigkeit der Haft, Art. 5 Abs. 1 641
2. Das Recht auf Mitteilung der Gründe der Festnahme, Art. 5 Abs. 2 643
3. Richterliche Vorführung und Haftdauer, Art. 5 Abs. 3 644
4. Das Recht auf Haftprüfung, Art. 5 Abs. 4 645
5. Das Recht Schadensersatz, Art. 5 Abs. 5 647
IV. Verfahrensgarantien, Art. 6 647
1. Anwendbarkeit des Art. 6 647
2. Verfahrensgarantien des Art. 6 Abs. 1 648
a) Anforderungen an das nationale Gericht, Art. 6 Abs. 1 648
(1) Das Recht auf Zugang zu einem Gericht 648
(2) Gesetzmäßigkeit des Gerichts 650
(3) Unabhängigkeit und Unparteilichkeit des auf Gesetz beruhenden Gerichts 651
(4) Das Recht auf öffentliche Anhörung 652
(5) Recht auf Entscheidung in angemessener Frist 653
(6) Umsetzung rechtskräftiger Urteile 653
b) Grundsätze des fairen Verfahrens, Art. 6 Abs. 1 654
3. Die Unschuldsvermutung, Art. 6 Abs. 2 656
4. Die Verfahrensgarantien für den Beschuldigten, Art. 6 Abs. 3 656
a) Vorbereitung der Verteidigung, Art. 6 Abs. 3 lit. b 657
b) Anwaltliche Vertretung, Art. 6 Abs. 3 lit. c 657
c) Befragung und Ladung von Zeugen, Art. 6 Abs. 3 lit. d 658
V. Keine Strafe ohne Gesetz, Art. 7 658
VI. Die Freiheitsrechte 659
1. Die einzelnen Schutzbereiche 659
a) Recht auf Achtung des Privat- und Familienlebens, Art. 8 659
b) Recht auf Gedanken-, Gewissens- und Religionsfreiheit, Art. 9 662
c) Recht auf freie Meinungsäußerung, Art.10 663
d) Recht auf Versammlungs- und Vereinigungsfreiheit, Art. 11 665
2. Rechtfertigung, gemeinsame Merkmale der Art. 8–11 666
VII. Das Recht auf wirksame Beschwerde, Art. 13 667
VIII. Das Diskriminierungsverbot, Art. 14 668
IX. Das Recht auf Schutz des Eigentums, Art. 1 ZP I 670
X. Das Recht auf Bildung, Art. 2 ZP I 672
XI. Das Recht auf Wahlen, Art. 3 ZP I 673
XII. Das Recht auf Freizügigkeit und Ausreisefreiheit, Art. 2 ZP IV 674
XIII. Das Recht, wegen derselben Strafsache nicht zweimal vor Gericht gestellt oder bestraft zu werden, Art. 4 ZP VII 675
D. Sonstige Bestimmungen 675
I. Die wirksame Ausübung des Beschwerderechts, Art. 34 Satz 2 675
II. Streichung von Beschwerden, Art. 37 676
E. Folgen einer Konventionsverletzung 677
I. Gerechte Entschädigung nach Art. 41 677
II. Weitere Folgen nach Art. 46 678
Clemens A. Müller: The Work of the International Criminal Court in 2007 679
A. Introduction 679
B. Developments in the Institutional Structure and Exterior Relations of the Court 679
C. Overview of Situations and Cases before the Court 682
I. The Situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Cases against Thomas Lubanga Dyilo and Germain Katanga 682
1. The Case against Thomas Lubanga Dyilo 683
2. The Case against Germain Katanga 687
II. The Situation in Northern Uganda and the Case against Joseph Kony et al. 688
III. The Situation in Sudan and the Case of Ahmad Harun and Ali Kushayb 691
IV. The Situation in the Central African Republic 697
D. Substantive Legal Questions Addressed by the Organs of the Court 700
I. The Prosecutor’s Policy Paper on the Interest of Justice 700
II. The Notion of Co-Perpetration 702
III. Interim Release of the Accused 703
E. Conclusion and Outlook 704
Eleonor Fernández Muñoz and Till Gut: The Work of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in the Year 2007 707
A. Introduction 707
B. Changes to the Legal Bases and the Composition of the Tribunal 708
I. Amendments to the Rules of Procedure and Evidence 709
II. Changes to the Personal Composition of the Tribunal 709
C. Proceedings before the Tribunal 710
I. Pre-Trial Proceedings 710
1. Arrests and Indictments 710
a) Prosecutor v. Vlastimir Ðorđević 710
b) Prosecutor v. Ante Gotovina et al. 711
c) Prosecutor v. Momčilo Perišić 712
d) Prosecutor v. Franko Simatović and Jovica Stanišić 713
e) Prosecutor v. Mićo Stanišić 713
f) Prosecutor v. Zdravko Tolimir 714
2. Referrals of Cases Pursuant to Rule 11bis RPE 715
II. Judgments and Proceedings before the Trial Chambers 716
1. Running Trials 716
a) Prosecutor v. Lujbe Boškoski and Johan Tarčulovski 716
b) Prosecutor v. Rasim Delić 716
c) Prosecutor v. Ramush Haradinaj et al. 717
d) Prosecutor v. Dragan Jokić 719
e) Prosecutor v. Milan Milutinović et al. 719
f) Prosecutor v. Vujadin Popović et al. 720
g) Prosecutor v. Jadranko Prlić et al. 721
h) Prosecutor v. Vojislav Šešelj 721
2. Judgments 721
a) Prosecutor v. Dragan Zelenović 721
aa) Finding on the Counts 722
bb) Sentencing Considerations 723
b) Prosecutor v. Domagoj Margetić 724
c) Prosecutor v. Milan Martić 725
aa) Findings on the Counts 725
bb) Individual Criminal Liability of the Accused 726
cc) Sentence 728
d) Prosecutor v. Mile Mrkšić et al. 728
aa) Findings on the Counts 729
bb) Individual Criminal Responsibility 729
e) Prosecutor v. Dragomir Milošević 730
aa) Findings on the Counts 731
bb) Individual Criminal Liability of the Accused 731
cc) Sentence 732
III. Judgments and Proceedings before the Appeals Chamber 733
1. Judgments 733
a) Prosecutor v. Josip Jović 733
b) Prosecutor v. Miroslav Bralo 734
c) Prosecutor v. Radoslav Brđanin 735
aa) Grounds of Appeal of the Defense 736
bb) Grounds of Appeal of the Prosecution 737
cc) Sentencing 739
dd) The Minority Judges on JCE 739
d) Prosecutor v. Vidoje Blagojević and Dragan Jokić 740
aa) The Defense Appeal of Blagojević 740
bb) The Defense Appeal of Jokić 742
cc) The Prosecution Appeal 742
e) Prosecutor v. Fatmir Limaj et al. 743
aa) Bala Defense Appeal and Prosecution Appeal 743
bb) Limaj and Musliu Prosecution Appeal 744
f) Prosecutor v. Sefer Halilović 745
aa) The Admissibility of the 1996 Statement 745
bb) Command Responsibility 746
g) Prosecutor v. Dragan Zelenović 748
2. Cases Pending before the Appeals Chamber 748
a) Prosecutor v. Pavle Strugar 748
b) Prosecutor v. Mom ilo Krajišnik 749
c) Other Pending Cases 750
D. Outlook 750
Veronika Strnisková und Anja Trautmann: Die Rechtsprechung der WTO-Streitbeilegungsgremien im Jahre 2007 751
A. Einführung 751
B. Die WTO-Rechtsprechung zu den einzelnen Handelsabkommen 752
I. Multilaterale Übereinkommen zum Warenhandel 752
1. Allgemeines Zoll- und Handelsabkommen (GATT 1994) 752
2. Übereinkommen über die Landwirtschaft (AoA) 756
a) Chile – Price Band System and Safeguard Measures Relating to Certain Agricultural Products (Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Argentina) 757
b) Turkey – Measures Affecting Importation of Rice 758
3. Übereinkommen zur Durchführung des Artikels VI des GATT 1994 (ADÜ) 760
a) United States – Sunset Reviews of Anti-Dumping Measures on Oil Country Tubular Goods from Argentina (Recourse to Art. 21.5 of the DSU by Argentina) 760
b) United States – Anti-Dumping Measure on Shrimps from Ecuador 764
c) United States – Measures Relating to Zeroing and Sunset Reviews 765
d) Korea-Anti Dumping Duties on Imports of Certain Paper from Indonesia (Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Indonesia) 768
e) Mexico – Anti-Dumping Duties on Steel Pipes and Tubes from Guatemala 770
f) European Communities – Anti-Dumping Measure on Farmed Salmon from Norway 772
4. Übereinkommen über Subventionen und Ausgleichsmaßnahmen (SCM) 774
II. Allgemeines Übereinkommen über den Handel mit Dienstleistungen (GATS) 778
C. Ausblick 780
Richard Happ and Noah Rubins: Awards and Decisions of ICSID Tribunals in 2007 781
A. Introduction 781
B. PSEG Global Inc. and Konya Ilgin Elektrik Uretim ve Ticaret Limited Sirketi v. The Republic of Turkey (Case No. ARB/02/5) 782
I. The Dispute 782
II. The Decision 783
C. Siemens A.G. v. The Argentine Republic (Case No. ARB/02/8) 785
I. The Dispute 785
II. The Decision 785
1. Merits 786
2. Compensation 788
D. Waguih Elie George Siag and Clorinda Vecchi v. The Arab Republic of Egypt (Case No. ARB/05/15) 789
I. The Dispute 789
II. The Decision 790
E. Malaysian Historical Salvors SDN, BHD v. The Government of Malaysia (Case No. ARB/05/10) 792
I. The Dispute 792
II. The Decision 792
F. Enron Corporation & Ponderosa Assets, L.P. v. Argentine Republic (Case No. ARB/01/3) 794
I. The Dispute 795
II. The Decision 795
G. Hussein Nuaman Soufraki v. the United Arab Emirates (Case No. ARB/02/7) 798
I. The Dispute 798
II. The Decision 798
H. Tokios Tokelès v. Ukraine (Case No. ARB/02/18) 799
I. The Dispute 800
II. The Decision 800
1. Jurisdiction 800
2. Merits 801
3. Dissenting Opinion 802
J. Ioannis Kardassopolous v. Georgia (Case No. ARB/05/18) 803
I. The Dispute 803
II. The Decision 804
K. MCI Power Group L.C. and New Turbine, Inc. v. Ecuador (Case No. ARB/03/6) 806
I. The Dispute 806
II. The Decision 807
1. Jurisdiction 807
2. Merits 808
L. Fraport AG v. The Republic of the Philippines (Case No. ARB/03/25) 809
I. The Dispute 810
II. The Decision 811
III. Dissenting Opinion 812
M. Compania de Aguas del Aconquija S.A. and Vivendi Universal S.A. v. Argentine Republic (Case No. ARB/97/3) 813
I. The Dispute 813
II. The Decision 814
N. Parkerings-Compagniet AS v. the Republic of Lithuania (Case No. ARB/05/8) 817
I. The Dispute 817
II. The Decision 818
O. CMS Gas Transmission Company v. Argentine Republic (Case No. ARB/01/8) 819
I. The Dispute 819
II. The Decision 820
P. Archer Daniels Midland Company and Tale & Lyle Ingredients Americas, Inc. v. The United Mexican States (Case No. ARB(AF)/04/5) 822
I. The Dispute 822
II. The Decision 823
Q. Concluding Remarks 825
Dörte Herrmann und Meike Laufmöller: Die Tätigkeit der International Law Commission im Jahre 2007 827
A. Einleitung 827
B. Vorbehalte zu völkerrechtlichen Verträgen 827
I. Angenommene Richtlinien 828
II. Diskutierte Richtlinien 829
1. Voraussetzungen für den Einspruch gegen einen Vorbehalt 829
2. Form des Einspruchs 829
3. Rücknahme eines Einspruchs 831
4. Zustimmung zu einem Vorbehalt 831
C. Gemeinsame natürliche Ressourcen 832
D. Ausweisung von Ausländern 833
I. Zweiter Bericht des Sonderberichterstatters 833
1. Reichweite (scope) 833
2. Definitionen 835
a) Ausländer (alien) 835
b) Ausweisung (expulsion) 835
c) Staatsgebiet und Grenzen 836
II. Dritter Bericht des Sonderberichterstatters 837
1. Recht auf Ausweisung (Art. 3) 837
2. Begrenzungen durch die Völkerrechtsordnung 838
a) Ausweisung von Staatsangehörigen (Art. 4) 838
b) Ausweisung von Flüchtlingen (Art. 5) 839
c) Ausweisung von Staatenlosen (Art. 6) 839
d) Kollektivausweisungen (Art. 7) 840
III. Diskussion 841
IV. Ergebnisse der diesjährigen Sitzung 842
E. Wirkungen bewaffneter Konflikte auf Verträge 843
I. Verträge mit internationalen Organisationen 843
II. Nicht-internationale Konflikte 844
III. Parteiwille als Auslegungsfaktor 844
IV. Fortgeltende Verträge 845
F. Verantwortlichkeit internationaler Organisationen 846
I. Unerheblichkeit der Vorschriften der internationalen Organisation (Art. 35) 846
II. Sicherstellung der effektiven Erfüllung der Wiedergutmachungspflicht (Art. 43) 847
III. Mitwirkung bei der Beendigung eines ius-cogens-Verstoßes 848
G. Verpflichtung zur Strafverfolgung oder Auslieferung (aut dedere aut iudicare) 848
I. Rechtsquelle der Verpflichtung 849
II. Anwendungsbereich des Entwurfs und Verhältnis zur Strafverfolgung 849
III. Weiteres Vorgehen 850
H. Ausblick 851
Gernot Biehler: Auswärtige Gewalt. Auswirkungen Auswärtiger Interessen im innerstaatlichen Recht (Ingo Winkelmann) 853
Angelika Emmerich-Fritsche: Vom Völkerrecht zum Weltrecht (Jost Delbrück) 855
Walter Frenz: Handbuch Europarecht. Band III: Beihilfe- und Vergaberecht (Joachim Schwind) 856
Steven Greer: European Convention on Human Rights – Achievement, Problems, Prospects (Tatjana Papic) 860
Oren Gross/Fionnuala Ní Aoláin: Law in Times of Crisis – Emergency Powers in Theory and Practice (Christian Johann) 864
Rainer Grote/Thilo Marauhn (Hrsg): EMRK/GG: Konkordanzkommentar (Rainer Hofmann) 866
Rainer Hofmann/Christian J. Tams (eds.): The International Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) – Taking Stock after 40 Years (Christian Tietje) 868
Dan Sarooshi: International Organizations and their Exercise of Sovereign Powers (Manuel Knebelsberger) 871
Theodor Schweisfurth: Völkerrecht (Christian Tomuschat) 873
Nikolas Stürchler: The Threat of Force in International Law (Alexander Proelß) 876
Sigrun I. Skogly: Beyond National Borders: States’ Human Rights Obligations in International Cooperation (Helmut Philipp Aust) 878
Todd Weiler (ed.): International Investment Law and Arbitration: Leading Cases from the ICSID, NAFTA, Bilateral Treaties and Customary International Law (Christian J. Tams) 880
Andreas Zimmermann/Christian Tomuschat/Karin Oellers-Frahm/Christian J. Tams/Tobias Thienel: The Statute of the International Court of Justice. A Commentary (Arthur Eyffinger) 882