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Smyrek, D. (2006). Internationally Administered Territories – International Protectorates?. An Analysis of Sovereignty over Internationally Administered Territories with Special Reference to the Legal Status of Post-War Kosovo. Duncker & Humblot.
Smyrek, Daniel Sven. Internationally Administered Territories – International Protectorates?: An Analysis of Sovereignty over Internationally Administered Territories with Special Reference to the Legal Status of Post-War Kosovo. Duncker & Humblot, 2006. Book.
Smyrek, D (2006): Internationally Administered Territories – International Protectorates?: An Analysis of Sovereignty over Internationally Administered Territories with Special Reference to the Legal Status of Post-War Kosovo, Duncker & Humblot, [online]


Internationally Administered Territories – International Protectorates?

An Analysis of Sovereignty over Internationally Administered Territories with Special Reference to the Legal Status of Post-War Kosovo

Smyrek, Daniel Sven

Tübinger Schriften zum internationalen und europäischen Recht, Vol. 80


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The author begins his survey by offering the reader an overview of the concepts of "physical control over a territory"" and "territorial sovereignty"". He then moves on to examine different scenarios in which territories have been administered by an organ representing the international community and explains how the issue of sovereignty was dealt with in each of these cases. In this context, the author offers a fascinating review of the recent case of Kosovo under UN administration describing the intricacies associated therewith. After thoroughly examining both the legal and factual situations, he evaluates the impact of the conclusions developed in the preceding chapters on the present and future status of this province. The author finally explores the relationship between the principle of democracy and the phenomenon of international territorial administrations, which he considers to be an example of "international governance".

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Acknowledgments 7
Contents 9
List of Abbreviations 18
A. Introduction 23
I. Presentation of Case Study 23
II. Methodology 24
B. The Notion of “Sovereignty” 28
I. The Persisting Importance of the Concept of State Sovereignty 28
II. Material Interpretation of Sovereignty 31
III. Formal Interpretation 33
IV. Distinction Between Different Levels of Sovereignty 36
V. Territorial Sovereignty as a Feature of Sovereignty 38
1. The Term “Territorial Sovereignty” as Departing from the Formal Concept of Sovereignty 39
2. The Term “Territorial Sovereignty” as Departing from the Material Concept of Sovereignty 40
3. Analysis of Commentator’s Opinions on the Relationship Between “Physical Control of a Territory” and “Territorial Sovereignty” 41
a) The Opinion which Totally Rejects the Difference Between Territorial Sovereignty and Physical Control 42
b) Theories Involving a “Material Corrective” in a Formal Concept of Territorial Sovereignty 44
c) The Strictly Formal Concept of Territorial Sovereignty as Opposed to Physical Control 47
d) The Substantiation of a Purely Formal Concept of Territorial Sovereignty 50
e) The Continuing Terminological Confusion 52
f) Summary 54
VI. Conclusion 56
C. Historical Examples 57
I. The Free City of Danzig (1920–1939) 58
1. The Legal Framework Contained in the Peace Treaty of Versailles 59
2. The Free City’s Dependence on the League of Nations and its High Commissioner 60
3. Polish Rights and Prerogatives with Respect to the Free City 61
4. Classification of the Status of the Free City by Authors 63
5. Evaluation of the Free City’s Status 64
6. Conclusion 67
II. The Saar Territory (1920–1935) 67
1. The Legal Framework Set by the Treaty of Versailles 68
a) General Provisions 68
b) The Role of the Governing Commission as Set Forth in the Relevant Treaty Provisions 69
c) The Actual Extent of the Governing Commission’s Power 70
d) The Military and Police Functions of the Mission 71
e) Means of Participation by the Saar Population 71
2. The Legal Status of the Saar Territory 72
a) Was the Saar Territory a State under International Law? 72
b) The Range of Opinions among Scholars Regarding the Issue of Sovereignty over the Saar Territory 73
c) Analysis 74
3. Conclusion 75
III. Leticia (1933–1934) 76
1. The Coup de Force of 1 September 1932 76
2. The Peace Keeping Efforts of the LON 77
3. The LON Administration in Leticia 78
4. The Final Settlement of the Crisis 78
5. Evaluation of Leticia’s Legal Status and Concluding Remarks 79
IV. The Free Territory of Trieste 79
1. The Route to the Statute of an Internationalised Trieste 80
2. The Provisions of the Paris Peace Treaty with Italy (the “Peace Treaty”) Concerning Trieste 81
a) The Instrument for the Provisional Regime of the Free Territory of Trieste 81
b) The Permanent Statute of the Free Territory of Trieste 82
aa) The Council of Government 83
bb) The Popular Assembly 83
cc) The Position of the Governor 83
(1) The Governor’s Rights to Interfere in the Legislative Process 83
(2) The Governor’s Rights to Interfere in the Executive Process 84
(3) The Governor’s Control of Foreign Affairs 84
(4) Additional Prerogatives of the Governor 84
dd) The Judiciary 85
ee) The Interpretation of the Statute 85
c) The Free Port of Trieste 85
3. Failure to Implement the Free Territory of Trieste 86
4. The Status of the Free Territory of Trieste 86
a) Commentators Views on the Legal Status of the Free Territory of Trieste 86
b) Evaluation of the Free Territory’s Legal Status 87
5. The Legal Capacity of the UN to Administer a Territory 89
V. Jerusalem 92
1. Nature and History of UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (II) 92
a) The Events Preceding the Adoption of UNGAR 181 (II) 92
b) The Provisions of UNGAR 181 (II) 93
aa) The Partition Plan 93
bb) The Outlines for an International Status for Jerusalem 94
2. The Non-Implementation of UNGAR 181 (II) 96
a) The First Draft Statute Submitted by the Trusteeship Council and its Failed Implementation 96
b) The Second Resolution of the General Assembly Demanding the Internationalisation of Jerusalem: UNGAR 194 (III) 96
c) The Third Resolution of the General Assembly Demanding the Internationalisation of Jerusalem: UNGAR 303 (IV) 97
d) The Second Draft Statute of the Trusteeship Council 98
e) The Proposal for a Functional Internationalisation 98
3. Public Opinion and Scholars Views on the Legal Status of Jerusalem Pursuant to UNGAR 181 (II) and the Legal Capacity of the UN to Assume the Powers Allotted to it 99
4. Conclusion 100
VI.West Irian 101
1. History of the Conflict 101
a) The Controversy about the Sovereignty over West Irian Following Indonesian Independence 102
b) An Exit from the Crisis 103
2. The Provisions of the Agreement Concerning West New Guinea and Subsequent Documents 104
a) The UN Administrator 104
b) The First Phase of the UNTEA Administration 104
c) The Second Phase: Indonesian Administration and Self-Determination 105
d) Financing the Mission 106
e) The Issuance of Passports and Consular Protection 106
3. The Course of Events Following the Signature of the Dutch-Indonesian-Agreement of 15 August 1962 106
4. Analysis 108
VII. Namibia (SouthWest Africa) 110
1. History 110
a) South West Africa before the World War II 110
b) The Dispute Between South Africa and the UN 111
aa) The Decisions of the General Assembly, the Security Council and the ICJ 111
bb) The UN Council for South West Africa – a Supposed Executive Organ 112
cc) The Way to Independence 113
2. The Different Evaluations of the Legal Effects of the UN Action 115
a) The Arguments Raised Against the Legality of the Revocation of the Mandate 115
b) The Reasoning of the ICJ 116
3. Conclusion 117
VIII. East Timor 118
1. History of East Timor until the Popular Consultation 119
2. The Popular Consultation and the Events thereafter 122
a) The Grave Situation in the Aftermath of the Consultation 122
b) The Creation of INTERFRET 123
3. The Period of the UN Transitional Administration 124
a) Events after the End of the Indonesian Occupation 124
b) The Legal Framework of the International Involvement 125
aa) The Legal Basis 125
bb) The Competence of the Security Council 125
cc) The Key Provisions of UNSCR 1272 126
dd) Important UNTAET-Regulations Concerning the Structure of the “State” 127
ee) The Applicable Law in East Timor 128
ff) The Courts System 130
gg) The Establishment of Village and Sub-District Development Councils 132
4. The Status of East Timor until its Accession to Independence on 19 May 2002 133
a) The Status of East Timor Before the Indonesian Invasion 134
b) The Status of East Timor During the Indonesian Occupation 134
c) East Timor’s Status During the Transitional UN Administration 135
5. Conclusion 137
IX. Bosnia and Herzegovina 139
1. History 139
a) History prior to 1990 139
b) History after 1990 140
aa) The Civil War 140
bb) The Dayton Peace Agreement 141
2. Organisation of the State 142
a) The Legal Character of the Constitution 142
b) The Democratic Legitimacy of the Constitution 142
c) The Key Provisions 143
aa) The Territorial Structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina 143
bb) Provisions Concerning the Unity of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Protection of Human Rights 144
cc) The Institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina 145
(1) The Parliamentary Assembly 145
(2) The Presidency 145
(3) The Council of Ministers 146
(4) The Constitutional Court 147
(5) The Central Bank 147
(6) The Human Rights Commission 147
d) The Principle of Ethnic Proportion 147
3. Powers of the International Community 149
a) Powers of the Civilian Component 149
aa) The High Representative for the Implementation of the Peace Agreement 150
(1) The Mandate of the High Representative 150
(2) The Fulfilment of the Mandate 151
(3) The Issue of who Created the Role of High Representative 152
(4) The Legal Basis for the High Representative’s Mandate 153
bb) The Peace Implementation Council 153
cc) The International Police Task Force (IPTF) 154
(1) The Legal Basis for the IPTFActivity 154
(2) The Mandate of the IPTF 155
(3) The Replacement of IPTF by the European Union Police Mission (EUPM) 156
dd) The Representation of the International Community in Bosnian Institutions 156
ee) The Brcko-Case – an Example of the Extensive International Influence 157
b) Powers of the Military Component 158
aa) The Legal Basis for the IFOR Activity 158
bb) The Competencies of IFOR 160
4. Analysis of the International Status 162
a) The Status of the Entities 162
b) Is Bosnia and Herzegovina a Federation or a Confederation? 163
c) The International Status of Bosnia and Herzegovina – Protectorate or Sovereign State? 166
5. Conclusion 168
X. Results 170
D. Kosovo 172
I. Introduction 172
1. From the Illyrian Settlements to the League of Prizren 172
2. From the First Balkan War to the NATOAir Campaign 173
3. Methodology 176
II. The Legal Framework 177
1. The Political Background to the Relevant Documents 178
a) UNSCR 1244 Including Annexes 1 and 2 178
b) The Military Technical Agreement 179
c) The Rambouillet Accords 179
2. The Key Provisions of UNSCR 1244 and of the Documents Referred to therein 180
a) The Key Provisions Concerning the International Military Presence 180
b) The Provisions Concerning the Return of Certain Armed Yugoslav and Serb Personnel 180
c) The Key Provisions Concerning the International Civil Presence 181
d) Important General Provisions 181
aa) Jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 181
bb) Duration of the Mandate 181
cc) Provisions Regarding the Future Status of Kosovo 182
e) The Legal Framework for the Interim Administration and the Provisional Institutions of Kosovo Outlined in the Rambouillet Accords 182
f) The Key Provisions of the Military Technical Agreement 183
III. The Factual Scenario 183
1. The Military Component 183
a) The Structure of KFOR 183
aa) The Horizontal (Operational) Structure 184
bb) The Vertical (Command) Structure 184
(1) The Long Way to an Agreement 184
(2) The Contents of the Helsinki-Agreement 185
cc) The Compatibility of the Command Structure with the Basic Legal Documents 185
b) KFOR-Activities in Kosovo Eligible for Exceeding the Mandate 187
2. The Civil Component 188
a) The Competencies of the Special Representative and his Deputies 188
b) The Delegation to Other International Organisations – the “Four Pillars” of UNMIK 189
aa) The First Pillar: Humanitarian Aid / Police and Justice 189
bb) The Second Pillar: Civil Administration 189
cc) The Third Pillar: Democracy and Institution Building 189
dd) The Fourth Pillar: Economic Reconstruction 190
c) The Gradual Transfer of Powers to Local Authorities 190
aa) The Establishment of the Joint Interim Administrative Structures 191
bb) The Constitutional Framework 192
(1) Transferred Powers 192
(2) Reserved Powers 192
(3) Institutions 193
(a) The Assembly 193
(b) The President 194
(c) The Government 194
(d) The Judicial System 195
(e) The Ombudsperson and Other Independent Bodies and Offices 195
(f) Appraisal 197
(4) The Transfer Council 197
cc) Elections 197
d) Singular Measures Taken by UNMIK Eligible for Exceeding the Mandate 198
aa) The Introduction of a New Monetary System 198
bb) UNMIK Activities in the Banking and Finance Sector and Economic Affairs 201
cc) UNMIK’s Activities in the Justice Sector 202
IV. The Future Status of Kosovo 204
1. Which Options are Left Open by UNSCR 1244? 205
a) The Right of Disposition as a Core Attribute of Sovereignty 205
b) Has Yugoslavia’s Right to Dispose of Kosovo been Delegated? 205
2. Is there a Kosovar Right to Self-Determination? 207
a) The Existence of a General Right to Secession for all Peoples 207
b) Can the Notion of Non-Self-Governing Territories be Extended? 209
c) Is there a Right to Secession in Special Cases Beyond the Context of De-colonisation? 209
d) Specific Arguments Against the Existence of an Exceptional Right to Secession 211
e) Is there a Right to Secession in Case Yugoslavia Falls Apart? 212
3. Prospects for a Solution to the Final Status Issue 213
V. Summary 215
E. The Principle of Democracy and the International Administration of Territories 217
I. The Conflict Between the International Administration of Territories and Democracy 217
II. The UN’s Commitment to Democracy 219
III. Limits on Democracy 220
1. Limits on Democracy Derived from the Concept of Trusteeship 220
2. Limits on Democracy by Virtue of Chapter VII of the UN-Charter 221
3. Further Factors Determining the Degree of International Tutelage 222
IV. Limits on the Suspension of Democratic Rights 223
1. “Good Governance” as Guiding Principle 223
2. Human Rights Standards 225
V. Conclusion 229
F. Conclusion 231
I. Different Forms of International Territorial Administrations 231
1. States under Permanent International Protection 231
2. States under Temporary International Protection 231
3. Internationalised Territories 232
4. Trusteeships under Direct International Rule 232
II. The Two Conflicting Trends 232
1. The Bolstering of International Governance 232
2. Strengthening the Principle of Democracy 233
III. The Interaction Between the Trends 233
IV. Outlook 235
Bibliography 238
Index 256