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Giegerich, T., Odendahl, K., Matz-Lück, N. (Eds.) (2012). German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht. Vol. 54 (2011). Duncker & Humblot.
Giegerich, Thomas; Odendahl, Kerstin and Matz-Lück, Nele. German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 54 (2011). Duncker & Humblot, 2012. Book.
Giegerich, T, Odendahl, K, Matz-Lück, N (eds.) (2012): German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 54 (2011), Duncker & Humblot, [online]


German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 54 (2011)

Editors: Giegerich, Thomas | Odendahl, Kerstin | Matz-Lück, Nele

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 54


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Book Details


About The Author

Prof. Dr. Thomas Giegerich, LL.M. (University of Virginia) studierte Rechtswissenschaft in Mainz und Virginia (Fulbright-Stipendiat) und wurde 1991 in Mainz promoviert. Von 1990 bis 2002 war er Referent am Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, unterbrochen durch eine zweijährige Tätigkeit als wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Bundesverfassungsgericht. 2001 habilitierte er sich an der Universität Heidelberg und war von 2002 bis 2006 Professor an der Universität Bremen. 2006 erfolgte der Ruf an die Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, wo er Ko-Direktor des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht war. Seit 2012 ist er Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für Europarecht, Völkerrecht und Öffentliches Recht an der Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität des Saarlands. Die Forschungsschwerpunkte Giegerichs liegen im Verhältnis von Europäischem und nationalem Verfassungsrecht, im völkerrechtlichen Menschenrechtsschutz, im Völkervertragsrecht und in der Verfassungsvergleichung.

Prof. Dr. Kerstin von der Decken (geb. Odendahl) ist Inhaberin des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völkerrecht, Europarecht und Allgemeine Staatslehre an der Universität Kiel sowie Geschäftsführende Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Davor war sie von 2004 bis 2011 Professorin für Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität St. Gallen, Schweiz. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen bei den Grundlagen des Völker- und Europarechts sowie dem internationalen Umwelt,- Kultur- und Sicherheitsrecht.

Prof. Dr. Nele Matz-Lück, LL.M., ist seit 2011 Professorin für Seerecht an der Universität Kiel und Ko-Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Seit 2004 war sie als Referentin am Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht in Heidelberg beschäftigt. Für die Dauer von zwei Jahren war sie als wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an das Bundesverfassungsgericht abgeordnet. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen im Seerecht, Umweltvölkerrecht und in grundlegenden Fragen des Völkerrechts.


The $aGerman Yearbook of International Law,$z founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the University of Kiel. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international and EU law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
CHRISTIAN TIETJE: The International Financial Architecture as a Legal Order 11
I. Introduction 11
II. From 1929 to 2009: The Development of the International Systems of Finance, Currency and Sovereign Debts 14
A. Early Roots 14
1. Currency System 14
2. Sovereign Debts 14
3. Financial Markets 16
B. The Intellectual Background of Bretton Woods: Keynes and White 17
C. Bretton Woods and the International Economic System 18
D. The (Re-)Invention of the System: 1970 until 2007 20
1. First Steps 20
2. New International Financial Architecture I (NIFA I) 24
III. Today’s International Financial Architecture (New International Financial Architecture II?) 28
A. Modification and Improvement of NIFA I 28
B. Enlargement of Membership in International Financial Institutions 30
C. G20 31
IV. Elements of an International Financial Order 34
A. The ‘Order’ of International Finance 35
B. Substantive Elements 35
1. International Financial Stability and Domestic Embeddedness of Financial Market Instruments 35
2. Integrating Macro and Micro Prudential Regulation and Supervision 37
3. Constitutional Perspective: Articles 1 (3), 55 and 56 UN Charter 39
C. Element of the Institutional Structure of the International Financial Order 40
1. Integration of Real Economy, Financial Markets and Sovereign Debts 41
2. Coordination and Cooperation 42
3. Gubernative 43
V. Outlook 45
CHRISTOPH OHLER: The European Stability Mechanism: The Long Road to Financial Stability in the Euro Area 47
I. The Debt Crisis in the Euro Area 47
A. Political and Economic Background 47
B. Legal Uncertainties of a Debt Restructuring 50
1. Lack of Stable and Predictable Rules 50
2. Risks of Voluntary Arrangements 51
C. Illiquid and Insolvent Countries 53
II. The Predecessor: The EFSF 55
III. The ESM as an International Institution under European Law 57
IV. Tasks of the ESM 60
A. Financial Stability as a General Interest 60
B. Meaning of Financial Stability 60
V. Powers of the ESM 62
A. Borrowing by the ESM 62
B. Lending by the ESM 63
C. Primary and Secondary Market Operations 65
D. Debt Sustainability and Conditionality 66
E. Private Sector Involvement and Collective Action Clauses 68
1. Conditions 68
2. Collective Action Clauses 69
3. Left-Overs 70
F. Liability of ESM Members 71
VI. Institutional Design 72
VII. Control of the ESM 73
VIII. Outlook 73
KRISTIN BARTENSTEIN: Navigating the Arctic: The Canadian NORDREG, the International Polar Code and Regional Cooperation 77
I. Introduction 77
II. NORDREG’s Setting: The International and Canadian Framework and the Current Controversy 81
A. The General Legal Situation of Arctic Navigation 82
B. Canada’s Legislation on Arctic Navigation 85
C. The Controversy over NORDREG within the IMO 92
III. Canada’s Justification of NORDREG and its Merits 95
A. The General Legal Framework of Ship Reporting Systems and Vessel Traffic Services 95
B. NORDREG and Article 234 100
C. Recognition: Articulating Article 234 and Chapter V SOLAS 107
IV. Future Prospects 109
A. Shortcomings of Initiatives such as NORDREG 109
B. The Future Polar Code 114
C. The Governance Approach to the Legal Protection of the Marine Arctic 118
V. Conclusion 123
JONAS ATTENHOFER: Navigating Along Precedence: How Arctic Sovereignty Melts with the Ice 125
I. Introduction 125
II. The Law and Procedure Applicable to Arctic Coastal Waters 127
A. UNCLOS and General International Law 127
B. The International Aspect of Delimitation 129
III. The Territorial Status of the Northern Sea Lanes and the Applicable Navigational Regimes 130
A. Internal Waters 132
1. Application and Scope 132
a) Straight Baselines 132
b) ‘A Fringe of Islands Along the Coast in Its Immediate Vicinity’ 133
c) The Concept of Historic Internal Waters 137
d) No Cutting-Off from the High Seas 138
2. Passage at Discretion of Coastal State, Subject to an Exception 139
B. Territorial Seas Around the Relevant Islands 140
1. Application and Scope 140
2. The Principle of Non-Encroachment 141
3. Innocent Passage 144
C. Archipelagic Status 145
1. Application and Scope 145
2. Archipelagic Sea Lanes Passage 146
D. Straits Used for International Navigation 147
1. Application and Scope 147
2. Transit Passage, Subject to an Exception 151
E. Exclusive Economic Zone 152
1. Application and Scope 152
2. The Impact of Ice onto Territorial Claims 152
3. Freedom of Navigation 153
IV. Conclusion 153
NELE MATZ-LÜCK: Continental Shelf Delimitation and Delineation in the Arctic: Current Developments 155
I. Introduction 155
II. The Delineation and Delimitation of the Continental Shelf in International Law 158
A. The Distinction Between Delineation and Delimitation 159
B. Legal Principles of Maritime Zone Delimitation 161
C. The Legal Regime of the Continental Shelf 165
III. Continental Shelf Delineation and Delimitation in the Arctic 170
A. Relevant Issues 170
B. Continental Shelf Delimitation between Neighbouring Arctic States 174
1. Equidistance 174
2. Meridians as a Relevant Factor for Delimitation 176
3. Other Considerations 177
4. Open Delimitation Issues 179
a) The Boundary in the Beaufort Sea 179
b) The Maritime Boundary between Canada and Denmark/Greenland 180
5. An ‘Arctic Approach’ to Delimitation? 181
C. The Outer Limits of Extended Arctic Continental Shelves 181
1. The Russian Submission 183
2. The Norwegian Submission 184
3. Potential Claims by the US 187
IV. The Future 190
RICHARD BARNES: International Regulation of Fisheries Management in Arctic Waters 193
I. Introduction 193
II. Background 196
A. The Arctic Marine Area 196
B. Arctic Governance 197
C. Arctic Fisheries 201
III. Legal Framework 204
A. Global Instruments 205
1. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 205
2. The Fish Stocks Agreement 208
3. The FAO Compliance Agreement 210
4. Agreement on Port State Measures to Control IUU Fishing 211
5. Non-Legally-Binding Instruments 212
B. Regional Instruments 212
1. NAFO 213
2. The North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) 214
3. International Commission on the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) 216
4. North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO) 218
5. The North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission (NPAFC) 219
6. Western and Central Pacific Ocean Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) 220
7. Convention on the Conservation and Management of Pollock Resources in the Central Bering Sea (CCBSP) 221
C. Bilateral Arrangements 222
IV. Issues 225
V. Concluding Remarks 229
NIGEL BANKES: Indigenous Land and Resource Rights in the Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: Comparisons with the Draft Nordic Saami Convention 231
I. Introduction 231
II. Background and Overview of the Draft Convention 236
III. Lands and Resources Jurisprudence of the IACtHR 238
A. Proposition 1: Identity of the Rights Bearers 242
B. Proposition 2: Property Held Communally in Accordance with Indigenous Norms 243
C. Proposition 3: Recognising an Indigenous Conceptualisation of Property 244
D. Proposition 4: Clarification of the Geographical Scope of Indigenous Lands 245
E. Proposition 5: Recognition of Title 246
F. Proposition 6: Legal Remedies 247
G. Proposition 7: Moratorium on Resource Activities Pending Titling 247
H. Proposition 8: Review of Existing Third Party Resource Rights 248
I. Proposition 9: Effective Participation in Decisions that Affect Traditional Lands 248
J. Proposition 10: Traditional Territory and the Right to Life and Humane Treatment 249
K. Proposition 11: Protection of Resources 250
L. Proposition 12: Qualifying Indigenous Property Rights 251
M. Proposition 13: Procedural Safeguards 253
N. Proposition 14: Restitution of Traditional Lands 255
O. Proposition 15: Prerequisite for a Restitution Claim 257
P. Proposition 16: Timely Resolution 258
Q. Proposition 17: Restitution of Lands Held by Third Parties 258
R. Proposition 18: Provision of Alternative Land 259
S. Conclusions 260
IV. Analysis of the Land and Water Provisions of the Draft Nordic Saami Convention in Light of the Jurisprudence of the IACtHR 261
A. The Preamble 262
B. Self Determination: The Resource Dimension 263
C. Saami Legal Customs 264
D. Chapter IV 266
1. Article 34: Traditional Use of Land and Water 266
2. Article 35: Protection of Saami Rights to Land and Water 271
3. Article 36: Utilisation of Natural Resources and Article 37: Compensation and Share of Profits 272
a) Ownership and Use Rights 272
b) Compensation Rights 273
c) Procedural Rights 274
(1) The Affected Saami 274
(2) The Saami Parliaments 276
d) Observations 277
4. Articles 39 and 40: Co-Determination with Respect to Land and Resource Management and Environmental Protection and Management 278
V. General Conclusions 279
DAVID L. VANDERZWAAG: The Arctic Council at 15 Years: Edging Forward in a Sea of Governance Challenges 281
I. Introduction 281
II. Edging Forward 284
A. Arctic Council Working Groups 285
1. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) 285
2. Arctic Contaminants Action Program (ACAP) 289
3. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 290
4. Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (EPPR) 291
5. Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) 292
6. Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG) 296
B. Arctic Council Ministerial Meetings 297
III. Sea of Challenges 299
A. Fully Implementing Existing Commitments and Recommendations 299
1. Getting Full Ratification of International Agreements 299
2. Following Through with AMSA Recommendations 300
3. Putting the Ecosystem Approach into Practice 303
B. Completing the Arctic Council’s Restructuring 304
C. Addressing Future Ocean Governance of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction in the Arctic 308
D. Strengthening the ‘Arctic Voice’ in International Fora 311
IV. Conclusion 313
TIM STEPHENS: The Arctic and Antarctic Regimes and the Limits of Polar Comparativism 315
I. Introduction 315
II. The Antarctic Regime 318
A. Governance 319
B. Sovereignty 321
C. Resource Development 323
1. Living Resources 323
2. Non-Living Resources 324
D. Environmental Protection 327
E. Shipping 329
III. The Arctic Regime 330
A. Governance 331
B. Sovereignty 335
C. Resource Development 337
1. Living Resources 337
2. Non-Living Resources 338
D. Environmental Protection and Scientific Research 341
E. Shipping 343
IV. The Limits of Polar Comparativism 344
V. Conclusion 348
AÐALHEIÐUR JÓHANNSDÓTTIR: The European Union and the Arctic: Could Iceland’s Accession to the EU Change the EU’s Influence in the Arctic? 351
I. Introduction 351
II. Background 354
A. The Arctic Region, Arctic States and Natural Resources 354
B. Arctic Coastal States – International and Regional Governance 355
III. International Regimes 357
A. Global and Regional Regimes of Importance 357
B. The Importance of Vertical Implementation 360
C. New International Regime? 361
D. Concluding Remarks 362
IV. Iceland, Arctic-Related Issuesand the EEA Agreement 362
A. Geographical Situation and Natural Resources 362
B. Iceland’s Arctic Policy 364
C. European Economic Area – The EEA Agreement 366
D. Iceland’s Accession to the EU 368
E. General Fisheries Policy 369
F. Concluding Remarks 372
V. The European Union and the Arctic – Some Aspects 373
A. Arctic Policies 373
B. Territorial Scope of EU Law and Governance 376
C. International Responsibility and Competence 377
1. The EU as an International Actor – International Agreements 377
2. The EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) 379
D. Concluding Remarks 381
VI. Some Final Conclusions 381
EMMANUEL VOYIAKIS: International Law, Interpretative Fidelity and the Hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer 385
I. Introduction 385
II. The Interplay of the Two Ideas in International Legal Interpretation: Some Illustrations 388
III. Making Theoretical Sense of the Two Ideas: Positivism and Critical Theory 395
A. Critical Legal Theory and Fidelity as an Illusion 396
B. Positivism and the Semantics of Retrieval 397
C. Drawing the Threads Together 404
IV. “We Understand Differently, If We Understand At All”: Hans-Georg Gadamer on Interpretation 405
A. The Phenomenology of Interpretation: Tradition and the Hermeneutic Circle 407
B. Interpretative Prejudice and Truth 414
V. Conclusion 418
BJØRN KUNOY: Conservation and Management of Shared Fish Stocks and the Applicable International Trade Regime 421
I. Introduction 421
II. Sovereign and Exclusive Rights 424
A. The Ambit of Sovereign and Exclusive Rights 425
1. Property Rights 425
2. Interrelations between UNCLOS and the Fish Stocks Agreement 427
B. An Obligation of Conduct 429
1. The Scope of the Obligation 430
2. Lessons from the Advisory Opinion of ITLOS? 432
C. Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fisheries? 434
1. Authorised Fisheries Within National Jurisdiction Beyond the Scope of IUU 434
2. Breach of Obligations of Conduct 436
D. Conclusion 439
III. The International Trade Regime 439
A. General Prohibitions of Restrictive Measures 439
B. Subparagraph (g) of Article XX GATT 442
1. No Ratione Loci Limitations 442
2. A Measure which ‘relates to’ 445
3. Restrictions on Domestic Producers 447
4. Fulfilling the Criteria to Trade Measures – Where No Agreement Exists 448
5. Comparisons with the Recent Proposal of the European Commission 449
C. The Chapeau 451
1. The Three Inter-Related Criteria Within Article XX GATT 452
2. Proposal for Regulation in Light of the Chapeau 454
3. Jurisdictional Limitations and the Objectivity of the Criteria 455
IV. Conclusion 457
ROSEMARY RAYFUSE: Differentiating the Common? The Responsibilities and Obligations of States Sponsoring Deep Seabed Mining Activities in the Area 459
I. Introduction 459
II. Seabed Minerals and Their Exploitation 461
III. The Legal Regime Governing Activities in the Area 466
IV. The Request for an Advisory Opinion 470
V. The Advisory Opinion 472
A. The Legal Responsibilities and Obligations of Sponsoring States 473
B. The Extent of State Liability for Failure by Sponsored Entity to Comply with its Obligations 481
C. The Necessary and Appropriate Measures to be Taken by Sponsoring States 485
VI. Conclusion 487
RALF MÜLLER-TERPITZ: Genetic Testing of Embryos in vitro – Legal Considerations with Regard to the Status of Early Human Embryos in European Law 489
I. Introduction 489
II. Technique of Embryo Screening Prior to Implantation 491
III. Legal Developments under German Law 494
IV. Legal Status of the Early Human Embryo in European Human Rights Law 499
A. Introduction 499
B. Protection of Early Human Embryos at European Level 500
1. Biomedicine Convention 500
a) Introductory Remarks 500
b) Provisions Related to the Issue of PGD 502
2. European Convention on Human Rights 504
V. Legal Status of the Early Human Embryo in EU Law 509
A. Legislative Competences of the European Union with Regard to the Issue of Reproductive Medicine 510
B. Fundamental Rights as Limitation on EU Legislation 513
C. Freedom to Provide Services as Limitation on National Legislation 517
VI. Conclusion 520
KASEY L. MCCALL-SMITH: Reservations and the Determinative Function of the Human Rights Treaty Bodies 521
I. Introduction 521
II. Applying the Vienna Convention Rules to Reservations 523
A. Objections to Reservations to Human Rights Treaties 525
B. VCLT Silence on Treaty Bodies 528
III. The Treaty Bodies 528
IV. Analysis of Evolving Practice 533
A. Early Treaty Body Approaches to Reservations 535
B. General Comment 24 and its Progeny 537
C. Collective Treaty Body Efforts to Address Reservations 546
D. Harmonized Guidelines 549
V. State Acquiescence 550
VI. ILC Support 554
A. Determining Validity 554
B. The Legal Effect of Invalid Reservations 558
VII. Conclusion 562
CHRISTOPH J. SCHEWE AND AZAR ALIYEV: The Customs Union and the Common Economic Space of the Eurasian Economic Community: Eurasian Counterpart to the EU or Russian Domination? 565
I. Introduction 566
II. History of the EurAsEC 568
III. Structure, Organisation and Decision Making Process 571
A. Structure of the EurAsEC 572
1. Interstate Council 574
2. The EurAsEC Integration Committee 575
3. The Interparliamentary Assembly 576
B. Particularities of the Customs Union and the Common Economic Space of the EurAsEC 577
1. The Interstate Council and the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council of the Customs Union and the Common Economic Space of the EurAsEC 577
2. The Commission of the Customs Union of the EurAsEC and the Eurasian Economic Commission 578
a) The Commission under the 2007 Treaty 579
b) The Eurasian Economic Commission 583
c) The Board of the Commission 584
d) The Council of the Commission 585
e) Voting Rules Under the Treaty on Commission 2011 586
f) Observations on the Reform – A Shift Towards Independency and Supranationality? 586
IV. The Law of the EurAsEC – A Vehicle for Integration? 588
A. Substantive Law of the EurAsEC Customs Union and the Common Economic Space 588
1. Substantive Law as Envisaged by the Customs Union 590
2. The State of Substantive Law as Envisaged by the Common Economic Space 591
3. The Supranationality of the CU and CES: Substantive Law and Its Direct Application 593
B. The Court of the EurAsEC 595
1. History 595
2. Composition 596
C. Jurisdiction of the Court 597
1. Action for Failure to Fulfil an Obligation 598
2. Claims by Business Entities 600
3. Preliminary Ruling Procedure 601
V. Conclusion 603
SUSANNE WASUM-RAINER AND CHRISTOPHE EICK: The UN Security Council and International Law in 2011 609
I. Introduction 609
II. Sanctions and ‘Clear and Fair Procedures’ 610
A. Targeted Sanctions 610
B. Fair and Clear Procedures 612
III. International Humanitarian Law: Protection of Children in Armed Conflict 615
IV. Admission of New Members: South Sudan and the Application of Palestine 617
A. South Sudan 617
B. Palestine 619
V. Operationalising the Doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect 622
A. Libya 623
B. Consequences and Outlook for the Future 624
PETER WITTIG: Climate Change and International Peace and Security: The Open Debate in the United Nations Security Councilon 20 July 2011 627
I. Introduction 627
II. Climate Change – A Key Challenge for Mankind and a Case for the United Nations Security Council 628
A. Background 628
B. The Security Council Debate in 2007: The First Step in Bringing Climate Change to the Attention of the Council 629
C. The Decision to Hold a New Debate in 2011 630
III. The Open Debate on 20 July 2011 632
A. Preparing for the Debate 632
B. Main Elements of the Open Debate 633
IV. The Negotiations on the Outcome Document 635
V. Conclusion 637
THOMAS GIEGERICH: The Federal Constitutional Court’s Deference to and Boost for Parliament in Euro Crisis Management 639
JAN OLIVA: Legal Persons from EU Member States and their Entitlement to Fundamental Rights under the German Basic Law 659
BJÖRN ELBERLING: German Practice Regarding Enforcement of Sentences Passed by International Criminal Courts and Tribunals 665
PATRICK KROKER: Universal Jurisdiction in Germany: The Trial of Onesphore R. Before the Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt 671
I. Why a Trial in Germany? 672
A. Jurisdiction 672
B. Onesphore R. in Germany 674
C. Extradition Request by Rwanda 674
1. Recent Decisions on Extradition Requests 675
a) The ICTR Uwinkindi Decision 676
b) The Ahorugeze Decision by the ECtHR 677
2. Assessment 678
D. Investigations by the German Federal Criminal Police Office in Rwanda 679
II. The Trial in Frankfurt 680
A. Video Testimony 680
1. Requirements 680
2. Realisation 682
B. Prevalence of Witness Testimony 683
1. Negative Influences 683
2. Wilful Perjury 684
3. Assessment of the Credibility of Witness Evidence 687
III. Conclusion 687
TOBIAS THIENEL: Torture Abroad, Consular Assistance and the Admissibility of Evidence 689
OLIVER DAUM: Juridical Virgin Soil and the Well-fortified Democracy – The Annual Report on the Protection of the Constitution under International Legal Scrutiny 697
FELIX MACHTS: Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions – Patentability of Extraction of Precursor Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells (ECJ) 713
PATRICK BRAASCH: The European Convention on Human Rights’ Limitations in the Dismissal of Non-clergy Church Employees 721
SARA JÖTTEN AND JULE SIEGFRIED: The German Strike Ban for Public Officials in Light of the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights: The Judgments of the Administrative Court of Düsseldorf of December 2010 and the Administrative Court of Kassel of July 2011 731
STEPHANIE SCHLICKEWEI: Denial of Individual Right to Compensation to Victims of World War II Massacre in Light of the ECHR: Sfountouris and Others v. Germany 741
CLAUDIA SCHUBERT: Whistle-Blowing after Heinisch v. Germany: Much Ado About Nothing? 753
ANTJE SIERING: Freedom of Expression in a National Context: The Case of Hoffer and Annen v. Germany 765
PHILIPP TAMME: No Residence Permit after Marriage in Denmark: The Federal Administrative Court in Breach of EU Law? 773
Piet Eeckhout: EU External Relations Law (THOMAS GIEGERICH) 787
Duncan French/Mathew Saul/Nigel D. White (eds.): International Law and Dispute Settlement: New Problems and Techniques (CHRISTIAN J. TAMS) 794
Enzo Cannizaro (ed.): The Law of Treaties Beyond the Vienna Convention (CHRISTIAN J. TAMS) 794
Florian Hofmann: Helmut Strebel (1911–1992) Georgeaner und Völkerrechtler (MEINHARD SCHRÖDER) 799
Victor Kattan: From Coexistence to Conquest – International Law and the Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1891–1949 (JULIA MÜLLER) 801
Martti Koskenniemi: The Politics of International Law (BING BING JIA) 802
André Nollkaemper: National Courts and the International Rule of Law (BING BING JIA) 805
Alexander Orakhelashvili (ed.): Research Handbook on the Theory and History of International Law (BJÖRN ELBERLING) 808
Lisa Ott: Enforced Disappearance in International Law (SARA JÖTTEN) 812
Armin von Bogdandy/Sabino Cassese/Peter M. Huber (eds.): Handbuch Ius Publicum Europaeum. Band III: Verwaltungsrecht in Europa: Grundlagen; Band IV: Verwaltungsrecht in Europa: Wissenschaft (FLORIAN BECKER) 814
Onuma Yasuaki: A Transcivilizational Perspective on International Law (BERENIKE SCHRIEWER) 816
Andreas Zimmermann (ed.): The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary (KAY HAILBRONNER) 820