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Delbrück, J., Hofmann, R., Zimmermann, A. (Eds.) (1991). German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht. Vol. 33 (1990). Duncker & Humblot.
Delbrück, Jost; Hofmann, Rainer and Zimmermann, Andreas. German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 33 (1990). Duncker & Humblot, 1991. Book.
Delbrück, J, Hofmann, R, Zimmermann, A (eds.) (1991): German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 33 (1990), Duncker & Humblot, [online]


German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 33 (1990)

Editors: Delbrück, Jost | Hofmann, Rainer | Zimmermann, Andreas

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 33


Additional Information

Book Details



The German Yearbook of International Law, founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the Kiel University. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Contents 5
René Barents: The Community and the Unity of the Common Market. Some Reflections on the Economic Constitution of the Community 9
I. Introduction 9
II. The Unity of the Common Market 10
1. The Internal Market 11
2. Freedom of Trade and Undistorted Competition 12
3. Market Unity 13
III. The Common Market and the Member States 15
1. Free Movement 15
a) The Country of Destination Principle 15
b) The Country of Origin Principle 15
2. Undistorted Competition 18
a) Distortion of Competition 18
b) Disparities 19
3. Discrimination(s) and Distortion(s) 20
IV. The Common Market and the Community 21
1. Unity of the Market and Non-discrimination 21
2. The Case Law 22
3. Non-Discrimination or Non-interference With Trade 24
V. Non-Discrimination and Differentiation 26
1. Discrimination and Renationalization 26
2. Duty to Differentiate 26
3. Differentiation in the Framework of Discretionary Policy 28
4. Complementary Actions of Member States 30
5. Proportionality and Non-Discrimination 30
VI. Exceptions to the Unity of the Common Market 31
1. Emergencies and Absence of Alternatives 31
2. Transitional and Political Difficulties 32
a) The Claw-back 33
b) A More Lenient Approach? 35
VII. Market Unity as an Element of the Economic Constitution of the Community 35
Michael K. Addo: A Critical Analysis of the Perennial International Economic Law Problems of the EEC-ACP Relationship 37
I. Introduction 37
II. The Development and Ethos of Lomé 40
III. The Recurring Problems 44
1. Self-interest in a Co-operative Setting 44
a) The Effect of the Shift in Legal Basis from Co-existence to Co-operation 44
b) The Place of Sovereignty in Unequal Co-operation 46
IV. Accountability Through Justiciability 54
1. Other A ttempts at Essential A ccountability 62
a) Participation 62
b) Human Rights 63
V. Conclusion 65
Iain Cameron and Frank Horn: Reservations to the European Convention on Human Rights: The Belilos Case 69
I. Introduction 69
II. The Facts of the Case 69
III. The Approach of the Commission 71
IV. The Approach of the Court 74
V. Issues Raised by the Case 76
1. 77
a) The Distinction Between Reservations and Interpretative Declarations 77
b) The Scope of the Swiss Proviso 79
c) The Nature of the Swiss Proviso 81
2. 87
a) The Competence of the Commission and the Court to Determine the Validity of Reservations 87
b) A Common European Public Order 92
c) Implications for Other Treaty Régimes 95
3. The Prohibition of General Reservations 97
a) The Concept of Generality 99
b) Imprecise Reservations 99
c) Specific Reservations to „General Reservations“ 100
d) „Overspill“ Reservations 103
e) Flexible Reservations 103
f) The Relationship Between Incompatibility and Generality 105
4. The Requirement of a Brief Statement Under Article 64 (2) 109
5. 115
a) The Effects of Invalid Reservations 115
b) Subsequent Developments 117
6. Implications for Other Reservations to the Convention 119
a) Austria 121
b) Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) 122
c) Finland 123
d) France 123
e) Ireland 124
f) Liechtenstein 124
g) Malta 125
h) Portugal 126
i) San Marino 126
j) Spain 126
k) Switzerland 126
1) The Turkish and Cypriot Declarations Under Article 25 127
VI. Conclusions 128
Karl Zemanek: Austria and the European Community 130
I. Introduction 130
II. Austria's Permanent Neutrality 131
1. The Concept of Permanent Neutrality 131
a) Permanent Neutrality as a Legal Status 131
b) Permanent Neutrality as a Function of Balance of Power 133
c) A Comprehensive View of Permanent Neutrality 135
2. Permanent Neutrality in the Post-War European System 136
a) Austria's Situation in 1955 136
b) The Neutrals in the European System and the Challenge of European Integration 137
c) A New European System? 140
III. Neutrality and EEC Membership 142
1. Situations Requiring Specific Neutral Action 143
a) A „War“ in Which One or More EEC Members Confront One or More Non-Members 143
aa) Transit 144
bb) Uniform Application of Restrictions or Prohibitions Concerning the Export of War Material 145
b) A „War“ Between Non-Members of the EEC 146
c) A Politically-Motivated Embargo in Peace Time 146
2. The Central Issues 147
a) The EEC Practice of Trade Embargoes 148
b) The Exception of „Arms, Munitions and War Material“: Article 223 EECT 152
c) The Exception of Special Situations: Article 224 EECT 154
aa) The Situations 154
bb) The Measures 156
cc) The Limitations 158
d) Control of the Freedom: Article 225 EECT 159
IV. Neutrality and the Political Evolution of the EC 161
1. Building Political Identity: The EPC 161
2. Moving Towards Union: Are There Limitations for a Permanently Neutral State? 164
Donald M. McRae and L. Rita Theil: The Implications of Europe 1992: A Canadian Perspective 166
I. Introduction 166
II. Canada and World Trade 167
1. Constitutional Framework 167
2. The International Trade Framework 168
a) Canada and the GATT 168
b) Canada-United States Free Trade 169
III. Canada and the European Community 170
IV. The Impact of 1992 on Canada: An Overview 172
V. The Impact of 1992 on Canada: The Telecommunications Industry 173
1. Introduction: The Canadian Telecommunications Industry 173
2. The Telecommunications Industry in the EC: The Imperative to Restructure 174
3. The Impact of Increased Market Size and Competition 176
4. The Impact of the Lowering of Technical Barriers and the Setting of Standards 177
5. The Opening of Public Procurement 180
VI. The Problem of Reciprocity 181
VII. Conclusion 182
Thomas Läufer: Haushalt und Finanzen als Konfliktfeld der EG-Organe und der EG-Mitgliedstaaten 184
I. Einleitung 184
II. Haushaltsstruktur der EG 185
III. Haushaltsverfahren der EG 187
IV. Haushaltskonflikte seit 1975 189
1. Kompetenzabgrenzung durch Ausgabenklassifizierung 189
2. Anwendung des Höchstsatzes 191
3. Mittelbewilligung und Rechtsetzung 194
a) Haushaltsplan als Rechtsgrundlage 194
b) Ausgabenplafondierung durch Ratsbeschluß 196
4. Kapitalhaushalt der EG 197
5. Überblick über die Haushaltskonflikte 197
V. Interinstitutionelle Zusammenarbeit beim Haushalt 198
1. Konzertierung 198
a) Zweck 198
b) Praxis 200
c) Bewertung 202
2. Haushaltstrialog 203
a) Zweck 203
b) Praxis 204
c) Bewertung 205
3. Haushaltsdisziplin 206
a) Zweck 206
aa) Maßnahmen von 1984 206
bb) Beschlüsse von 1988 208
b) Praxis 209
c) Bewertung 210
VI. Reformempfehlungen 210
Summary 212
M. Fitzmaurice: Common Market Participation in the Legal Regime of the Baltic Sea Fisheries 214
I. Introduction 214
II. Accession of EC to the Gdansk Convention 214
1. Effect of Introduction of the EC Common Fisheries Policy 214
2. Summary of the Provision of the EC Fisheries Policy 215
3. Accession of the EC to the Gdansk Convention 218
III. Recommendations of the IBSFC 221
1. The Veto Procedure 221
2. The Opting-Out Procedure 221
IV. Conservation Measures Since Amendment of the Gdansk Convention 222
1. 1984 Fisheries Rules 222
2. The Rôle of the ICES 223
3. The Effectiveness of the IBSFC 224
V. Exclusive Economic Zones 225
1. Introduction of EEZ by USSR 225
2. Legal Rights over Fishing in the EEZ 226
3. Regulations of Fisheries in the EEZ of the USSR 227
VI. Fisheries and Delimitation Agreements between Baltic States 228
1. Introductory 228
2. The New Delimitation Agreements 229
3. Fisheries Agreements with the EC Generally 231
4. Fishing Agreements between Sweden and the EC 233
VII. Conclusions 234
Federico Durân Lopez: The Harmonisation of the Labour Systems of the Member States of the E.E.C. in the Perspective of European Unity 236
I. The Treaty of Rome and Social Objectives 236
II. The Single Act and the Demands, in Social Areas, for European Unity 242
III. The Harmonisation of Labour Regulations in the Internal Market 246
Ruth Nielsen: The Contract of Employment in the Member States of the European Communities and in Community Law 258
I. Introduction 258
II. National Differences, a Comparative Analysis 260
1. The Concept of the Contract of Employment 260
2. Consent, Object, Cause and Consideration in Contract Law 260
3. Defining Elements of the Contract of Employment: Subordination 261
4. Subjective Scope of the Contract of Employment and the Employment Relationship 262
III. Freedom of Contract 262
1. The General Principle 263
2. Atypical Employment Contracts 265
a) Fixed Term Contracts 265
b) Temporary Work Contracts 266
c) Part-Time Employment Contracts 267
3. Form and Proof of the Contract of Employment 269
4. Recruitment Procedures and Worker Participation 269
5. Written form and Language requirements 270
a) Continental European Countries 271
b) Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom 271
IV. Written Particulars 272
V. Community Law 273
1. Stages in the Development of Community Law 273
2. Why is the Law on the Contract of Employment of Interest to the Community? 277
a) Distortion of Competition 277
b) Free Movement 277
c) Improvement of Working Conditions 278
3. Is the Contract of Employment Covered by Existing Community Legislation? 278
4. Current Proposals 281
Erika Szyszczak: L'Espace Sociale Européenne: Reality, Dreams, or Nightmares? 284
I. Introduction 284
II. Legal and Political Problems With the Social Charter 286
III. The Impact of the Equal Treatment Programme 291
1. The Development of the Equal Treatment Programme 291
2. The Impact of the Equal Treatment Programme in the United Kingdom 297
3. Enforcement of Community Rights 299
IV. Direct Effect and Supremacy of Community Law 300
V. Towards a More Effective Enforcement of Community Social Rights? 303
VI. Conclusion 306
Rüdiger Wolfrum: Purposes and Principles of International Environmental Law 308
I. Introduction 308
II. The Elements of International Law Concerning the Protection of the Environment 309
1. Prohibition of Transfrontier Damage to Components of the Environment 309
2. Use and Protection of Commonly Shared Natural Resources 318
3. The Utilization and Protection of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction 321
4. Environmental Problems of Global Relevance 327
Wolfgang Spröte: Negotiations on a United Nations Code of Conduct on Transnational Corporations 331
I. Introduction 331
II. The Background of the Negotiations on the Code of Conduct 332
1. The Developments in the Early Seventies 332
2. Thirteen Years of Negotiations on the Code of Conduct 334
III. The Structure and the Main Provisions of the Latest Draft Code of Conduct 337
IV. Main Outstanding Issues and Chances for Their Resolution 344
Uwe Jenisch: Die Ostsee als Wirtschafts- und Lebensraum Wirtschaft, Umweltschutz, Seerecht 349
I. Geopolitische und wirtschaftliche Fakten 349
II. Auswirkungen des neuen Internationalen Seerechts 356
1. Küstenmeergrenzen 357
2. Meerengen 360
3. Sonder status für die Ostsee? 361
4. Fischereizonen, Festlandsockel- und Wirtschaftszonen 363
5. Seegrenzprobleme 365
a) Dänemark / Schweden 365
b) Gotland-Problem 366
c) Bornholm-Problem 366
d) Oderbucht 367
e) Offene Seegrenzprobleme 370
III. Fischereizusammenarbeit / Danziger Übereinkommen 370
IV. Umweltschutz/Helsinki-Übereinkommen 374
Summary 380
Jagdeep S. Bhandari: International Debt Litigation in United States Courts 383
I. Introduction 383
II. Types of Cases 384
1. Loan Transactions 385
2. Eurodollar Transactions 385
3. Expropriation Cases 386
III. Defenses of Debtors 386
1. Sovereign Immunity 386
a) Who May Plead the Defense 388
b) When the Defense May Be Successfully Asserted 389
aa) The Waiver Exception (28 USC § 1605 (a) (1)) 389
bb) The Expropriation Exception 391
cc) The Commercial Activity Exception 391
2. Comity 394
3. Forum Non Conveniens 396
a) The Nature of the Forum Non Conveniens Doctrine 397
b) Obtaining a Forum Non Conveniens Dismissal 398
4. Sovereign Compulsion 400
5. Article VIII 2(b) 401
6. Act of State 404
a) The Bernstein Exception 406
b) The Hickenlooper Amendment 406
c) Counterclaim Exception 407
d) The Treaty Exception 407
e) The Territorial Exception: Situs Rules 408
f) The Commercial Activity Exception 410
7. Other Defenses: Force Majeure, Supervening Illegality, Legal Impossibility 413
IV. Executive and Judicial Participation 416
V. Conclusion 421
Michael Bothe: International Regulation of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste 422
I. Introduction 422
II. A Brief History of Attempts made to deal with the Problem of Transboundary Movement of Waste 423
III. The Basic Obligations according to the Basel Convention 424
IV. The Scope of Application of the Basel Convention Régime 426
1. Definitions 426
2. Nuclear Waste 427
V. Additional and Collateral Measures 428
1. The Prevention of Illegal Traffic 428
2. Reduction of the Generation of Waste 429
3. Adequate Treatment and Disposal 429
4. The Principle of Subsidiarity 429
5. Transparency 430
VI. The Problem of Responsibility 430
VII. Conclusion 430
César Sepulveda: Methods and Procedures for the Creation of Legal Norms in the International System of States: An Inquiry into the Progressive Development of International Law in the Present Era 432
I. Preliminary Observations 432
II. Characteristics of International Law in Our Time 433
III. „Traditional“ Sources and Modern Processes for the Formation of International Juridical Rules 436
IV. The Relationship Between International Politics and International Law 441
V. Parliamentary Diplomacy in the Formation Process of International Legal Norms 442
VI. The Quasi-Legislative Function of the General Assembly and Other Organs of the United Nations 444
VII. The Resolutions of the Ad-Hoc Conferences as Processes for the Creation of Norms of International Law 448
VIII. The Codifying Function of the United Nations' International Law Commission 451
Carsten Krage: Die Tätigkeit des Nordischen Rates im Jahre 1989 460
I. Die ordentliche Jahrestagung 460
1. Die Generaldebatte 462
2. Die Fachausschüsse 466
a) Der Wirtschaftsausschuß 466
b) Der Sozial- und Umweltausschuß 468
c) Der Kommunikationsausschuß 471
d) Der Rechtsausschuß 472
e) Der Kulturausschuß 474
f) Der Haushalts- und Kontrollausschuß 476
II. Die außerordentliche Sitzung 476
III. Sonstige Ereignisse 480
Summary 483
Book Reviews 486
Books Received 534
List of Contributors 540