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Delbrück, J., Hofmann, R., Zimmermann, A. (Eds.) (1989). German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht. Vol. 31 (1988). Duncker & Humblot.
Delbrück, Jost; Hofmann, Rainer and Zimmermann, Andreas. German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 31 (1988). Duncker & Humblot, 1989. Book.
Delbrück, J, Hofmann, R, Zimmermann, A (eds.) (1989): German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 31 (1988), Duncker & Humblot, [online]


German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 31 (1988)

Editors: Delbrück, Jost | Hofmann, Rainer | Zimmermann, Andreas

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 31


Additional Information

Book Details



The German Yearbook of International Law, founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the Kiel University. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Contents 5
Gennady M. Danilenko: The Theory of International Customary Law 9
I. Custom as a Source of International Law 9
1. The Concept of International Custom 9
2. International Custom as a Law-making Process: The Significance of Agreement (Consensus) 11
3. International Custom as a Law-making Process: The Consciousness of Law-making 14
4. International Custom as a Law-making Process: The Legal Regulation 16
II. Elements of International Custom 19
1. Practice and opinio iuris: The Relationship 19
2. International Practice 20
a) Subjects of Practice 20
b) The Practice of States: The Organs of Practice 21
c) Practice: The Types of Acts 23
d) Resolutions of the UN General Assembly 25
e) International Treaties 26
f) Active and Passive Customary Practice 28
g) Requirements of Practice 29
3. Opinio iuris 31
a) The Concept of opinio iuris 31
b) Opinio iuris: Modes of Manifestation 34
c) UN General Assembly Resolutions and opinio iuris 36
d) Treaty Practice and opinio iuris 38
e) Conditions of Realisation of Individual opinio iuris 39
f) Individual opinio iuris: The Principle of the Persistent Objector 41
g) Opinio iuris: New States 43
h) Opinio iuris: The Change of Customary Law 45
III. Conclusion 46
T. W. Bennett: A Linguistic Perspective of the Definition of Aggression 48
W. Benedek and K. Ginther: Planned-Economy Countries and GATT: Legal Issues of Accession 70
I. Introduction 70
II. Basic Legal Issues of Accession to GATT 71
1. GATT as a Multilateral Treaty with an Open Membership 71
2. Is GATT an International Organization of a Universal Vocation? 74
3. ‛Bona fide‛-negotiations 77
III. The Participation of Planned-Economy Countries in the GATT 79
1. Preliminary Considerations on Terminology 79
2. Reasons for planned-economy countries’ interest in GATT 80
3. Contents and Performance of the Special Protocol Approach 82
a) The Contents of the Special Protocols of Accession 83
aa) The Selective Safeguards Clause 83
bb) Special Consultation Procedure 84
cc) Special Surveillance 85
dd) Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Procedures 85
ee) The Issue of Quantitative Restrictions 85
ff) The Special Relations Among Members of the CMEA 86
b) The Issue of Accompanying Bilateralism 87
c) Conclusions 88
4. Proposals for Improvement of the Accomodation of PECs in the GATT 90
a) Effective Reciprocity 91
b) Improving GATT Rules 91
c) ‘Investment Approach‘ with Strengthened Surveillance 92
5. China, the Soviet Union and Bulgaria as Challenges to the GATT Treatment of Accessio 93
a) China's Application for Resumption of Active Membership 94
b) The New Soviet Interest in GATT 96
c) The Case of the Bulgarian Accession Request 99
aa) The History of Bulgaria’s Request 99
bb) General Economic and Legal Issues Raised with the Bulgarian Request 100
cc) Accession on a Normal Basis? 102
dd) Legal Aspects and Conclusions Regarding the Bulgarian Approach Towards Accession 103
IV. General Conclusion 105
Fernando Zegers Santa Cruz: Deep Sea-bed Mining Beyond National Jurisdiction in the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Description and Prospects 107
I. Introduction 107
II. Deep Sea-bed Beyond National Jurisdiction: ‘Common Heritage of Mankind‘ 107
III. The International Sea-bed Authority: Part XI of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 108
1. Financial Provisions 110
2. Protection of Land-Based Mining 111
3. The International Sea-bed Authority 112
IV. Pioneer Investor Protection 113
V. Actual Situation and Prospects 116
VI. Conclusion 118
Francisco Orrego Vicuña: The Contribution of the Exclusive Economic Zone to the Law of Maritime Delimitation 120
I. Introduction 120
II. Distance ν. Natural Prolongation: The Basis of Entitlement 121
1. Structural Changes in the Conventional Régime 121
2. Changing Trends in Judicial and Other Decisions 122
III. The Trend Toward a Single Maritime Boundary 124
1. Conceptual Approaches 125
2. Influence of the Decisions of Courts and Other Settlements 126
3. The Evolving State Practice 129
IV. The Search for Equitable Principles in the Context of the Exclusive Economic Zone Régime 131
1. The Role of the Courts in the Search for Equity 131
2. Functional Nature of Delimitation Criteria 133
3. Delimitation Agreements in State Practice 135
V. The Emerging Law of Maritime Delimitation: A Conclusion 136
Myron H. Nordquist and Margaret G. Wachenfeld: Legal Aspects of Reflagging Kuwaiti Tankers and Laying of Mines in the Persian Gulf 138
Overview 138
I. The Reflagging 140
1. Introduction 140
2. International Standards for Reflagging 141
a) 1958 Convention on the High Seas 142
b) 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 143
c) 1986 United Nations Conference on Conditions for Registration of Ships 144
3. Domestic Standards for Reflagging 145
4. Application of the Reflagging Standards 146
a) The International Standards 146
b) The Domestic Standards 147
c) Conclusion 151
II. United States Presence in the Persian Gulf 151
1. Introduction 151
2. Freedom of the Seas 153
a) Historical Background 153
b) Freedom of Navigation 154
c) Passage Through Hormuz Strait 155
aa) United States and Iranian Positions 155
bb) State Practice in the Persian Gulf 157
cc) Analysis of the Claims 158
III. The Mining of the Persian Gulf 159
1. International Law on Minin 159
a) 1907 Hague Convention 159
b) The Nicaragua Case 160
2. The Iranian Mine-Laying Incident of 22 September 1987 161
3. Analysis of the Claims 162
IV. Conclusion 164
Dieter Fleck: Rules of Engagement for Maritime Forces and the Limitation of the Use of Force under the UN Charter 165
I. Historical Background 166
II. Legal Principles 174
1. Relevance of the Definition of Aggression? 175
2. Armed Attack 176
3. Isolated Armed Attacks 177
4. Low Intensity Conflicts 178
5. Reprisals 179
6. Use of Force which is Not Prohibited 179
7. Conclusion 180
III. Present Issues 181
1. Hostile Act and Hostile Intent 181
2. Maritime Exclusion Zones 182
3. General and Specific Content 184
4. Deterrence and Confidence-Building 184
5. Conclusion 185
Gerhard Hafner: Bemerkungen zur Funktion und Bestimmung der Betroffenheit im Völkerrecht anhand des Binnenstaates 187
I. Einleitung 187
II. Funktion des Begriffes der Betroffenheit 187
1. Die Betroffenheit im völkerrechtlichen Vertragsrecht 189
a) Artikel 41 para. 1 lit. b (i) und Artikel 58 para. 1 lit. b (i) WVK 189
b) Artikel 60 para. 2 lit. b WVK 190
2. Der verletzte Staat 192
3. Der im justiziablen Streitfall befindliche Staat 193
4. Der zur Verfahrensintervention berechtigte Staat 194
5. Der betroffene Staat als Adressat des Völkergewohnheitsrechts 195
a) Bildung des Völkergewohnheitsrechts 195
b) Bindung an Völkergewohnheitsrecht 196
aa) Folgen der mangelnden Beteiligung an der Bildung von Völkergewohnheitsrecht 197
bb) Folgen des Unterlassens eines Protestes 198
6. Gemeinsame Strukturen dieser Funktionen 201
III. Die inhaltliche Bestimmung der „Betroffenheit“ 202
1. Die verschiedenen Bezeichnungen 202
a) Artikel 41 para. 1 lit. b (i) und Artikel 58 para. 1 lit. b (i) WVK 202
b) Artikel 60 WVK 203
c) Im Rahmen der Staatenverantwortlichkeit 205
d) Klagelegitimation 206
e) Das Interventionsrecht in Streitverfahren 208
f) Bildung von und Bindung an Völkergewohnheitsrecht 210
2. Die gemeinsame Bestimmung der Betroffenheit 212
a) Die Rahmenbedingungen der Betroffenheit 212
aa) Völkerrechtskonformität 212
bb) Die Individualisierbarkeit der Betroffenheit 213
b) Kriterien und Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Betroffenheit 213
aa) Umweltfaktoren 213
bb) Verhalten 215
cc) Motivation 215
dd) Ziele staatlichen Verhaltens 220
ee) Nachahmung 221
ff) Falsifizierbarkeit 221
3. Die normative Legitimierung zur Rechtsverfolgung 222
IV. Schlußfolgerungen 227
Summary 227
Christopher C. Joyner: The 1988 IMO Convention on the Safety of Maritime Navigation: Towards a Legal Remedy for Terrorism at Sea 230
I. Introduction 230
II. Defining the Offence: Scope and Effect 231
1. Ambiguities of Terrorism as an International Crime 231
2. Offences under the IMO Convention 237
3. Piracy and Maritime Terrorism 239
4. Insurgency and Maritime Terrorism 243
5. Concluding Observations on the Offence 246
III. Jurisdictional Reach of the IMO Convention 247
1. Jurisdictional Scope of the Convention 247
2. Extradition and Prosecution under the Convention 252
3. Ancillary Provisions of the Convention 255
IV. Appraisal of the Convention 256
V. Conclusion 261
Francesco Francioni: Maritime Terrorism and International Law: The Rome Convention of 1988 263
I. Background 263
II. Scope and Substance of the Convention 269
1. Definition of the Offence 269
2. Official Terrorism 272
3. The Geographic Scope 273
4. Straits 274
5. Types of Vessels 275
6. Jurisdiction 276
7. The Duty to Prosecute or Extradite 279
8. Mutual Assistance and Co-operation 281
9. Dispute Settlement 282
III. Main Deficiencies 282
IV. Neglected Issues 285
V. Conclusion 287
Emil Konstantinov: International Terrorism and International Law 289
I. Introduction 289
II. The Concept of „International Terrorism“ 290
III. Individual „International Terrorism“ 295
IV. State Terrorism 299
V. National Liberation Movements and International Terrorism 302
VI. Conclusion 306
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im: Islamic Ambivalence to Political Violence: Islamic Law and International Terrorism 307
I. Political Violence and International Terrorism 309
1. Terrorism in Historical and Comparative Perspectives 310
2. Defining Terrorism in the Modern Context 310
3. The Moral Dimension 312
4. A Legal Definition of Terrorism 312
II. Nature and Sources of Islamic Law 314
1. The Sources and Development of Shari’a 315
2. The Shi’a Perspective(s) 317
3. The Nature and Modern Application of Shari’a 319
a) The Nature of Shari’a 319
b) Historical Application of Shari’a 320
c) Contemporary Application of Shari’a 321
III. Islamic International Law in Historical Context 322
1. Impact of the Historical Context on the Principles of Shari’a 322
2. Islamic International Law in the Present Context 323
IV. Shari’a and Political Violence 324
1. Antagonism and Use of Force Against Non-Muslims 324
2. Regulation of Use of Force and Peace Treaties 329
3. Implications for Conduct of Individual Persons and Groups 331
V. Towards an Islamic Contribution to the Rule of Law in International Relations 333
L. C. Green: Terrorism, the Extradition of Terrorists and the ‘Political Offence‘ Defence 337
Werner Ader: International Law and the Discretion of the State to Handle Hostage Incidents – cui bono? 372
I. 373
II. 392
III. 413
Robert A. Friedlander: So Proudly They Failed: The Reagan Administration and the Gradual Disintegration of U.S. Counter-Terror Policy 415
I. Preview: Jimmy Carter and the Iranian Hostage Crisis 415
II. Reagan’s First Term – Rhetoric versus Reality 421
III. Reagan’s Second Term, Part I – TWA 847, Achille Lauro, and the Libyan Raid 429
IV. Reagan’s Second Term, Part II – Iran-Contra: Why Did It Happen and What Does It Mean? 438
V. Postscript: U.S. Counter-Terrorism and the Reagan Era in Perspective 444
Wilhelm Wengler: Völkerrechtliche Schranken der Beeinflussung auslandsverknüpften Verhaltens durch Maßnahmen des staatlichen Rechts 448
Summary 477
Leo J. Raskind: The Continuing Process of Refining and Adapting Copyright Principles 478
I. Introduction 478
II. The Historical Perspective 481
III. The Shifting Basis of Map Protection 484
IV. Suggested Alternative 499
V. Conclusion 508
Klaus-Jürgen Kuss: Judicial Review of Administrative Decisions in the Soviet Union and other East European Countries 510
I. Introduction: Historical Background 510
II. Post-Revolutionary Development of Judicial Review of Administrative Decisions in Russia/the Soviet Union 515
III. The Statute of 30 June 1987 518
1. Theoretical Bases 518
2. Object of Review: Actions of Officials 518
3. Right of Complaint 522
4. Organization of Procedure 523
5. Powers of Court 525
6. Judicial Review of Administration and Reform of Justice 526
IV. Post-War Development of Judicial Review of Administrative Decisions in other East European Countries 527
1. Poland 528
2. Czechoslovakia 533
3. Hungary 537
4. Yugoslavia 541
5. Romania 544
6. Bulgaria 547
7. German Democratic Republic 550
V. Summary: Comparative Analysis 551
Reinhard Müller and Mario Müller: Co-operation as a Basic Principle of Legal Régimes for Areas Beyond National Sovereignty – with Special Regard to Outer Space Law 553
I. The Obligation to Co-operate in General International Law 553
II. Characteristic Elements of the Legal Régimes for Areas Beyond National Sovereignty 555
III. Substantiating the Peaceful Use and Legal Issues of Co-operation 558
1. The High Seas 558
2. Antarctica 559
3. Outer Space and Celestial Bodies 560
a) Present International Law and the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space 560
b) International Co-operation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes 562
c) Co-operation and Prohibition of Appropriation 568
IV. Result 571
V. Conclusion 572
Thomas Roeser: The Arms Embargo of the UN Security Council against South Africa: Legal and Practical Aspects 574
I. Introduction 574
II. Arms Supplies as a Topic of the SC 575
1. The Hitherto Existing Embargo Resolutions with the Exception of South Africa 576
2. The Steps of the SC against South Africa 577
III. The Legal Effects of S/Res. 418 (1977) 580
1. Legal Nature of the Arms Embargo 580
a) Article 41 of the UN Charter as a Legal Basis for a Mandatory Arms Embargo of the SC 580
b) The Conflict in the Southern Africa as a „Threat to the Peace“ 581
2. Legal Obligations of the States Resulting from the Arms Embargo of the SC 585
3. Arms Supplies to the South African Liberation Movements 588
IV. Practical Problems in the Implementation of S/Res. 418 (1977): The Determination of the Embargo Object 589
I. The Term of Arms in the Work of the United Nations: The List of the „Collective Measures Committee“ 590
2. The Definition of „Arms and Related Matériel“ in the SC Resolutions Against South Africa 591
Thomas Fitschen: Closing the PLO Observer Mission to the United Nations in New York: The Decisions of the International Court of Justice and the U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York 595
I. Introduction 595
II. Background of the Dispute 596
III. Applicability of the Obligation to Arbitrate under Section 21 of the United Nations Headquarters Agreement of 20 June 1947 – The Advisory Opinion of 26 April 1988 604
1. The Proceeding of the Court 604
2. Reasoning of the Advisory Opinion 605
a) Existence of a „Dispute“ in the Sense of Section 21 608
b) Qualification of the Dispute 610
c) Dispute not Being Settled by Negotiation or other Agreed Mode of Settlement 611
IV. ‘United States v. The Palestine Liberation Organization et al.‘: The Decision of the United States District Court, Southern District of New York 612
1. The Position of the Plaintiff 612
2. The United Nations as amicus curiae 613
3. The Position of the Defendants 614
4. The Decision of the District Court 614
a) Jurisdiction of the Court 615
b) Scope and Content of the Headquarters Agreement 616
c) Conflict Between the ATA and the Headquarters Agreement 618
d) Conclusion 619
Volker Röben: A Report on Effective Protection of Minorities 621
I. Introduction 621
II. Protection of Minorities under the League of Nations 625
III. The Protection of Minorities under the UN 628
IV. Formal and Material Possibilities of the Protection of Minorities under Modern International Law 632
V. Concluding Remarks 638
Dørte Pardo López: Die Tätigkeit des Europarates im Jahre 1987 639
I. Organisatorische Fragen; Allgemeines 639
II. Behandlung allgemeinpolitischer Themen im Europarat 640
III. Rechtsvereinheitlichung und rechtliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten, Verträge und Empfehlungen 645
IV. Schutz der Menschenrechte 649
Declaration of Independence of the Palestinian State 680
In the Name of God, The Compassionate, The Merciful DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 680
Book Reviews 684
Books Received 729
List of Contributors 739