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Odendahl, K.Matz-Lück, N. (Eds.) (2013). German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht. Vol. 55 (2012). Duncker & Humblot. https://doi.org/10.3790/978-3-428-54159-1
; Odendahl, Kerstin and Matz-Lück, Nele. German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 55 (2012). Duncker & Humblot, 2013. Book. https://doi.org/10.3790/978-3-428-54159-1
Odendahl, K Matz-Lück, N (eds.) (2013): German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 55 (2012), Duncker & Humblot, [online] https://doi.org/10.3790/978-3-428-54159-1

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German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 55 (2012)

Editors: Odendahl, Kerstin | Matz-Lück, Nele

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 55

(2013)

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About The Author

Prof. Dr. Kerstin von der Decken (geb. Odendahl) ist Inhaberin des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völkerrecht, Europarecht und Allgemeine Staatslehre an der Universität Kiel sowie Geschäftsführende Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Davor war sie von 2004 bis 2011 Professorin für Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität St. Gallen, Schweiz. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen bei den Grundlagen des Völker- und Europarechts sowie dem internationalen Umwelt,- Kultur- und Sicherheitsrecht.

Prof. Dr. Nele Matz-Lück, LL.M., ist seit 2011 Professorin für Seerecht an der Universität Kiel und Ko-Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Seit 2004 war sie als Referentin am Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht in Heidelberg beschäftigt. Für die Dauer von zwei Jahren war sie als wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an das Bundesverfassungsgericht abgeordnet. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen im Seerecht, Umweltvölkerrecht und in grundlegenden Fragen des Völkerrechts.

Abstract

The $aGerman Yearbook of International Law,$z founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the University of Kiel. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
TABLE OF CONTENTS 5
FORUM: THE ARAB SPRING AND INTERNATIONAL LAW 9
JEAN-YVES DE CARA: The Arab Uprisings Under the Light of Intervention 11
I. Introduction 11
II. A Requested Intervention 15
A. The Political Context of the Intervention 15
B. The Legal Basis for the Intervention 17
1. The Consent 18
2. The Requesting Authority 20
3. The Purpose of the Intervention 23
III. A Forcible Intervention 28
A. The Political Context 29
B. The NATO Intervention 31
1. Security Council Resolution 1970 of 26 February 2011 31
2. Security Council Resolution 1973 of 17 March 2011 33
C. The Basis of the Intervention 37
1. A New Doctrine 37
2. Concealing an Old Practice 41
3. An Expedient Excuse 46
IV. Denied Intervention 47
JAVAID REHMAN AND ELENI POLYMENOPOULOU: Justice After Democracy in the Arab World: Islamic Law Perspectives on Accountability 53
I. Introduction 54
II. The Involvement of International Actors in the Arab World 57
A. A Culture of Impunity Nourished by Western Interests 57
B. Absence of Effective Accountability Mechanisms After the Arab Uprising 61
III. Building a Culture of Accountability in the Arab World 65
A. The Sharia Approaches Towards Governance 65
B. Removing Immunities in the Case of Human Rights Violations 69
C. Strengthening the Idea of Universal Jurisdiction 73
IV. Consolidating the Right to Resist Oppression Conducted by Muslim Heads of State 75
A. A Controversial ‘Right to Resist Oppression’ under International Law 75
B. Establishing the Right to Resist Within International Law Through Invoking the Sharia Principles 78
V. Conclusions 83
FOCUS: DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE 85
DAVID FISHER: The Future of International Disaster Response Law 87
I. Introduction 87
II. Is There Already Such a Thing as IDRL? 89
III. Do We Need More IDRL? 92
A. Common Regulatory Problems 93
B. Fear of the ‘Tsunami Effect’ and its Impact on International Cooperation 96
C. Access Denial at the Extreme 98
D. Principles and Quality 100
IV. The Future of IDRL at the Domestic Level 103
V. The Future of IDRL at the Bilateral and Regional Levels 107
VI. The Future of IDRL at the Global Level 111
A. Developments with Existing Instruments 111
B. A Flagship Treaty? 114
VII. Conclusion 117
WALTER KÄLIN: The Human Rights Dimension of Natural or Human-Made Disasters 119
I. Introduction 119
II. Putting Disasters on the International Human Rights Agenda 121
III. Human Rights and Disasters: A Three-Dimensional Relationship 124
A. Human Rights Problems in Times of Disaster: The Factual Dimension 124
B. The Applicability of Human Rights in the Context of Disasters: The Legal Dimension 125
1. Explicit References 125
2. General Human Rights Guarantees 126
3. Derogations 128
C. The Operational Dimension 132
1. Towards a Human Rights Based Approach to Disaster Relief 132
2. Human Rights and Humanitarian Protection 134
IV. Human Rights in Situations of Disasters: Selected Issues 135
A. The Duty to Prevent Disasters 135
B. The Duty to Protect Life During Disasters 137
C. The Duty to Provide Humanitarian Assistance to those in Need 140
D. The Duty to Authorise Foreign Humanitarian Assistance 143
V. Conclusion 147
SARA E. DAVIES: Natural Disasters and the Responsibility to Protect 149
I. Introduction 149
II. Political Efforts: Why the Responsibility to Protect Persons from Natural Disasters? 152
A. Introducing the Topic at the UN 152
B. The Work of the ILC on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters 154
C. Opposition to Aligning R2P with Natural Disaster Relief 157
III. Aligning R2P with Natural Disasters: Why Does the Debate Continue? 158
A. The Current Status and Content of the Draft Articles 158
B. Reactions on the Political Level 160
C. The Legal Debate 161
D. The Humanitarian Debate 165
IV. If not R2P, What Will Secure Protection of Persons? 168
V. Gender-Exploitation and Failure to Assist in Natural Disasters 171
VI. Conclusion 173
REBECCA M. BRATSPIES: State Responsibility for Human-Induced Environmental Disasters 175
I. Introduction 175
II. Defining Human-Created International Environmental Disasters 177
III. State Responsibility for Transboundary Harm is Inherent in the Architecture of International Law 183
IV. (Post-)Modern Developments in State Responsibility 186
A. Internal State Responsibility: The Responsibility to Protect 187
B. External Responsibility: The ILC Draft Articles on State Responsibility 192
V. Which International Environmental Obligations Might be Candidates for State Responsibility? 194
A. The Rise of Environmental Erga Omnes Obligations 197
VI. Problems and Challenges to Using State Responsibility to Remedy Environmental Harms 201
A. Limits to Using Environmental Treaties to Define State Responsibility 201
B. Problems Inherent in the Concept of State Responsibility 204
1. Solving the ‘State Actor’ Problem 204
2. Solving the ‘Reluctance to Use’ Problem 208
VII. Conclusion: Is There Still a Role for State Responsibility? 212
DIRK HANSCHEL: Prevention, Preparedness and Assistance Concerning Nuclear Accidents – Effective International Legal Framework or Patchwork? 217
I. Introduction 217
II. Analysis of the International Law in the Field 219
A. Prevention 220
1. The 1994 IAEA Convention on Nuclear Safety 220
2. Soft Law 223
3. Assessment 224
B. Preparedness 224
1. Notification 225
a) The 1986 Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident 225
b) The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) 227
c) Soft Law 228
2. Liability 229
a) The 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage 229
b) The 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention 230
c) The 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention 231
d) The 1997 Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) 232
e) The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 234
f) Customary International Law 235
3. Assessment 236
C. Assistance 238
1. The Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents 238
2. The 1986 Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency 239
3. The Early Notification Convention 241
4. Institutional Arrangements 241
5. Soft Law 242
6. Assessment 243
III. National Law in Comparative Perspective 243
A. Germany 244
B. United States 245
C. Japan 245
D. Assessment 248
IV. The Road Ahead 250
MARKUS KOTZUR: European Union Law on Disaster Preparedness and Response 253
I. Introduction: Towards a Stronger European Disaster Response 253
II. Disaster Prevention within the European Communities and the European Union – a Short History 256
III. Disaster Preparedness and Response in Context: The Principle of Solidarity 261
IV. Disaster Preparedness and Response in Detail: The Substance of Articles 196 and 222 of the TFEU 265
A. An Integrated European Disaster Response – The Theoretical Framework 265
B. Placing Articles 196 and 222 of the TFEU within the Treaty’s Structure and System 268
1. Competing Competencies 268
2. Decisive Contexts 269
3. An Overall Definition of the Term ‘Disaster’ 271
C. Obligations of the EU and Member States 272
1. EU Obligations 272
2. Civil Protection Measures 272
3. EU Action 273
V. Disaster Preparedness and Response in the Future: Short-Term and Long-Term Perspectives 275
A. Prospects and Limits of EU-Managed Disaster Prevention 275
B. Non EU-Members Participating in MIC 276
VI. Conclusion 277
GENERAL ARTICLES 279
ROSANNE VAN ALEBEEK: Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy): On Right Outcomes and Wrong Terms 281
I. Introduction 281
II. The Judgment from a Bird’s Eye View 283
A. Background to the Case 283
B. Immunity from Adjudicative Jurisdiction 286
III. The Epistemology of International Law 291
A. Introduction 291
B. Limited Legal Consequences of Jus Cogens Violations 292
C. The Territorial Tort and Human Rights Exceptions: A Dispute over the Scope of Primary Norms 294
D. The Role of the Judiciary in Resolving Conflicts Between (Allegedly) Competing Norms 300
1. Systemic Integration 300
2. Parameters of the Systemic Integration Argument 303
a) Which International Law Rules Are to Be Taken into Account? 304
b) Is there a Right of Access to Court? 307
c) Is there a Right to a Remedy? 308
d) What is the Proper Relationship Between these (Possibly) Conflicting Norms? 310
3. Right Outcome – Wrong Terms 313
IV. Germany v. Italy: The Aftermath 313
MARCO CALISTO: Jurisdictional Immunities of the State: Germany v. Italy before the ICJ from an Italian Perspective 319
I. Introduction 319
II. Analysis of the Italian Case Law on State Immunity 322
A. Al-Adsani v. United Kingdom before the European Court of Human Rights 323
B. The Most Relevant Decisions in the Italian Case Law: The Ferrini Case 324
C. The 2008 Thirteen Orders 326
D. The Milde Case 328
III. The ICJ’s Conservative Approach to State Jurisdictional Immunity in Light of the Recent Decision in Germany v. Italy 330
IV. ICJ’s Approach to the Italian Point of View on Jurisdictional Immunity, and its Refusal of the Italian ‘Last Resort’ Argument 335
V. The Effects of the ICJ’s Judgment on the Implementation of the Rule on State Immunity before the Italian Courts, and the Problems Deriving from the Enforcement of the Judgment in the Italian Legal Order 337
VI. Conclusions 342
ATHANASIOS YUPSANIS: The Meaning of ‘Culture’ in Article 15 (1)(a) of the ICESCR – Positive Aspects of CESCR’s General Comment No. 21 for the Safeguarding of Minority Cultures 345
I. Introduction 346
II. Defining ‘Cultural Life’: From ‘High Art’ to a ‘Way of Life’ 348
A. The Problem of the Definition of Culture 348
B. The ‘Traditional’31 Perception: Culture as ‘High Art’ 350
C. UNESCO’s Approach: The Anthropological Definition of Culture as a ‘Way of Life’ 351
D. The Adoption of UNESCO’s Anthropological Approach by the CESCR 353
E. Concluding Remarks: The Evolution of the Perception(s) of ‘Culture’ 355
III. The Beneficiaries and the Nature of the Rights in Question – The Collective Right of Minorities to Their Own Cultural Life 357
A. The First Phase: Ignoring Minority Cultures 357
B. The Second Phase: Adopting a New Multiculturalist Perception in the Revised Guidelines for Reports by States Parties 358
C. Cultural Rights Viewed by the CESCR as Collective Rights too 360
D. Concluding Observations on Collective Minority Cultural Rights 365
IV. Other Explicit References to Minority Cultural Rights in General Comment No. 21 366
A. Policies and Measures Promoting and Protecting Minority Languages 367
B. Freedom of Association for Cultural and Linguistic Minorities 368
C. Measures Encouraging Culturally Appropriate Education 369
D. Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC) and Minorities 370
1. ‘Minorities’ and ‘Indigenous Peoples’ 372
2. Concluding Thoughts on the Issue of the FPIC 374
V. General Statements of Particular Importance to Minority Cultural Identities in General Comment No. 21 375
A. The Right to Self-Identification 375
B. Recognition of Diverse Cultural Identities 376
VI. Locating the General Comment(s) in the Over-all Scheme of International Normativity 379
VII. General Conclusions 381
MART SUSI: The Definition of a ‘Structural Problem’ in the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights Since 2010 385
I. Introduction 385
II. The Evolution 387
A. The Initial Approach 387
B. The Impact of Pilot-Judgments 388
C. Search for Reasons for the Approach to Identify a Structural Problem 390
III. The Definition of a Structural Problem in ECtHR Jurisprudence 394
A. Earlier ECtHR Judgments Before 2010 394
B. The Determination of a Structural Problem in ECHR Judgments 2010–2011 397
1. The Maximal Usage of the ECtHR Arsenal – Rumpf v. Germany 397
2. Referral to General Domestic Measures without First Establishing a Structural Problem 399
3. Setting a Deadline for the Measures – Kharchenko v. Ukraine 401
4. Structural Problem in Poland – Requesting General Measures 402
5. The Detailed Request of General Measures without Establishing a Structural Problem 404
6. Conclusion 407
C. Defining the Limits of the ECtHR’s Authority 408
D. Recent Instruments that may Influence ECtHR Judgments 408
E. Conclusion 409
IV. Developments in 2012 410
V. Conclusion 413
MALGOSIA FITZMAURICE: Indigenous Whaling and Environmental Protection 419
I. Introduction 419
II. Historical Background of the Regulation of Whaling and Aboriginal Whaling 421
A. The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling 422
B. The International Whaling Commission 423
III. Aboriginal Whaling within the Jurisdiction of the IWC 427
A. Defining Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling 428
B. The Difference Between Commercial and Non-Commercial Whaling 430
C. Defining Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling under the IWC 431
IV. Aboriginal Whaling Outside the IWC 434
A. Equatorial Guinea 435
B. Indonesia 435
C. The Philippines 435
D. Canada 436
E. Conclusion 437
V. Contentious Cases Illustrating How Aboriginal Whaling Affects the Environment 438
A. The USA: Case Study of the Makah Indians (State of Washington) 438
B. The Case of Greenland 443
VI. Human Rights Issues: The Cultural Element in Aboriginal Whaling 445
A. Article 27 of the ICCPR 445
B. Other International Instruments 448
1. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 2007 448
2. The 1989 169 ILO Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries 449
3. Instruments Adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 449
a) The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 2001 450
b) The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005 450
C. Conclusion 451
VII. Aboriginal Whaling and Possible Conflict with other Fields of International Instruments 452
A. International Environmental Law and Protection and State Obligations 453
B. Conflicts Between International Instruments and Agreements 454
C. Instruments Regulating the Conflict Situations in Relation to the ICRW 455
1. The Convention on the Protection of Biodiversity and the Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty 456
2. Conflicts in Environmental Treaties and the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 458
3. UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 459
D. Conclusion 460
VIII. General Conclusion 462
PRABHAKAR SINGH: Mercantile Metaconstitutionalism: Interpretation of the WTO Treaty and the Developing Countries 465
I. Introduction 465
A. WTO Constitutionalism: Learning from Domestic Courts 470
B. Rise of the Appellate Body 472
II. The United Nations and GATT 1947: The Nature of Internationalism and the Gradual Rise of Constitutionalism 473
A. The Dispute Settlement Understanding and the New Constitutional Turn 475
B. When the Appellate Body Began to Borrow Domestic Techniques 476
III. The Negotiated Bargains and Concessions for Developing and Least Developed Countries under the GATT/WTO System 477
A. When the WTO Judiciary Alters the Meaning of Provisions to Nullify Benefits to Developing Countries 478
B. Is Importing a New Method of Treaty Interpretation a Breach of Treaty Obligations? 480
IV. The Rise of Constitutional Hermeneutics within WTO Legal System 482
A. Scholarly Writings and the WTO as a Trade Plus Court 482
B. The WTO’s Non-Trade Concerns 485
C. The Appellate Body’s Constitutionalisation of the WTO Law in Anti-Dumping Cases 485
V. International Trade from Contract to a Multilateral Treaty 489
A. Trade Law v. Domestic Law 492
B. The WTO’s Proper Mission 493
VI. The WTO’s Constitutionalism by Developing Countries 494
A. Separation of Powers as Constitutionalism 495
B. Migration of Constitutionalism to the Courts of Developing States 496
VII. The Appellate Body’s Activism, Developing Countries and Least Developed Countries 497
VIII. Case-Law Evidence of the Constitutional Argument by Developing States, the Appellate Body and Panels 500
A. The India – QRs Case: WTO’s Separation of Powers Argument Rejected 500
B. Brazil – Export Financing Programme for Aircraft: Appellate Body Makes a Separation of Powers Argument 502
C. Mexico – Measures Affecting Telecommunications Services: The Panel’s Constitutional Interpretation 503
IX. Conclusion 504
NICHOLAS TSAGOURIAS: Scotland: Independence and Membership of the UN and the EU 509
I. Introduction 509
II. Scottish Independence: A Case of Secession 511
III. Membership of the United Nations 515
IV. Membership of the EU 523
V. Concluding Observations 533
GERMAN PRACTICE 535
CHRISTOPHE EICK: The UN Security Council and International Law in 2012 537
I. Introduction 537
II. Cooperation with the League of Arab States 539
III. The Security Council and the International Criminal Court (ICC) 545
IV. Security Council Procedure and Working Methods 550
V. Concluding Observations 559
PETER WITTIG: Making UN Sanctions Work: Germany’s Chairmanship of the Al-Qaida/Taliban Sanctions Committee of the UN Security Council 561
ANTJE SIERING: Germany’s Contribution to the Protection of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Hosting the IPBES Secretariat in the UN City of Bonn 573
I. Introduction 573
II. History of the IPBES 574
III. Link to the United Nations System, Mandate, Structure and Financing of the IPBES 578
A. IPBES in the United Nations System 578
B. Mandate 578
C. Institutional Arrangements 579
D. Financing 580
IV. Hosting the IPBES Secretariat in Bonn 581
V. Conclusion 584
NICHOLAS ENGLISH AND FELIX BIEKER: Upholding Data Protection Law Against Multinational Corporations: German Administrative Measures Relating to Facebook 587
CHRISTOPH SEIDLER: European Commission v. Germany: The Data Retention Directive – Legal or Political Issue? 601
PATRICK BRAASCH: Margin of Appreciation or a Victimless Crime? The European Court of Human Rights on Consensual Incest of Adult Siblings 613
JULIA GEBHARD AND JOHANNES FUCHS: Equal (Enough), at Last? Latest ECtHR Jurisprudence in Ahrens v. Germany and Kautzor v. Germany on the Rights of Biological Fathers 625
RAINER GROTE: The ECHR’s Rulings in von Hannover v. Germany (No. 2) and Axel Springer AG v. Germany: Rebalancing Freedom of the Press with the Respect for Privacy 639
JULIA MÜLLER: The Arrest of G8 Protestors: The Contested Legitimacy of Preventive Detention 649
STEPHANIE SCHLICKEWEI: Preventive Detention Revisited Before the ECtHR: O.H. v. Germany 659
JULIA GLOCKE: German Measures Against Islamic Extremist Organisation Upheld in Strasbourg: Hizb Ut-Tahrir and Others v. Germany 671
TOBIAS THIENEL: The Appointment of Public Officials, Interim Measures and Article 6 of the ECHR 679
HANS MICHAEL HEINIG AND STEFAN KIRCHNER: Private Prayer in Public Schools: The Judgment of the German Federal Administrative Court of 30 November 2011 689
ANDREA MEYER: Handling of Somali Pirates from Capture until Transfer to Kenyan Authorities in Accordance with International Law? 699
BOOK REVIEWS 711
Louise Doswald-Beck: Human Rights in Times of Conflict and Terrorism (CHRISTIAN JOHANN) 713
Saelo Gumedze: The Peace and Security Council of the African Union – Its Relationship with the United Nations, the African Union and Sub-Regional Mechanisms (ANDREAS ZIMMERMANN) 715
Andrew Lang: World Trade Law after Neoliberalism – Re-imagining the Global Economic Order (AMBER ROSE MAGGIO) 716
Sir Hersch Lauterpacht: The Function of Law in the International Community (BING BING JIA) 718
Marko Milanovic: Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Treaties (TOBIAS HOFMANN) 721
William Schabas: Unimaginable Atrocities – Justice, Politics, and Rights at the War Crimes Tribunals (JOHANNES FUCHS) 724
Bert Swart/Alexander Zahar/Göran Sluiter (eds.): The Legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (TIMOTHY WILLIAM WATERS) 727
Antonios Tzanakopoulos: Disobeying the Security Council (ACHILLES SKORDAS) 731
Helmut Volger/Norman Weiß (eds.): Die Vereinten Nationen vor globalen Herausforderungen – Referate der Potsdamer UNO-Konferenzen 2000–2008 (KATRIN KOHOUTEK) 735
BOOKS RECEIVED 741