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Odendahl, K., Matz-Lück, N., Arnauld, A. (Eds.) (2014). German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht. Vol. 56 (2013). Duncker & Humblot.
Odendahl, Kerstin; Matz-Lück, Nele and Arnauld, Andreas von. German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 56 (2013). Duncker & Humblot, 2014. Book.
Odendahl, K, Matz-Lück, N, Arnauld, A (eds.) (2014): German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht: Vol. 56 (2013), Duncker & Humblot, [online]


German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 56 (2013)

Editors: Odendahl, Kerstin | Matz-Lück, Nele | Arnauld, Andreas von

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 56


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About The Author

Prof. Dr. Andreas von Arnauld ist Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität Kiel und Direktor des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Zuvor lehrte er als Professor für Öffentliches Recht, insbesondere Völker- und Europarecht an der Helmut-Schmidt-Universität der Bundeswehr in Hamburg (2007–2012) sowie an der Universität Münster (2012–2013). Seine Forschungsschwerpunkte umfassen das internationale Friedenssicherungsrecht, den Grund- und Menschenrechtsschutz, Rechtsstaatlichkeit (rule of law), rechtswissenschaftliche Grundlagenforschung sowie Recht und Literatur.

Prof. Dr. Kerstin von der Decken (geb. Odendahl) ist Inhaberin des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völkerrecht, Europarecht und Allgemeine Staatslehre an der Universität Kiel sowie Geschäftsführende Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Davor war sie von 2004 bis 2011 Professorin für Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität St. Gallen, Schweiz. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen bei den Grundlagen des Völker- und Europarechts sowie dem internationalen Umwelt,- Kultur- und Sicherheitsrecht.

Prof. Dr. Nele Matz-Lück, LL.M., ist seit 2011 Professorin für Seerecht an der Universität Kiel und Ko-Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Seit 2004 war sie als Referentin am Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht in Heidelberg beschäftigt. Für die Dauer von zwei Jahren war sie als wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an das Bundesverfassungsgericht abgeordnet. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen im Seerecht, Umweltvölkerrecht und in grundlegenden Fragen des Völkerrechts.


$aThe German Yearbook of International Law,$z founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the University of Kiel. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
ZOU KEYUAN: China and the South China Sea Conundrum: Any Prospective Solution in Future? 11
I. Introduction 11
II. China’s U-shaped Line and Historic Rights 15
III. Islands and Reefs in the South China Sea 17
IV. Straight Baselines in the South China Sea 20
V. Foreign Military Activities in the EEZ 22
VI. From DOC to COC 28
VII. Final Remarks 30
TED L. MCDORMAN: The South China Sea: The U-Shaped Line, Islands and the Philippine-China Arbitration 33
I. Introduction 33
A. The 2002 Declaration: Subsequent Developments 35
B. Legal Questions 37
II. The U-shaped Line 38
III. Islands, Rocks and Low-tide Elevations 43
IV. Dispute Settlement under UNCLOS 46
A. The China/Philippines Arbitration: Establishing the Tribunal 47
B. The China/Philippines Arbitration: Non-Appearance 49
C. The Philippine Claim 51
D. Jurisdiction 53
1. Exhaustion of Negotiations 53
2. Prior Agreed Dispute Settlement Process 54
3. Land Sovereignty 56
4. China’s Article 298 UNCLOS Declaration 57
5. The U-Shaped Line and UNCLOS 60
V. Conclusion 61
SERGEI VINOGRADOV AND GOKCE METE: Cross-Border Oil and Gas Pipelines in International Law 65
I. Introduction 65
II. International Legal Frameworks for Cross-Border Pipelines: An Overview 66
A. Special International Agreements on Pipelines 66
B. Regional Framework Arrangements 68
C. Multilateral Agreements 69
III. General Legal Principles Applicable to Cross-Border Pipelines 70
A. The Freedom to Lay Submarine Pipelines 70
1. The Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea 71
2. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 71
B. The Freedom of Transit 74
1. Emergence of the Concept 74
2. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 75
3. The Convention on Transit Trade of Land-Locked States 77
4. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 78
IV. The Energy Charter Treaty and the Draft Transit Protocol 78
V. Applicable EU Law 86
A. The Third Energy Package 86
B. The Treaty Establishing the Energy Community 88
VI. Environmental Aspects of Cross-Border Pipelines 88
VII. Issues of Human Rights 92
VIII. Models of Cross-Border Pipeline Regimes 94
A. Connected National Pipelines Model 94
B. Integrated Pipelines Model 95
C. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline 96
D. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium 98
E. The Chad-Cameroon Pipeline 100
F. The South Stream Pipeline 101
G. The Nord Stream Pipeline 103
IX. Conclusion 103
TARA DAVENPORT: The Installation of Submarine Power Cables under UNCLOS: Legal and Policy Issues 107
I. Introduction 107
II. An Overview of Submarine Power Cables 110
A. Development and Uses of Submarine Power Cables 110
1. Early Uses: Short-Haul Crossings 110
2. 1950s: Supply to Offshore Islands 111
3. 1960s Onwards: Connection of Autonomous Grids 111
4. 1990s Onwards: Offshore Energy 112
B. Types and Design of Submarine Power Cables 112
1. Types of Submarine Power Cables 112
2. Design 113
C. Installation of Submarine Power Cables 114
III. An Overview of the Legal Regime Governing Submarine Power Cables 116
IV. Submarine Power Cables not Under the Jurisdiction of the Coastal State 119
A. The Law 119
1. Freedom to Lay Submarine Cables in the EEZ and Continental Shelf under UNCLOS 121
2. Coastal States’ Rights to Regulate Cable Operations in the EEZ and Continental Shelf under UNCLOS 123
B. Submarine Power Cables and the Marine Environment 126
1. The Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on the Marine Environment 127
2. Coastal States’ Rights to Impose Environmental Regulations on Submarine Power Cables under UNCLOS 131
3. Marine Protected Areas and Marine Spatial Planning 135
4. Environmental Impact Assessments 137
5. OSPAR BEP Guidelines 139
V. Submarine Power Cables in the EEZ and Continental Shelf under the Jurisdiction of the Coastal State 141
A. Environmental Issues 143
B. Competing Uses 144
VI. Conclusion: The Way Forward 146
KAJ HOBÉR AND JOEL DAHLQUIST: International Investment Protection Regimes in the Energy Sector 149
I. Introduction 149
II. Other Relevant Regimes 151
A. Bilateral Investment Treaties 151
B. North American Free Trade Agreement 152
C. Treaty Establishing the Energy Community 153
D. Energy Investments and the European Convention on Human Rights 153
III. Investment Protection under the Energy Charter Treaty 155
A. Scope of the Energy Charter Treaty 155
1. The Meaning of “Investor” under the Energy Charter Treaty 156
2. “Denial of Benefits” Clause: Article 17 156
3. The Meaning of “Investment” under the Energy Charter Treaty 159
4. “Investment” under the Energy Charter Treaty Jurisprudence 160
5. Temporal Jurisdiction 162
6. “Investment” in the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) Jurisprudence 163
B. Expropriation under the Energy Charter Treaty 165
1. Expropriation in the ECT Jurisprudence 167
C. Standards of Protection under the Energy Charter Treaty 169
1. Fair and Equitable Treatment 169
2. Most Constant Protection and Security 172
3. Discrimination 172
4. The ‘Umbrella Clause’: Article 10 173
D. Most Favoured Nation Treatment: Article 10 (1) 174
IV. Dispute Settlement under the Energy Charter Treaty 175
A. State-to-State: Article 27 175
B. Investor-State: Article 26 175
1. Forum 175
2. Applicable Law 176
3. Consent: Article 26 (3) 179
V. Provisional Application: Article 45 180
A. The Relationship between International Law and Municipal Law 181
B. The Relationship between Articles 45 (1) and 45 (2) 182
VI. Concluding Remarks 183
ANDREY KONOPLYANIK: Russia and the Energy Charter: Long, Thorny and Winding Way to Each Other 185
I. Introduction 186
II. The Energy Charter 187
A. History and Interests of Parties 187
B. Aspects of the Energy Charter 194
C. ECT and Project Financing: Operation of the Treaty 195
III. Russia’s Criticism of the ECT: Reasonable and Far-Fetched Claims 198
IV. ECT: Transit and Draft Transit Protocol 200
V. Common Misconceptions by Russia 204
A. Common Misconception 1: Obligation to Provide Transit 204
B. Common Misconception 2: Obligation for Equal Tariffs 206
C. Common Misconception 3: Russia-EU Nuclear Trade 208
D. Common Misconception 4: Supplementary Treaty on Investment 209
E. Common Misconception 5: ECT Does not Permit Long-Term Contracts 211
F. The Media as the ‘Collective Disorganiser’ 212
VI. Russia’s Criticism of the ECT: 2009 Timeline and the Resulting Termination of the Provisional Application 214
VII. General Conclusions 218
A. Effects of the Termination of the Provisional Application 218
B. To Destroy or to Upgrade? 221
C. Conclusion: Energy Charter – A Lost Opportunity? 222
PATRICK REYNERS: The International Nuclear Energy Law Framework: An Outlook 227
I. Introduction 227
II. Nuclear Energy Today 228
III. A Short History of Nuclear Law 229
A. The Impact of Chernobyl 233
B. The Impact of “9–11” 234
C. The Impact of Fukushima 234
IV. Competent International Organisations 235
A. The IAEA 235
B. Euratom 236
C. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency 236
V. What Is Special About Nuclear Law? 237
VI. The Legal Framework 238
A. Radiation Protection 238
B. Nuclear Safety 241
1. Information and Assistance 241
2. Safety of Nuclear Installations 244
3. Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste 247
4. Research Reactors 250
5. Radioactive Sources 251
C. Nuclear Transports 253
1. IAEA Regulations 253
2. Modal Transport Regulations 254
D. Nuclear Security 256
1. International Conventions 256
2. Non-Binding Instruments 258
3. Illicit Trafficking 259
4. International Programmes and Initiatives 260
E. Non-Proliferation and Safeguards 261
F. Nuclear Trade Controls 264
1. The Zangger Trigger List 265
2. The Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines 265
G. Nuclear Third Party Liability 267
1. The Paris Convention 268
a) Strict Liability 268
b) Exclusive Liability 269
c) Scope of Application 269
d) Nuclear Damage 269
e) Limitation of Liability in Amount 270
f) Limitation of Liability in Time 270
g) Mandatory Financial Cover 270
h) Jurisdiction 271
i) Intervention by the State 271
2. The Brussels Supplementary Convention 272
3. The Vienna Convention 273
4. The Joint Protocol 273
5. Modernisation of the Nuclear Liability Regime 274
a) Geographical Scope 275
b) Nuclear Damage 275
c) Units of Account 275
d) Financial Limits 275
e) Time Limits 276
6. The Convention on Supplementary Compensation Convention for Nuclear Damage 276
VII. Perspectives 277
PETER KAYODE ONIEMOLA: International Law on Renewable Energy: The Need For a Worldwide Treaty 281
I. Introduction 281
II. International Legal Framework Relevant to the Promotion of Renewable Energy 283
A. Principles of International Environmental Law 284
1. The Principle of Sustainable Development 285
2. The Precautionary Principle 285
3. The Polluter Pays Principle 286
B. Non-Binding International Law Instruments: Soft Law 287
1. The Rio Declaration 288
2. The Agenda 21 289
3. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation 289
4. The Group of Eight (G8) Gleneagles 2005 Plan of Action 290
5. The Beijing Declaration and Beyond 291
C. Binding International Law Instruments: Treaties 293
1. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982 293
2. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 294
3. The Convention on Access to Environmental Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters 297
4. The World Trade Organization Agreements 298
a) Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures 299
b) Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade 301
c) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 303
5. International Investment Treaties 305
6. Setting the Pace: The Statute of the International Renewable Energy Agency 308
III. Towards a Worldwide Treaty on Renewable Energy 309
IV. Conclusion 313
ALEXANDRA XANTHAKI: Rights of Indigenous Peoples under the Light of Energy Exploitation 315
I. Introduction 315
II. Consultation and Participation 317
III. Free Prior and Informed Consent 321
B. Human Rights Bodies 322
C. Development Actors 327
IV. Substantive Indigenous Rights 328
A. Land Rights 331
1. Impact Assessments 333
2. Redress 334
3. Benefit Sharing 335
B. Prohibition of Forcible Removal 336
C. Rights to Natural Resources 338
D. Cultural and Social Rights 341
E. The Right to the Conservation and Protection of the Environment 343
V. Conflicts of Rights 345
VI. Conclusions – An Alternative Model? 347
ULF LINDERFALK: All the Things That You Can Do with Jus Cogens – A Pragmatic Approach to Legal Language 351
I. Introduction 351
II. Functionality Analysis 357
A. Understanding Utterances 357
B. Studying Contexts as Generalised Phenomena 360
C. Avoiding Miscommunication 361
III. Why Utterers Resort to Jus Cogens 363
A. It Potentially Helps Convince Addressees of the Correctness of Utterers’ Arguments 363
B. It Potentially Helps Provoke an Understanding of Arguments as Generalised Propositions 366
C. It Potentially Causes Misunderstandings of the True Nature of Arguments 367
D. It Potentially Makes Addressees Process Arguments Independently of Any Law-Maker’s Current Understanding 369
E. It Potentially Helps Contain the Understanding of Other Conceptual Terms 371
IV. Why Utterers Resort to Jus Cogens: Indirect Functionalities 373
A. It Potentially Helps Convey Pieces of Legal Knowledge 373
B. It Potentially Prompts an Assessment of Arguments Based on Means for the Determination of Lex Lata 375
C. It Potentially Works to Exaggerate the Importance of Arguments and Prevents Addressees from Questioning Utterers’ Intents 377
V. The Significance of Jus Cogens for the Formation of International Law 379
VI. Conclusions 382
MARTIN BOROWSKI: Absolute Rights and Proportionality 385
I. Introduction 385
II. Proportionality and Rights 387
III. The Common Understanding of Absolute Rights 393
A. The Characteristics of Absolute Rights 393
B. How to Identify Absolute Rights 394
1. Absolute Rights qua Being Non-Derogable? 394
2. Absolute Rights qua Lack of a Limiting Clause? 395
3. Substantive Characteristics 396
IV. Problems of the Common Understanding of Absolute Rights 398
A. The Competition among Absolute Rights 398
B. The Absolute Priority of Absolute Rights over Competing Relative Rights 400
C. The Narrow Scope of Absolute Rights Sensu Stricto 401
V. An Outline of the Relative Reading of ‘Absolute Rights’ 402
VI. Debates that are Result-Oriented versus Structural Enquiries into ‘Absolute Rights’ 404
A. Debates that are Result-Oriented 404
B. Enquiries into the Structure of ‘Absolute Rights’ 406
VII. The Relative Absoluteness of ‘Absolute Rights’ qua Proportionality 406
A. The Abstract Weight of Rights 407
B. The Disproportionately Increasing Resistance of Rights 409
C. The Certainty of the Relevant Empirical Premisses 410
1. Shooting Down Passenger Aircrafts, Human Dignity, and the German FCC 410
2. On the Irrelevance of Hypothetical or Artificial Cases 412
VIII. On Absolute Limits to Balancing 413
IX. The Gäfgen Case Revisited 416
X. Uncoupling Proportionality and Limitation 418
A. The ‘Relativity’ of Article 3 ECHR in the Case Law of the ECtHR 418
B. Alexy’s Model of the Structure of Human Dignity – Implicit Proportionality Analysis 421
XI. Conclusion 423
JASMINE COPPENS: Interception of Seaborne Migrants: The Applicability of the Non-Refoulement Principle at Sea 425
I. Introduction 425
II. Interception and the Right to Leave 427
III. Interception and Non-Refoulement 432
A. Refugee Law Context 432
1. Concept 432
2. Application at the Borders of a State 433
a) Maritime Frontier 433
b) Non-Admittance at the Borders of a State 436
3. Extraterritorial Application 441
B. Human Rights Context 443
1. Concept 443
2. Extraterritorial Application 444
3. Effective Control and Legal Fictions 447
C. Customary International Law 449
IV. Conclusion 454
DAGMAR RICHTER AND PATRICK UHRMEISTER: Returning ‘Politically Exposed Persons’ Illicit Assets from Switzerland – International Law in the Force Field of Complexity and Conditionality 457
I. Introduction 458
A. The Prominence of Switzerland 458
B. PEPs – Politically Exposed Persons of the Special Kind 458
1. Discrepancies in Definition 458
2. Modes of Kleptocracy, Supposed Figures and the Dimensions of Damage 459
C. The Case of Switzerland: Proclaimed Policy and Open Questions 461
II. Returning Assets in International Law 462
A. International Anti-Corruption Treaty Law 462
1. The Criminal Law Revolution: A New Transnational Approach to Combating Corruption 462
2. The Emergence of the Principle of Asset Recovery 464
a) The UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime 464
(1) Introduction 464
(2) Return of the Proceeds of Organized Crime under UNTOC 465
b) The UN Convention against Corruption 465
(1) Introduction 465
(2) Asset Recovery under UNCAC 466
B. Other Forms of International Co-operation Relevant to Asset Recovery 469
C. Emergency Measures by the UN Security Council: The Case of Libya (2011) 470
III. Swiss Law – A Model for State Practice? 471
A. Three Pillar Approach 471
B. Preventing the Accumulation of Illicit Assets in Switzerland through Criminal Law 472
1. Transnational Offences: Active and Passive Corruption with Regard to Foreign Public Officials 472
2. PEP Regimes as Criminal Organisations? 473
3. Money Laundering 475
4. Fundamental Obstacles to Prosecution and Punishment 475
a) Public International Law Restrictions – Benefiting PEPs? 475
b) Swiss Jurisdiction and Dual Criminality 476
c) Disastrous Limitation Clauses: Experiences in the Cases of Duvalier and Mobutu 476
d) Lack of Evidence 477
C. The Role of Financial Intermediaries: Due Diligence Requirements in Financial Transactions 478
1. Know Your Customer – Know Your PEP 478
2. Duty to Report and Automatic Freeze 480
D. Freezing, Seizure and Repatriation of Assets 481
1. Precautionary Seizure of Assets upon Order of the Swiss Federal Council: Recent Cases from Africa 481
2. International Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters 483
a) Freezing of Assets and Precautionary Orders 484
b) Confiscating and Returning Assets 484
c) Asset Sharing 486
3. The Restitution of Illicit Assets Act 487
a) Object and Purpose 487
b) Freezing – As Being Demanded by the Interests of Switzerland 487
c) Forfeiture 488
d) Restitution 489
E. Compliance with UNTOC and UNCAC? 490
1. IMAC 490
2. RIAA 491
IV. Returning Assets to Developing Countries – The Legal Challenge 493
A. Subjecting Restitution to Conditions – The Dilemma of Weak Institutions 493
B. Conditionality in Public International Law 493
1. Interference with the Domaine Réservé? 494
2. Element of Coercion? 495
3. Imposing a Certain Conduct on Developing Countries? 496
C. Just and Fair Restitution 497
D. Conclusion: Success Control 498
CHRISTOPHE EICK: The German-Gabonese Initiative on Poaching and Illegal Wildlife Trafficking: Is There a Role for the UN Security Council? 503
BERENIKE SCHRIEWER: Shining a Light on the Human Rights Situation in Germany – The Human Rights Council’s Report on Germany in the Second Cycle of the Universal Periodic Review 513
MARLITT BRANDES: Germany’s Secret Arms Deals: Compliance of German Arms Export Licensing with International Law 525
NICHOLAS ENGLISH AND TIM RAUSCHNING: The Procurement and Use of Armed UAVs by the German Military in International and German Law 539
JULE SIEGFRIED AND MARIEKE LÜDECKE: 50th Anniversary of the Élysée Treaty 557
KATRIN KOHOUTEK: The Swiss-German Treaty on the Effects of the Operation of Zurich Airport on German Territory 573
JULIA MÜLLER: The Hamburg Piracy Trial – A Contribution to the International Aim of Combating Piracy? 585
ANDREA MEYER: The 2011 EU Directive on Preventing and Combating Trafficking: Non-Implementation by Germany? 595
Bardo Fassbender/Anne Peters (eds.): The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law (KARL-HEINZ ZIEGLER) 613
Maurizio Ragazzi: Responsibility of International Organizations. Essays in Memory of Sir Ian Brownlie (BARTŁOMIEJ KRZAN) 616
Duncan B. Hollis: The Oxford Guide to Treaties (MARCUS SCHLADEBACH) 619
Francesco Francioni/James Gordley (eds.): Enforcing International Cultural Heritage Law (MALGOSIA FITZMAURICE) 621
Mohamed Elewa Badar: The Concept of Mens Rea in International Criminal Law – The Case for a Unified Approach (ALEXANDER ORAKHELASHVILI) 624
Yvonne Dutton: Rules, Politics, and the International Criminal Court – Committing to the Court (SYLVIA NWAMARAIHE) 626
Anne-Marie de Brouwer/Charlotte Ku/Renée Römkens/Larissa van den Herik (eds.): Sexual Violence as an International Crime: Interdisciplinary Approaches (CECILIA TOLEDO ESCOBAR) 629
Stefan Talmon: Über Grenzen (NELE MATZ-LÜCK) 631
Matthias C. Kettemann: Grenzen im Völkerrecht (NELE MATZ-LÜCK) 631
Martins Paparinskis: The International Minimum Standard and Fair and Equitable Treatment (TIM HILLIER) 636
Eleanor M. Fox/Michael J. Trebilcock (eds.): The Design of Competition Law Institutions – Global Norms, Local Choices (MARCUS SCHLADEBACH) 637
Jeffrey L. Dunoff/Mark A. Pollack (eds.): Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations – The State of the Art (ALEXANDER ORAKHELASHVILI) 639
Kevin E. Davis/Angelina Fisher/Benedict Kingsbury/Sally Engle Merry (eds.): Governance by Indicators: Global Power through Quantifications and Rankings (HORATIA MUIR WATT) 641