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Labor Market Issues in Japan and Germany

Editors: Schober, Franz | Matsugi, Takashi

Schriften zu Regional- und Verkehrsproblemen in Industrie- und Entwicklungsländern, Vol. 63

(1998)

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Abstract

This publication deals with current labor market issues in Japan, Germany and the European Union. In the book, the "labor market" serves as central focus point, yet the methodology of addressing this focus point is very broad. It includes the analysis of the general labor market development and its conditions in the European Union and in Japan as well as more specific investigations, such as the impact of fiscal policies, exchange rates or information technology on the demand for labor. The book also focusses on the single firm level, particularly on organizational performance, worktime flexibility and on occupational health and safety management. Other contributions address specific subsectors of the economy, such as the role of the female workforce in Japan, the development of the rural labor market in East Germany or the comparative impact of international workforce migrations in Hungary and in Japan. The results of the book, which reflect the outcome of an international conference at the University of Freiburg in 1996, may help to understand in more detail one of the most complex and serious problems of today's society and to find ways for its solution.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Preface of the Series Editors 5
Table of Contents 7
Theodor J. Dams: Adjustment Problems for the Rural Labor Market within the Transformation Process of East Germany (\"Neue Bundesländer\") 9
A. Introduction 9
B. Outline of the Paper 10
C. Some Definitions and Theoretical Reflections 11
I. Land Tenure - Labor Constitutional Charter - Economic System 11
II. The Land Tenure System 11
III. Some Theoretical Reflections 13
IV. The Role of Agriculture and Labor in Different Systems 14
D. Stages of Transformation and Re-Transformation 16
E. An Adjustment Model of GDR Agriculture in the Frame of EU Market Economy and of Common Agricultural Policy 20
F. Re-Transformation of GDR Agriculture: Labor and Land Tenure 22
I. Changes in Property and Farm Sizes: The Theory 22
II. The Changing Goals of the Agricultural Policy 23
G. The Results of the Transformation 1990-1995 25
I. Duality of Agrarian Structure 25
II. The Results of the Transformation 1990-1995: The Agricultural Labor Force 27
H. The Adjustment Process of the Rural (Non-Agricultural) Labor Market 29
I. Introductory Remarks 29
II. The Migration to West Germany 30
III. Preconditions for a Positive Development of Economic Activities and the Labor Market 30
IV. The Rate of Unemployment 31
V. A Special Problem of the Labor Market: The Apprenticeship Situation 32
I. Final Remarks 33
References 33
Bernhard Friedmann: Labour Market Problems in the European Union 37
A. The Extent of the Problem 37
B. Causes of Unemployment 38
C. Legislative Framework of the European Union 39
D. Implementation of the Internal Market in the Interests of Employment 40
E. European Solidarity 41
F. Effects of the Structural Funds 42
G. Relationship between Growth and Employment 43
H. Measures for the Reduction of Unemployment 44
I. Conclusions 46
Sources 47
Shimono Keiko: Low Unemployment Rate and Female Labour Supply in Japan 49
A. Introduction 49
B. Female Labour Supply in Japan 51
I. Labour Supply for Women 51
II. The \"Part Timer\" as a Low-Paid Worker 54
III. Business Cycles and Unemployment 55
C. Why do Married Women Choose to be \"Part Timers\"? 57
D. Conclusion 58
References 60
Yuko Arayama: Choice to not be Employed in Intact Families: Interaction between Male and Female Household Members and the Determination of Working or not Working, of Working Hours, and Working Days 63
A. Introduction 63
B. Data Source 64
C. Determinants for Unemployment Rates 64
D. Log-linear Analysis for Work Status Determination 67
E. Determination of Working Hours vs. Determination of Working Days 71
F. Results of Coefficient Estimation 71
G. Concluding Remarks 72
References 74
Takashi Matsugi: Recent Aspects of the Japanese Labor Market in a Changing Economic Structure 75
A. Introduction 75
B. Recent Trends in the Japanese Labor Market 76
I. Trends in Leading Indicators 76
II. Employment Trends Differentiated by Industry 78
III. Surplus Reflected in the Survey 79
IV. Estimated Employment Compared with Actual Employment 79
V. Shorter Working Hours and Their Effect 81
VI. Wages and Labor Share 83
VII. Rate of Unemployment 84
VIII. Working Women with Spouses 84
C. Concluding Remarks 86
References 86
Alois Oberhauser: A Pro-cyclical Fiscal Policy which Increases Unemployment: A Consequence of an Individual Economic Orientation 89
References 99
Michael Pflüger / Alexander Spermann: Ecological Tax Reform - A Route to More Employment? 101
A. Introduction 101
B. Insights from Partial Equilibrium Analysis 102
I. The Green Dividend 102
II. Double Dividends and Employment Effects 104
C. The General Equilibrium Perspective 106
D. Unemployment 109
I. From Exogenous to Endogenous Real Wage Rigidity 109
II. Ecological Tax Reform in a Simple Bargaining Model of the Labour Market 110
1. The Bargaining Model 110
2. Comparative Statics: Unemployment Benefits and Wage Taxes 112
3. Ecological Tax Reform: Consumption and Production Externalities 113
4. Reflections on the Green Dividend and on the Robustness of Results 115
E. Summary and Outlook 119
References 119
Harald Nitsch: Exchange Rate Impacts on Japanese Labor Input 123
A. Introduction 123
B. Underlying Model 124
C. Empirical Results 126
I. Estimation of the Number of Employees 126
1. Estimate Equation 126
2. Estimated Elasticities 128
3. Partial Adjustment Speed 129
II. Estimation of Employment in Hours 130
1. Estimate Equation 130
2. Estimated Elasticities 130
3. Partial Adjustment Speed 131
III. Interpretation of Results 133
The Distribution of the Adjustment Burden 133
D. Alternative Interpretation of the Results with Interdependent Labor Input 133
E. Conclusion 135
Appendix 135
References 141
Taichi Yamamoto: A Comparative Study between Migratory Manpower Pressures by Industrial Hollowing-out in Japan and Economic Opening-up in Hungary 143
A. Introduction 143
Β. Background of the Double Labour Markets in Germany 145
C. Migratory Manpower Pressures in Hungary 148
I. Increasing Labour Migration after the East European Changes of 1989 148
II. The Extent of Migration to and from Hungary is Roughly the Same 149
III. Stricter Immigration Controls in the EU for Citizens of Non-member Countries and Highly Educated Hungarians Engaged in Better Jobs in the EU 150
D. Reasons for Industrial Hollowing-out in Advanced Countries 151
I. Britain and Germany 151
II. United States 151
III. Japan 152
E. Japan Facing Manpower Pressures 152
I. Migratory Manpower Pressure by Industrial Hollowing-out in Japan 152
II. International Migration is Less Significant in Japan Compared to West Europe, But it is Quickly Increasing 157
III. The Number of Japanese Emigrating \"Institutionally\" is Higher than that of Foreigners Staying in Japan 157
F. Conclusion - Geographical and Cultural Distance Preventing a Larger Increase of Labour Migration 158
References 158
Yoichi Nishijima: Standardization of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems 161
A. Paradigms Cause Changes in Economic Structure 161
B. The State of Improvement of OH&S in Japan 161
C. Standardization of the Environmental Management System ISO 14000 162
I. Setting of Self-regulation Standards by Industry Initiative 162
II. What is the Environmental Management System Standard ISO 14001? 163
D. Standardization of OH&S-MS 165
I. OH&S Self-regulation Standards by Industry Initiative 165
II. Integration of the 3 Management Systems of Quality, Environment and OH&S 166
E. OH&S-MS Standards in Various Countries 166
I. The British Standard BS 8800 166
II. JISHA's OH&S-MS 166
F. Toward International Standardization of OH&S-MS 166
I. International Workshop on OH&S-MS 166
II. Future Trends in International Standardization of OH&S-MS 169
Günter Müller / Tim Bussiek: The Information Highway and the Future of Work 171
A. Work under Construction 171
B. The Information Highway as Mobilizer 172
I. Technological Innovation and Impetus 172
II. Layers of the Information Highway 174
C. Implications for Work 177
I. Contextual Themes 177
II. Model of the Core Organization 178
1. The Core 179
2. The Fringe 180
III. Changes to Work 181
1. Core 181
2. Contractual Fringe 181
3. Seasonal Fringe 182
D. Setting the Cultural Background for Work on the Information Highway - Aspects on Government Intervention 182
I. Contradicting Requirements 182
II. Selforganisation - A Modern Virtue 183
III. Economics and Ethics 184
IV. Dangerous Dualities 185
E. Solutions 186
I. Traditional Solutions: More Work, Spread Out 186
II. A Pragmatical Solution - The Creativity Infrastructure 186
III. A Philosophical Solution - A New View of Work 187
F. Conclusion 188
References 189
Manfred Kurz: Working Time and Work Location Flexibility - the Example of IBM Germany 191
A. Foreword 191
B. Situation / Influencing Factors 192
C. Looking at Manufacturing 193
D. The Master Plan of IBM Germany to combine explained needs of customers with those of employees in spite of restricted regular working time 195
I. Introduction of a sliding working time system (selective work schedule or flex time) 195
II. Overtime 196
E. New Inhouse Collective Agreement 197
F. Shiftwork 198
G. Telecommuting and Working Time 198
H. Summary 201
Tamiki Kishida: Labor Market and Work Organization 203
A. Introduction 203
B. Environment, Market and Organization 203
I. Penetration of Organization and Market (Environment) 204
II. The Corporate System as a Whole 205
C. Characteristics of Labor Markets in Japan and America 206
D. Comparative Analysis of Work Organization 207
I. Comparison of Work Organization in Paper-Mills 207
II. Toyota vs. Volvo 208
1. Technology 208
2. Organizational Behavior 209
3. Autonomy 209
E. Conclusion 210
References 210
Contributors and Editors 213