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German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 57 (2014)

Editors: Arnauld, Andreas von | Matz-Lück, Nele | Odendahl, Kerstin

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 57

(2015)

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About The Author

Prof. Dr. Andreas von Arnauld ist Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität Kiel und Direktor des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Zuvor lehrte er als Professor für Öffentliches Recht, insbesondere Völker- und Europarecht an der Helmut-Schmidt-Universität der Bundeswehr in Hamburg (2007–2012) sowie an der Universität Münster (2012–2013). Seine Forschungsschwerpunkte umfassen das internationale Friedenssicherungsrecht, den Grund- und Menschenrechtsschutz, Rechtsstaatlichkeit (rule of law), rechtswissenschaftliche Grundlagenforschung sowie Recht und Literatur.

Prof. Dr. Nele Matz-Lück, LL.M., ist seit 2011 Professorin für Seerecht an der Universität Kiel und Ko-Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Seit 2004 war sie als Referentin am Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht in Heidelberg beschäftigt. Für die Dauer von zwei Jahren war sie als wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an das Bundesverfassungsgericht abgeordnet. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen im Seerecht, Umweltvölkerrecht und in grundlegenden Fragen des Völkerrechts.

Prof. Dr. Kerstin von der Decken (geb. Odendahl) ist Inhaberin des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völkerrecht, Europarecht und Allgemeine Staatslehre an der Universität Kiel sowie Geschäftsführende Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Davor war sie von 2004 bis 2011 Professorin für Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität St. Gallen, Schweiz. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen bei den Grundlagen des Völker- und Europarechts sowie dem internationalen Umwelt,- Kultur- und Sicherheitsrecht.

Abstract

The German Yearbook of International Law, founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the University of Kiel. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Table of Contents 5
Forum: 1914–2014 Niemeyer's International Law Revisited 9
Andreas von Arnauld: Reflections upon Reflections: Koskenniemi on Niemeyer 11
Theodor Niemeyer: Tasks of the Future Science of Public International Law 13
Martti Koskenniemi: International Law as ‘Science‘ – Reflections on a Mandarin Essay 27
Focus: Law of the Sea in the 21st Century 35
Nele Matz-Lück: The Law of the Sea as a Research Focus in Kiel: Looking Back and Moving Ahead 37
I. The Role of the Law of the Sea in the History of the Walther Schüking Institute 37
II. Law of the Sea in the 21st Century: The 2014 International Conference in Kiel 41
Shunji Yanai: Can the UNCLOS Address Challenges of the 21st Century? 43
I. Introduction 43
II. Impact of the UNCLOS 45
III. Relations between the Three Institutions Established under the UNCLOS 47
IV. Dispute Settlement Procedures under the UNCLOS 51
V. UNCLOS and Case Law 53
VI. New Challenges under the UNCLOS 58
VII. Law of the Sea beyond the UNCLOS 59
VIII. Conclusion 61
Bing Bing Jia: The Principle of the Domination of the Land over the Sea: A Historical Perspective on the Adaptability of the Law of the Sea to New Challenges 63
I. Introduction 63
II. The Principle and the Genesis of the Modern Law of the Sea 68
III. The Principle in the ICJ Jurisprudence 71
IV. The Principle’s Influence on the Notion of the Continental Shelf 76
V. The Scope of the UNCLOS and the Principle 81
VI. Conclusion 92
Rüdiger Wolfrum: Evolution of the Law of the Sea from an Institutional Perspective 95
I. Introduction 95
II. Norm-Making 96
III. Norm-Making through Negotiations 97
IV. Norm-Making through International Organisations 99
V. Norm-Making by International Courts and Tribunals 103
VI. Conclusion 108
Liesbeth Lijnzaad: Formal and Informal Processes in the Contemporary Law of the Sea at the United Nations, a Practitioner’s View 111
I. Introduction 111
II. The Role of the Meeting of States Parties 112
III. The Role of the General Assembly 117
IV. The Secretary-General’s Report 119
V. The Annual ‘Omnibus’ Resolution on Oceans and Law of the Sea 121
VI. The Informal Consultative Process on Law of the Sea and the Oceans 127
VII. The Informal Process on Marine Biodiversity beyond National Jurisdiction 129
A. Relevance of Other Fora 133
B. Role of the European Union 135
VIII. Commemorating 20 Years of the UNCLOS 137
IX. Conclusion 140
Yoshifumi Tanaka: The Institutional Application of the Law of Dédoublement Fonctionnel in Marine Environmental Protection: A Critical Assessment of Regional Regimes 143
I. Introduction 144
II. Four Models for Protecting Community Interests 146
III. Regional Institutions and Conservation of Marine Biological Diversity: A Case of the OSPAR Convention 150
A. General Considerations 150
B. The Creation of MPAs in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction in the North-East Atlantic 152
C. Commentary 158
1. General Observations 158
2. The Legality of the OSPAR MPAs 159
3. Opposability of the High Seas MPAs to Third States 162
4. The Relationship between the OSPAR High Seas MPAs and the Coastal States’ Rights over the Continental Shelf beyond 200 Nautical Miles 163
5. Compatibility of the High Seas MPAs with the Freedom of Navigation 164
6. Interlinkage between OSPAR and the International Seabed Authority 165
IV. Conservation of Living Resources on the High Seas through Regional Fisheries Organisations: A Case of the North Atlantic Fisheries Commission 168
A. General Considerations 168
B. Interlinkage between the OSPAR and the NEAFC 170
C. Inspection of Non-Contracting Party Vessels 172
1. At-Sea Inspection of Non-Contracting Party Vessels on the High Seas 173
2. Port Inspection of Non-Contracting Party Vessels by the NEAFC 175
V. Conclusions 177
Tullio Scovazzi: The Exploitation of Resources of the Deep Seabed and the Protection of the Environment 181
I. The Particular Regime for the Mineral Resources of the Deep Seabed 181
II. Pollution from Activities in the Area under the UNCLOS 184
III. Pollution from Activities in the Area under the ISA’s Regulations 185
IV. The ITLOS Advisory Opinion 189
A. The Obligations of Sponsoring States 189
B. The Extent of Liability of Sponsoring States 191
C. The Measures to be Taken by the Sponsoring State 193
V. The Question of Genetic Resources 195
A. The Prospects for the Exploitation of Genetic Resources in the Deep Seabed 195
B. Common Heritage of Mankind v. Freedom of the High Seas 198
C. A Truism and its Consequences 200
VI. Possible Future Developments 205
Doris König: Maritime Security: Cooperative Means to Address New Challenges 209
I. Maritime Security, Piracy, and the Need to Cooperate 209
II. Cooperation at the International Level 211
A. Military Cooperation in the Region 211
B. Political Cooperation in the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia 213
C. Capacity Building in the Region 215
III. Cooperation between Regional States 216
IV. Cooperation Concerning the Use of Private Armed Guards 220
V. Conclusions and Outlook 222
Alexander Proelss: Dispute Settlement in Multi-Layered Constellations: International Law and the EU 225
I. Introduction 225
II. Relevant Case-Law 228
A. Case-Law of International Arbitral Tribunals 232
1. MOX Plant Arbitrations 232
2. IJzeren Rijn Arbitration 234
B. Assessment 235
1. Autonomy of EU Law 236
2. Scope of CJEU Jurisdiction Concerning International Treaties 238
a) EU Has Acceded to International Agreement 238
b) EU Has Not Acceded to International Agreement 242
3. Exclusivity of CJEU Jurisdiction in Relation to International Courts and Tribunals? 244
a) EU Has Not Acceded to International Agreement 244
b) Treaty Has Been Concluded in Terms of Mixed Agreement 249
III. Conclusion 253
Isabel Feichtner: Power and Purpose of Ecolabelling: An Examination Based on the WTO Disputes Tuna II and COOL 255
I. Ecolabelling and the WTO 255
II. Two Views of Ecolabelling: Information or Regulation 259
A. Ecolabelling as Information 259
B. Ecolabelling as Regulation 260
1. Selection of Information 261
2. Presentation of Information 262
3. Reliability of Information 263
III. Qualification of Labelling Schemes under the TBT Agreement of the WTO: Voluntary Standards or Mandatory Regulation 264
A. The US ‘Dolphin-Safe’ Labelling Scheme at Issue in Tuna II 265
B. Qualification of the US ‘Dolphin-Safe’ Labelling Scheme as Mandatory Regulation 266
IV. Attribution of the Consumption and Production Effects of Labelling: Private Choice or Public Power 270
A. COOL – Attribution of the Production Effects of Labelling 271
B. Tuna II – Attribution of the Consumption Effects of Labelling 274
V. The Purposes of (Eco-)Labelling 277
A. COOL – Consumer Information through Country of Origin Labelling 277
B. Tuna II – Environmental Protection through Ecolabelling 281
VI. The Hidden Power of Ecolabels 284
General Articles 287
Diego Germán Mejía-Lemos: On Self-Reflectivity, Performativity, and Conditions for Existence of Sources of Law in International Law 289
I. Introduction 289
II. International Law and Conditions for Existence of Sources of Law 291
A. ‘Source of Law’ in International Law as a Legal Category 291
1. Conduct Attributable to Subjects of International Law 292
2. Legal Consequence: Creation of Principles and Rules of International Law 294
B. Distinction between Sources of Law and Sources of Obligation in International Law 295
C. Sources of Law as Independent Bases of Validity and Legal Force 296
D. ‘Conditions for Existence,’ and Process of Formation, of Sources of Law in International Law Distinguished 299
III. The Prevailing Position and its Strands 300
A. The ‘Logical’ Strand of the Prevailing Position and Infinite Regress 300
B. The ‘Constitutional’ and ‘Natural’ Strands of the Prevailing Position and Finite Regress 302
C. The Prevailing Argument’s Fallaciousness 303
1. Failure to Distinguish Validity from Truth and Norm from Proposition 304
2. Failure to Account for Axiomatic Propositions 305
IV. Self-Reflectivity, Performativity, and the Possibility of Rules of International Law Governing Conditions for Existence of Sources of Law in International Law 306
A. Self-Reflectivity and Performativity in Practice 307
1. Self-Reflectivity and Formation of Treaties and Custom 307
2. Performativity and Legal Authority regarding Law-Making 308
3. Practice in Connection with Conditions for Existence of Sources of Law in International Law 309
B. Self-Reflectivity and Performativity as Conceptual Grounds 310
1. Self-Reflectivity and Application of Rules of International Law 311
2. Performative Conduct and the Creation of International Law 314
V. The Possibility of Rules of International Law Governing Conditions for Existence of Sources of Law in International Law and Some Major Implications 316
A. Self-Reflectivity, Performativity, and the Unsoundness of the Prevailing Position 316
B. The Prima Facie Existence of Customary Rules of International Law Setting Out the Conditions for Existence of the Existing Sources of Law in International Law 318
Tobias Thienel: Third States and the Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice: The Monetary Gold Principle 321
I. Introduction 321
II. The Key Cases 323
III. The Foundations of the Monetary Gold Principle 329
A. The Monetary Gold Principle as Directly an Issue of Jurisdiction? 330
B. The Monetary Gold Principle as a Matter of Judicial Propriety? 335
1. The Protection of the Court’s Judicial Character 335
2. The Court’s Judicial Character and the Principle of Consensual Jurisdiction 336
3. The Court’s Judicial Character and the Absence of the Third State 341
IV. The Required Procedural Role of the Third State 344
V. The Application of the Monetary Gold Principle in Some Specific Cases 349
VI. Conclusion 352
Mart Susi: Implied Constitutional Competence of the European Court of Human Rights 353
I. Introduction 353
II. The Debate 354
A. General Remarks 354
B. The Role of National Courts 356
C. Judicial Activism and Strasbourg v. Luxembourg 359
D. What about Individual Justice? 361
III. The Increase of Cases Exhibiting Constitutionalist Function 364
A. Direct Constitutional Intervention 364
B. The Questions of Compliance 368
C. Recent Legislative Intervention 370
D. Dynamics 372
IV. Concluding Remarks 373
Paul Gragl: The Silence of the Treaties: General International Law and the European Union 375
I. Introduction 375
II. The External Perspective: The Question of Implementation 378
A. Strict Observance or Indifference? 378
B. From Initial Openness to Practical Flexibility 380
C. A Monist Reinterpretation in Place of an Incorporation Clause 383
III. The Internal Perspective: The Question of Function 385
A. The Various Functions of General International Law within EU Law 385
B. Subsequent Member State Practice 388
C. ‘Self-Contained Regimes’ and Countermeasures 392
1. Infringement Proceedings 394
2. Serious Breaches of Fundamental Values and Article 7 TEU Proceedings 398
3. Expulsion of EU Member States 403
IV. Conclusion: “Si Tacuisses …”? 406
Isabel Daum: Legal Conflicts in the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property in International Law 411
I. Introduction 411
II. Conceptual Conflicts between the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and the Convention on Biological Diversity 415
A. Categorisation of the Conflict 416
B. Areas of Intersection 420
1. Broad Scope of Patent Protection v. Access and Benefit Sharing Requirements 420
2. Individual IPRs v. Protection of Collectively Held TK in Biodiversity Conservation 422
3. Regulatory Gap Rather than Normative Conflict 423
III. Means for Harmonisation 425
A. Interpretation of Article 27 (2) TRIPS 426
1. Non-Compliance with CBD Requirements as a Violation of Ordre Public 426
2. Limitations of Harmonising Interpretation 427
3. Literal Interpretation 431
4. Systematic Interpretation 433
5. Teleological Interpretation 434
6. Subsequent Agreements and State Practice 437
7. Travaux Préparatoires 439
B. Conclusion 439
IV. Prospects for Possible Legal Protection of Traditional Knowledge 440
A. Positive Protection 440
B. Defensive Protection 441
V. Conclusion 442
Kevin Grimmeiß: International Criminal Tribunals and the Right to a Lawful Judge 443
I. Introduction 443
II. Scope of the Right to a Lawful Judge 444
A. Origins of the Right 445
B. Guarantee in International Covenants 448
C. Guarantee in German Law 450
III. Relevance of the Right in International Criminal Procedures 454
IV. Possible Obstacle to International Criminal Proceedings 457
A. Before International Criminal Tribunals 457
1. Right to a Court Established by Law 458
2. Jus de non Evocando 459
B. Obstacle to State Cooperation 460
1. Ban on Extraordinary Courts 461
a) International Criminal Tribunals as Extraordinary Courts 461
b) Applicability of the Ban 465
2. Need for a Valid Legal Basis 466
3. Exercise of Concurring Jurisdiction 467
a) Nature of Jurisdiction Exercised by International Criminal Tribunals 468
b) Possibility of Justification 470
4. Conclusion 473
V. Double Effect of Transfer as Solution for Conflicts Remaining 474
Thiago Braz Jardim Oliveira: State Immunity and Criminal Proceedings: Why Foreign Officials Cannot Enjoy Immunity Ratione Materiae from the Legal Process of Extradition 477
I. Introduction 477
II. Practice on the Extradition of Foreign Officials for Official Conduct 481
A. Pinochet (No 3) 481
B. Adamov 486
C. Khurts Bat 488
D. The Bases for ‘Immunity from Extradition’ in the Practice of State Immunity 491
III. Why Foreign Officials May Not Be Immune from the Legal Process of Extradition 496
A. The Meaning of State Immunity from Criminal Proceedings 496
B. The Acts of the Accused in Extradition Proceedings 498
C. The Subject of Judicial Proceedings of Extradition 500
IV. Conclusion 503
Sinthiou Buszewski / Henner Gött: Avoiding Kadi – ‘Pre-emptive Compliance’ with Human Rights when Imposing Targeted Sanctions 507
I. Introduction 507
II. Plurality of Perspectives 510
III. The UN Perspective 511
IV. The Human Rights Perspective 516
A. Attribution of Conduct and the Jurisdiction Requirement 516
1. Whose Act? – Jurisdiction for Acts in International Organisations 517
2. Jurisdiction and Extraterritoriality 524
B. Nature and Scope of Human Rights Obligations in the Establishing and Listing Phases 526
1. Respect and Ensure: The Obligation to Give Effect to Human Rights 526
2. The Equivalent Protection Rule 527
3. Potential Avenues: Adopting Human Rights Clauses or Leaving Latitude 529
4. Pursuing the Avenues: Conduct in the Establishing and Listing Phases 531
5. Lack of Causation and Sustaining Obligations 532
6. Reconciling Political Flexibility and Human Rights Protection 535
7. Ultima Ratio or ‘Realm of the Possible?’ 536
V. Conclusion – Elements of a ‘Pre-emptive Human Rights Compliance’ 539
Anja Kießling: The Uncertain Fate of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights: The Problematic Merger with the African Court of Justice and the Establishment of an International Criminal Law Section 541
I. Introduction 541
II. The Long Road Towards the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 543
III. The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 546
A. The Court and its Mandate 546
B. The Court at Work 549
1. Accomplishments 549
2. Challenges 553
IV. The Court at Risk? 555
A. The Merger: African Court of Justice and Human Rights 555
B. Yet Another Merger: The African Court of Justice and Human and Peoples’ Rights 560
1. Institutional Matters 562
2. The International Criminal Law Section 563
a) Jurisdiction ratione materiae 563
b) Jurisdiction ratione personae 568
c) Immunity 569
d) Complementarity Principle 571
3. The Human Rights Section 572
4. Legal Complexities 574
V. Conclusion 576
German Practice 579
Stefan Talmon: At last! Germany Admits Illegality of the Kosovo Intervention 581
I. Introduction 581
II. The 2014 Statement by Former Chancellor Gerhard Schröder 583
III. Germany’s Position on the Kosovo Intervention in 1999 585
IV. What Counts as Germany’s Opinio Juris? 591
V. Conclusion 595
Christoph Beinlich / Benjamin Jüdes: Germany’s Role in the Destruction of Syrian Chemical Weapons 597
I. Introduction 597
II. Events in Syria 598
III. The Regime of and Syria’s Accession to the Chemical Weapons Convention 599
IV. Reactions of the International Community 601
V. The Role of the Federal Republic of Germany 603
VI. Conclusion 611
Philipp Stöckle: Recent Developments in German Case Law on Compensation for Violations of International Humanitarian Law 613
I. Introduction 613
II. The Relevant Legal Framework in Germany 616
A. Substantive Rules 616
B. Precedents? 617
III. The Varvarin Case 619
A. Individual Claims under International Law 619
B. The Role of the Courts in State Liability Suits 622
C. Conclusion 623
IV. The Kunduz Case 624
A. The Applicability of German Law of Governmental Liability 625
B. Violations of IHL and the Rules of Governmental Liability 627
C. The Decision on the Merits 629
V. Conclusion 630
Arne Reißmann / Sarah Bothe: Ending Impunity for the Bottommost Diplomatic Caste: German Practice in Relation to Domestic Workers in Diplomatic Households 633
I. Introduction 633
II. The Ratnasari Case before German Labour Courts 636
A. Facts of the Case 636
B. The Underlying Legal Framework 637
1. Legal Status of the Employer 638
2. Legal Status of the Domestic Worker 638
C. Proceedings of the Case 639
D. Legal Problems of the Case 640
1. The Commercial Activity Exception 641
2. Forfeiture of Diplomatic Immunity in Cases of Severe Human Rights Violations? 642
3. Violation of Article 6 ECHR? 643
E. Conclusion to Part II 644
III. German Administrative Practice in Relation to the Employment of Domestic Workers 644
A. Procedure of Immigration and Employment 645
B. Measures in Reaction to Irregularities 646
C. Assessment 647
1. Improvement of the Lex Lata? 647
2. Furthering Administrative Practice and Search for International Cooperation 648
Martin Weiler: The Right to Privacy in the Digital Age: The Commitment to Human Rights Online 651
I. The Backdrop to the Resolution 651
II. The Digital Age 652
III. Germany’s Motives in Protecting Human Rights Online 653
IV. Surveillance Operations Abroad: Who is Entitled to Protection? 654
A. The Extraterritorial Application of the ICCPR 656
B. Is the ICCPR Applicable to Foreign Surveillance Operations? 656
C. Jurisdiction and the Right to Privacy Online 658
D. The Scope of the Right to Privacy in the Digital Age 663
V. The Impact of Resolution 68/167 664
Sina Hartwigsen / Jasmin Oschkinat: The Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and Its Relevance for Germany 667
I. The Convention 668
A. Obligations 668
B. Programmatic Aims 669
C. The Committee and Its Tasks 669
II. Relationship to Other International and Supranational Obligations on Cultural Issues 670
III. Ratification Process in Germany 671
IV. Implementation of the Convention 674
A. The German Conventional Bodies 674
B. Nationwide Inventory 675
C. Other Measures for Safeguarding Intangible Heritage 677
V. Assessment 677
A. Social-Political Reasons 678
B. Legal Reasons 679
1. Ratification Law 680
2. Implementation Act 680
VI. Concluding Remarks 682
Sarah Gahlen: Watercourses: The UN Convention and Germany’s International Treaties 683
I. The Legal Framework Established by the Watercourses Convention 685
A. Guiding Principles of Material Law 685
B. Procedural Rules on Notification and Dispute Settlement 686
C. Interplay with Existing Agreements 688
II. The Watercourses Convention and Germany 689
A. The Rhine 691
B. The Danube 693
C. The Elbe 694
D. The Oder 696
E. The Meuse 696
F. The Mosel and the Saar 697
III. Conclusion 699
Berenike Schriewer: The German Federal Constitutional Court’s First Reference for a Preliminary Ruling to the European Court of Justice 701
I. General Part 703
A. Relationship between the FCC and the ECJ 703
B. The European Central Bank 704
1. The European Central Bank and the Bundesbank 704
2. The European Central Bank’s Mandate 704
C. The European Sovereign Debt Crisis and Intended Solutions (European Stability Mechanism and the OMT programme) 705
1. The European Sovereign Debt Crisis 705
2. The European Stability Mechanism 706
3. The European Central Bank’s Controversial Decision of 6 September 2012 708
II. The FCC’s Decision of 14 January 2014 709
A. Facts of the Case Before the FCC 709
B. Outcome of the Proceedings: Questions Referred to the ECJ for a Preliminary Ruling 710
C. Reasoning of the FCC 712
D. Dissenting Opinions 715
III. Evaluation 716
Book Reviews 721
Alessandro Chechi: The Settlement of International Cultural Heritage Disputes (Matthias Weller) 723
Andrew Clapham / Paola Gaeta (eds.): The Oxford Handbook of International Law in Armed Conflict (Knut Ipsen) 725
Oliver Dörr / Rainer Grote / Thilo Marauhn (eds.): EMRK/GG: Konkordanzkommentar zum europäischen und deutschen Grundrechtsschutz (Christian Johann) 729
Hazel Fox CMG QC / Philippa Webb: The Law of State Immunity (Stephan Wittich) 732
Dirk Pulkowski: The Law and Politics of International Regime Conflict (Paul Schiff Berman) 734
Ben Saul / David Kinley / Jacqueline Mowbray (eds.): The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Commentary, Cases, and Materials (Norman Weiß) 737
Dinah Shelton (ed.): The Oxford Handbook of International Human Rights Law (Eckart Klein) 738
Hugh Thirlway: The Sources of International Law (Jean D'Aspremont) 741
Christian Walter / Antje von Ungern-Sternberg / Kavus Abushov (eds.): Self-Determination and Secession in International Law (Sinthiou Estelle Buszewski) 747
Sharon Weill: The Role of National Courts in Applying International Humanitarian Law (Heike Krieger) 752
Books Received 755