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100 Years of Peace Through Law: Past and Future

Editors: Arnauld, Andreas von | Matz-Lück, Nele | Odendahl, Kerstin

Veröffentlichungen des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht an der Universität Kiel, Vol. 191

(2015)

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About The Author

Prof. Dr. Andreas von Arnauld ist Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität Kiel und Direktor des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Zuvor lehrte er als Professor für Öffentliches Recht, insbesondere Völker- und Europarecht an der Helmut-Schmidt-Universität der Bundeswehr in Hamburg (2007–2012) sowie an der Universität Münster (2012–2013). Seine Forschungsschwerpunkte umfassen das internationale Friedenssicherungsrecht, den Grund- und Menschenrechtsschutz, Rechtsstaatlichkeit (rule of law), rechtswissenschaftliche Grundlagenforschung sowie Recht und Literatur. Prof. Dr. Kerstin Odenthal ist Inhaberin des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völkerrecht, Europarecht und Allgemeine Staatslehre an der Universität Kiel sowie Geschäftsführende Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Davor war sie von 2004 bis 2011 Professorin für Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität St. Gallen, Schweiz. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen bei den Grundlagen des Völker- und Europarechts sowie dem internationalen Umwelt,- Kultur- und Sicherheitsrecht. Prof. Dr. Nele Matz-Lück, LL.M., ist seit 2011 Professorin für Seerecht an der Universität Kiel und Ko-Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Seit 2004 war sie als Referentin am Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht in Heidelberg beschäftigt. Für die Dauer von zwei Jahren war sie als wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an das Bundesverfassungsgericht abgeordnet. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen im Seerecht, Umweltvölkerrecht und in grundlegenden Fragen des Völkerrechts.

Abstract

Seit seiner Gründung im Jahre 1914 prägt der Leitspruch »Frieden durch Recht« die Arbeit des weltweit ältesten universitären Völkerrechtsinstituts, des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht an der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel. Dieser Tradition verpflichtet, widmete sich im September 2014 eine internationale Konferenz zum 100-jährigen Bestehen des Instituts Chancen und Problemen der Sicherung und Wiederherstellung des Friedens mit Mitteln des Völkerrechts. Der vorliegende Band versammelt die Beiträge zu dieser Konferenz, die vor dem Hintergrund der Ereignisse in der Ukraine und in Syrien über den Anlass hinaus drängende Aktualität besitzen. In drei Teilen (historischer Rückblick; Friedenssicherung und -wiederherstellung durch Völkerrecht heute; humanitäres Völkerrecht vor neuen Herausforderungen) werden das geltende Recht in Theorie und Praxis vorgestellt sowie Möglichkeiten zu seiner Fortentwicklung aufgezeigt. Alle Beiträge sind in englischer Sprache verfasst. Since 1914, »Peace through Law« is the guiding motto of the world's oldest university institute for public international law, the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at Kiel University. Marking the occasion of its 100th anniversary, an international conference assessed international law's contribution to the maintenance and restoration of global peace and security. The present volume assembles the conference papers which address questions of urgent topicality.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Foreword 5
Table of Contents 9
List of Abbreviations 11
Part I: 100 Years of Public International Law 17
Knut Ipsen: 100 Years of Public International Law in Kiel: The History of the Walther Schücking Institute 19
A. Realism and Idealism – the Basic Approaches to International Law of Two Eminent Scholars 20
I. International Law as an Undeniable Reality and an Element of Civilisation 20
II. International Law as the Basis of a Peaceful World Order 21
B. “Gleichschaltung” – Legal Scholarship at Kiel in the Time of the “Third Reich” 23
C. Scholarly Freedom Regained – the Rebirth of the Institute 24
I. Monocratic Leadership – a Real Managing Director 25
II. Manifold Interests and Changing Scholars 27
III. The Decisive Influence on the Institute of One International Lawyer 28
D. Peace Through Law as a Permanent Process 29
E. ... und ein Schlusswort mit zwei Wünschen an die Institutsgemeinschaft 30
James Crawford: The Unfolding of Public International Law Since 1914: International Judgments and Domestic Courts with Special Reference to Germany 31
A. Introduction 31
B. Constitutional “Friendliness” Towards International Law 33
C. The Case Law on the Significance of Decisions of International Tribunals 34
I. Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights 34
II. Judgments of the International Court of Justice 37
D. How Much “Friendliness” Should Be Accorded to Judgments of International Courts? 38
E. Concluding Remarks 41
Part II: Maintenance and Restoration of International Peace and Security 43
Gunter Pleuger: Maintenance and Restoration of International Peace and Security by Diplomatic Means 45
A. Bilateral and Multilateral Diplomacy 45
B. Legal Foundations 46
C. Role of the UN in International Peace-Keeping 48
D. Legitimacy, Efficiency, Reforms 51
E. Conclusion 52
Francisco Orrego Vicuña: Maintenance and Restoration of International Peace and Security Through Arbitration and Judicial Settlement 53
A. Peace, Security and Dispute Settlement: A Decoupled Equation 53
I. Judicial Institutions: Responding to Contemporary Needs 53
II. Redressing Distortions of the International Legal System 54
III. Seeking Effectiveness for International Organisations 56
B. Functional Developments of International Adjudication 56
I. Streamlining Existent Courts 56
II. New Areas of International Law Requiring Functional Jurisdiction 57
III. Ensuring Direct Access of Individuals to International Courts and Tribunals 58
C. Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution in Support of International Peace 60
I. The Development of Functional Arbitration 61
II. Broadening the Access of Individuals to Arbitration and Alternative Methods 62
III. Limits to De-nationalised Protection of Rights 63
D. Rebalancing Rights and Interests in the International Legal System 64
E. Preserving Democratic Legitimacy 65
Théodore Christakis / Karine Bannelier: Maintenance and Restoration of International Peace and Security by Means of Force 67
A. Introduction 67
B. Twenty-Five Years of UNSC Authorisations to Use Force: An Assessment 69
I. Use of Force With UNSC Authorisation: Problems 70
1. The Problem of the Legal Basis 71
2. The Problem of Form 73
3. The Problem of Control 75
II. Use of Force Without UNSC Authorisation? 78
1. The Existence of Another Legal Basis 78
2. Bypassing the UNSC? 80
3. Suspending the Right of Veto? 84
C. The Way Forward: How Could the UNSC Improve the System of Use of Force Mandates? 87
I. Measures Aimed at Better Defining the Scope and the Duration of the Mandate 88
1. Dealing with Vagueness and Referrals 88
2. Black Holes and Sunset Clauses 90
II. Measures Aimed at Better Controlling the Operating States 92
1. Avoiding Ultra Vires Acts 92
2. The Challenge of Rules of Engagement 93
3. Proportionality 93
4. Compliance with International Law, Responsibility and Accountability 95
5. Reporting and Monitoring 97
6. Instituting a “Use of Force Committee”? 99
D. Conclusion 100
Lucy Keller Läubli: Case Study on Cambodia 103
A. Background of the Cambodian Conflict 103
I. Historical Background 103
II. International Reaction to the Conflict 104
B. The Peace Process and the Paris Agreements 105
I. Peace Negotiations 105
II. The Paris Agreements 106
C. The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 107
I. UNTAC’s Mandate 107
II. Implementation of UNTAC’s Mandate 108
D. Post-Conflict Justice: The Khmer Rouge Tribunal 109
I. Background 109
II. The Extraordinary Chambers in the Court of Cambodia (ECCC) 110
1. Composition and Jurisdiction of the ECCC 110
2. Trials before the ECCC 110
3. Shortcomings of the ECCC 111
E. Assessment 112
Frank Hoffmeister: Case Study on Cyprus 113
A. Introduction 113
B. UN Peace-keeping 113
I. The Constitutional Set-up of the Republic of Cyprus 113
II. The Establishment of UNFICYP 114
III. The Mandate of UNFICYP 115
1. The Original Mandate 115
2. The Amendments 115
IV. First Interim Conclusion 116
C. UN Non-Recognition Policy 117
I. The Proclamation of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus 117
II. Non-Recognition by the United Nations 117
III. The Practical Effects of Non-Recognition 118
IV. Second Interim Conclusion 119
D. UN Good Offices 120
I. The Security Council Parameters for a Settlement 120
II. The Annan Plan 2002–2004 121
1. The Creation of the United Cyprus Republic 122
2. The Treatment of Dispossessed Owners 122
3. The Eligibility of Voters in the Simultaneous, but Separate Referenda 126
III. EU Accession 2004 127
1. The Legality of Accession 127
2. The International Law Dispute on the Direct Trade Regulation 128
IV. The Direct Talks 129
E. Conclusion 130
Jean-Yves de Cara: Case Study on Libya 133
A. Introduction 133
B. The Current Internal Crisis 139
I. The Failure of State Building 140
II. The Internal Chaos 145
1. The Factors of the Unrest 146
a) The Tribal System 146
b) The Militias 148
2. The Constitutional Process 152
a) Procedural Aspects 152
b) The Content of the Draft Constitution 154
aa) The Controversial Issues 154
bb) The Intricate Drafting of Some Provisions 157
C. The Current International Crisis 159
I. The Risk of Destabilisation 160
1. The Diplomatic Approach 162
2. Military Action 166
3. Law of the Sea 170
II. The Humanitarian Disaster 171
1. Humanitarian Issues 172
a) Facts 172
b) Legal Implications 173
2. Migration 175
D. Conclusion 177
Part III: International Humanitarian Law 179
Marco Sassòli / Yvette Issar: Challenges to International Humanitarian Law 181
A. Introduction 181
B. Successes of International Humanitarian Law 182
I. Substantive Progress 182
II. Development of Implementation Mechanisms 188
C. Substantive Challenges 191
I. Non-challenges Often Seen as Challenges in Public Discussion 191
1. Drones 191
2. Terrorism 192
II. IHL of Non-international Armed Conflicts is Different and Less Developed than IHL of International Armed Conflicts 193
III. The Threshold of Application of IHL 194
1. Over-classification: The “War on Terror” as an Armed Conflict 194
2. Under-classification: The Frequent Denial that IHL Applies 196
3. The Minimum Threshold for IHL to Apply (IACs) 196
4. The Minimum Threshold for IHL to Apply (NIACs) 197
IV. Internationalised and Transnational Armed Conflicts 197
V. The Geographical Scope of Application of IHL 199
VI. The Distinction Between Civilians and Combatants 200
VII. The Admissibility of Targeting and Detaining Enemy Fighters in NIACs 201
VIII. Autonomous Weapon Systems 202
IX. Cyber Warfare 205
D. The Main Challenge: Ensuring Respect of Existing Rules 207
I. IHL-based Implementation Mechanisms Have Not Developed 208
1. Protecting Powers 208
2. The International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission 209
3. The ICRC 210
II. The Need for an Inter-State Mechanism on Compliance 211
III. Limitations of the United Nations 212
IV. Limits of International Criminal Justice 213
V. The Equality of Belligerents Before IHL is Challenged in Discourse and in Reality 215
VI. Difficulties in Obtaining Respect for IHL in Asymmetric Conflicts 216
VII. IHL is Humanitarian, but Some Actors Pursue Inherently Inhumane Goals 217
VIII. Engaging Non-State Armed Groups 219
E. The Challenge of Perception: The Perceived Gap Between the Promises of the Law and Reality is Widening 223
F. How to Produce New, More Adequate Rules and Mechanisms? 226
I. Through Treaties? 226
II. The Revival of Customary Law 227
III. New Forms of Soft Law 228
IV. Scholarly Writings Between Apology and Utopia 231
V. The Increasing Importance of Jurisprudence 231
VI. The Role of Natural Law 233
G. Conclusion 234
Andreas Paulus: UN Missions and the Law of Occupation 237
A. Introduction: The Blurring of Lines Between Peace and Armed Conflict 237
B. Normative Régimes Applicable to the Use of Force in Occupied Territories 241
I. Application of IHL in General 241
II. Occupation 244
1. International Humanitarian Law I: Occupation Law Stricto Sensu 245
2. International Humanitarian Law II: Conduct of Hostilities 247
3. Self-Defence and Jus ad Bellum 249
4. Human Rights 250
C. “Transformative Occupation” and the Role of UN Forces 254
D. Conclusions: The Interaction of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law 256
Math Noortmann / Ioannis Chapsos: Private Military and Security Companies: A Transnational Legal Approach 257
A. Introduction 257
B. The PMSC Discourse in International Law: Normativity is the Norm 260
C. PMSCs Beyond the Law Inter Nations, or the Ordering of a New Transnational Security Space 262
D. PMSCs’ Roles: The Complexity of Diversification 266
E. Public Accountability or Private Responsibility; Is That the Question? 269
F. Concluding Thought: Is it Possible that Private Military and Security Companies are Amongst the Good Guys? 274
List of Authors 277