Menu Expand

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 58 (2015)

Editors: Arnauld, Andreas von | Odendahl, Kerstin

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 58

(2016)

Additional Information

Book Details

Pricing

About The Author

Prof. Dr. Andreas von Arnauld ist Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität Kiel und Direktor des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Zuvor lehrte er als Professor für Öffentliches Recht, insbesondere Völker- und Europarecht an der Helmut-Schmidt-Universität der Bundeswehr in Hamburg (2007–2012) sowie an der Universität Münster (2012–2013). Seine Forschungsschwerpunkte umfassen das internationale Friedenssicherungsrecht, den Grund- und Menschenrechtsschutz, Rechtsstaatlichkeit (rule of law), rechtswissenschaftliche Grundlagenforschung sowie Recht und Literatur.

Prof. Dr. Kerstin von der Decken (geb. Odendahl) ist Inhaberin des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völkerrecht, Europarecht und Allgemeine Staatslehre an der Universität Kiel sowie Geschäftsführende Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Davor war sie von 2004 bis 2011 Professorin für Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität St. Gallen, Schweiz. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen bei den Grundlagen des Völker- und Europarechts sowie dem internationalen Umwelt,- Kultur- und Sicherheitsrecht.

Abstract

The German Yearbook of International Law, founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the Kiel University. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Table of Contents 5
Forum: The Conflict in Ukraine and the ‘Weakness’ of International Law 9
Christian Marxsen: International Law in Crisis: Russia’s Struggle for Recognition 11
I. Introduction 11
II. Effects on the Jus Contra Bellum 13
A. Russia’s Challenges to International Law 14
1. Humanitarian Reasons for the Intervention 14
2. Intervention by Invitation 16
3. Self-Determination 18
B. States’ Reaction Towards Russian Challenges 22
C. What Are the Effects on International Law? 24
III. The Crisis as a Structural Lack of Recognition 27
A. Russia’s Rhetoric: Russia as Systematically Neglected by Western States 27
B. The Context: Western Violations of the Law 29
C. Russia’s Struggle for Recognition 34
IV. The Elements of Russia’s Struggle for Recognition 38
A. Disrupting Western Hegemony in the International Law Discourse 38
B. Shifting the Arena – Engaging in Hybrid Conflicts 40
C. Superpower Status and Violations of the Law 45
V. Conclusion 46
Focus: Cyber-Security Beyond the Military Perspective 49
Martin Ney / Andreas Zimmermann: Cyber-Security Beyond the Military Perspective: International Law, ‘Cyberspace’, and the Concept of Due Diligence 51
I. Introduction 51
II. Cyberspace and General International Law 52
III. Notion of ‘Cyberspace’ and its Legal (Ir)relevance 54
IV. Challenges for International Law in Cyberspace 55
V. Cyberspace, the Prohibition of the Use of Force, and Jus in Bello 56
VI. Cyberspace, Human Rights, and Data Protection: The Need to Develop Appropriate Legal Standards 58
VII. Cyberspace Governance: Which Way Forward? 60
VIII. Cyberspace and Inter-State Due Diligence Obligations 61
IX. Structure and Content of the Focus Section 65
X. Outlook 66
Christian Walter: Obligations of States Before, During, and After a Cyber Security Incident 67
I. Introduction 67
II. General Assumptions 68
A. Concerning the Role of States 68
B. Concerning the Term ‘Cyber Security Incident’ 69
C. The CoE Convention on Cybercrime (Budapest Convention) 70
III. General Obligations of Prevention 71
A. Principle of Non-Intervention 71
B. No-Harm Principle 73
C. Precautionary Principle 76
D. Summary Regarding Prevention 78
IV. Procedural Obligations of Cooperation and Information (During and After a Cyber Security Incident) 78
A. Good Neighbourliness as a General Source 78
B. Emergency Information 80
C. Information, Consultation, and Notification Beyond Emergency Situations 80
D. Cooperation in Investigation and Prosecution 82
1. The General Framework for International Criminal Cooperation 83
2. Obligations Contained in the Budapest Convention 83
3. Transposing Obligations of Investigation Developed in International Human Rights Adjudication 84
4. Transborder Access to Data 84
V. Overall Assessment 85
Oliver Dörr: Obligations of the State of Origin of a Cyber Security Incident 87
I. Introduction 87
II. The Indicatory Function of the Budapest Convention 88
III. Obligation to Refrain from Computer Attacks 89
IV. Obligation to Prevent Computer Attacks 91
A. Duties to Prevent in International Law 91
B. The Standard of Due Diligence 94
C. Consequences of a Breach of Due Diligence 96
V. Obligation to Co-Operate with Other States 96
VI. Summary 98
August Reinisch / Markus Beham: Mitigating Risks: Inter-State Due Diligence Obligations in Case of Harmful Cyber Incidents and Malicious Cyber Activity – Obligations of the Transit State 101
I. Introduction 101
II. The Concept of the ‘Transit State’ 103
III. Primary Obligations 104
A. The No Harm Principle 104
1. Environmental Law 104
2. Conflict-Related No Harm Rules 106
B. Neutrality Rules 108
IV. State Responsibility 110
V. Conclusion 111
Robert Kolb: Reflections on Due Diligence Duties and Cyberspace 113
I. Introduction 113
II. The Notion of Due Diligence 114
A. Historical Roots 114
B. Standard of Care 115
C. Definition of Due Diligence 116
D. Elements of Due Diligence 117
III. Due Diligence and Cyberspace 118
A. General Aspects 118
B. Delimitations 119
C. General Issues with Due Diligence in the Cyber Context 120
D. Specific Issues with Due Diligence in Cyberspace 126
IV. Conclusion 127
Jutta Brunnée / Tamar Meshel: Teaching an Old Law New Tricks: International Environmental Law Lessons for Cyberspace Governance 129
I. Introduction 129
II. The No Harm Rule and Related Principles 133
A. Harm Prevention and Due Diligence 135
1. International Environmental Law and Norm Evolution in International Cyberspace Law 135
2. Areas of Controversy 140
B. Procedural Obligations 144
C. Precaution 147
III. Cyberspace as a Global Commons or a Shared Resource? 152
IV. Institutional Frameworks 155
A. International Environmental Governance 156
B. International Cyberspace Governance 158
V. Conclusion 167
Matthias Herdegen: Possible Legal Framework and Regulatory Models for Cyberspace: Due Diligence Obligations and Institutional Models for Enhanced Inter-State Cooperation 169
I. Different Threats to Cyber Security 170
II. Responsibility for Wrongful Acts Attributable to States 171
A. Primary Norms Related to Cyber Security 171
B. Attribution and State Responsibility 172
1. Actions of State Organs 172
2. Actions by Private Persons and Non-Governmental Entities:Control by the State 172
III. Due Diligence and Cyber Security 174
A. Prevention of Transboundary Harm – Conceptual Basis 174
1. Respect for the Environment of Other States and for International Common Goods 174
2. Prevention of Acts Aimed at Transboundary Harm 178
3. Freedom of Communication 179
4. Responsibility for Shared Resources 179
B. Significance of Due Diligence 180
1. Obligation to Take Appropriate Measures 180
2. Commensurability with the Risk to be Averted 181
3. Vigilance and Prevention 182
4. Exchange of Information and Warning 182
IV. Regulatory Approaches 183
A. Layers of Responsibility 183
1. Private Actors Including Service Providers 183
2. Responsibility of States of Origin of Cyber Threats 183
3. Due Diligence of Corporate Targets 184
B. Form of Regulation 184
C. Institutional Framework 184
V. Conclusion 184
General Articles 187
Eckart Klein / David Kretzmer: The UN Human Rights Committee: The General Comments – The Evolution of an Autonomous Monitoring Instrument 189
I. Introductory Remarks 190
A. Emancipation from the Reporting System 190
B. A Short Overview of General Comments 192
C. Intention of this Article 193
II. Purposes and Functions of General Comments 195
A. General Remarks 195
B. Specific Purposes 196
III. The Elements of the Successful Evolution of the General Comments 202
A. The Issue of Competence 202
B. The Legal Nature of General Comments 204
1. No Legally Binding Force 204
2. Authoritative Interpretation 205
C. Selection of Topics 210
D. References Used in General Comments 212
1. Previous Experience 212
a) Concluding Observations 212
b) Views and Decisions 213
c) General Comments 215
d) Rules of Procedure 215
2. Reference to Outside Information and Materials 216
E. Format and Procedure 219
1. Comprehensiveness, Precision, Readability 219
2. Interpretive Methods 222
3. Procedural Issues 223
IV. Actual Achievements 226
A. States 226
B. NGOs and National Human Rights Institutions 226
C. Human Rights Committee 227
V. General Appraisal and Conclusions 227
Alex G. Oude Elferink: International Law and Negotiated and Adjudicated Maritime Boundaries: A Complex Relationship 231
I. Introduction 232
II. The Role of Negotiations and the Judiciary in Settling Maritime Boundaries 233
A. Clauses Contained in Multilateral Conventions 233
B. Incidence of Negotiations and Adjudication 235
C. Perceived Advantages of Negotiations 237
D. The Complementarity of Negotiations and Adjudication 239
E. Disagreement about Submission to Adjudication 242
III. The Role of International Law in Negotiations and Adjudication 246
A. Negotiations and International Law 246
B. The Case Law and International Law 250
IV. Conclusions 259
Harald Kleinschmidt: Decolonisation, State Succession, and a Formal Problem of International Public Law 265
I. Decolonisation as State Succession and the European Public Law of Treaties Among States 266
II. Theories of State Succession 274
A. The Concept of Inheritance 274
B. 19th-Century International Legal Theory on Pre-Colonial States 279
C. African Attitudes Towards Treaty Law 283
D. Post-World War II Theorists and the Legacy of 19th-Century Legal Theory 288
E. The Rejection of Treaty Devolution 292
III. Decolonisation as State Succession and Pre-Colonial States 297
IV. Buganda and Bonny as Examples of Thwarted Restitution of Pre-Colonial States 305
A. Buganda 305
B. Bonny 311
V. The Post-Colonial Newly Independent States and the Burden of Decolonisation Orchestrated as State Succession 313
Marco Longobardo: The Palestinian Right to Exploit the Dead Sea Coastline for Tourism 317
I. Introduction 318
II. The Situation of the Dead Sea Coastlines: An Overview 319
III. The Law of Belligerent Occupation as the Principal Relevant Legal Framework 323
A. Positive Obligation of the Occupying Power to Encourage the Economic Development of the Occupied Territory 323
B. Assessing Israeli Denials of Access to Palestinian Investors to the Dead Sea Coastline Under International Humanitarian Law 330
C. The Norms Regarding the Exploitation of Natural Resources Under Belligerent Occupation and the Development of Tourism on the Palestinian Dead Sea Coast 334
D. Brief Remarks on the Impact of International Human Rights Law on the Palestinian Access to the Dead Sea Shore 336
E. Partial Conclusion on the Impact of the Law on Belligerent Occupation on the Palestinian Access to the Dead Sea Coastline 337
IV. The Principles of Self-Determination of Peoples and Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources Applied to Palestinian Access to the Dead Sea Coastline 338
A. Self-Determination of Peoples and Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources in the Palestinian Context 338
B. The Application of the Principles of Self-Determination and Permanent Sovereignty During Belligerent Occupation 343
C. Partial Conclusion on the Palestinian Self-Determination and Sovereignty over Natural Resources Related to the Access to the Dead Sea Coastline 346
V. The Relevant Treaty Provisions of the Oslo Accords 347
VI. Concluding Remarks on the Legal Consequences of the Israeli Policy and the Available Remedies 349
Fenghua Li: Safeguarding State Sovereignty: The Relevance of Post-Award Remedies in ICSID and Non-ICSID Arbitration 353
I. Introduction 353
II. The Inconsistency of Review 358
A. The Non-Uniformity of Standard in ICSID Annulment Proceedings 358
B. The Uncertainty of Standard in Non-ICSID Arbitration 360
III. The Rigorousness of Review 362
A. The Discretion in Ruling on Annulment 362
B. The Degree of Rigorousness 364
IV. Review on the Merit 368
V. The Implication for Sovereign Choice 373
VI. Conclusion 377
Laura Salvadego: Witness Protection and Inter-State Cooperation: Current and Emerging Challenges in the Fight Against Transnational Organised Crime 379
I. Introduction 379
II. The ‘Statute’ of Protected Witness in International Law 383
III. Witness Protection and the Fair Trial Principle 388
IV. The Joint Implementation of Procedural Protection Measures 395
V. Non-Procedural Protection Measures: Witness Protection Programmes and Relocation Abroad 400
VI. Conclusion 406
German Practice 411
Elisa Oezbek: Strengthening the Human Rights Council: The 2015 Presidency of German Ambassador Joachim Rücker 413
I. Introduction 413
II. The Human Rights Council 414
III. The Human Rights Council Before Its 10th Cycle: Achievements and Challenges 417
A. First Challenge: Membership 418
B. Second Challenge: Relationship Between Geneva and New York 420
C. Third Challenge: Efficiency and Functionality 421
IV. The German Presidency 2015 423
A. Membership 424
B. Civil Society Participation 424
C. Bridging the Institutional Gap Between New York and Geneva 425
D. Efficiency 426
E. The Council’s Institutional Responsiveness 427
F. Effectiveness 428
Hendrik Selle: Confronting the Destruction of Cultural Heritage Used as a Tactic of War: A German-Iraqi Initiative in the UN General Assembly 431
I. Three Thousand Years of History, Gone in a Single Day 431
II. International Response 433
III. The General Assembly Initiative 435
IV. Conceiving a Text 436
V. Negotiations and Adoption 437
VI. Follow-Up 440
Stephanie Schlickewei: The Deployment of the German Armed Forces to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) 443
I. Introduction 443
II. (Initial) Situation in Mali 445
III. United Nations Reaction 448
IV. Legal Assessment of Germany’s Contribution to the UN Mission in Mali 453
A. Procedural Aspects 453
B. Substantive Aspects 458
V. Evaluation and Prospects 461
Henning Büttner / Marvin Schwope: The Aftermath of Prism: The International Legal Framework for Surveillance and the Radius of Operation for German Intelligence Agencies from a Human Rights Perspective 465
I. Introduction 465
II. Surveillance and its Implications on the Right to Privacy 466
A. The Legal Framework of the Right to Privacy 466
B. Extraterritorial Application of the Right to Privacy 467
C. The Scope of the Right to Privacy Concerning Surveillance Measures 469
III. The NSA Surveillance 469
A. The Factual Background of the US Surveillance on German Citizens 469
B. The NSA Surveillance: Violation of the Right to Privacy? 470
1. The Extraterritorial Obligation of the USA to Respect the Right to Privacy 470
2. US Surveillance: Interference with and Violation of the Right to Privacy? 471
C. US Espionage on German Officials 473
IV. The BND Surveillance 474
A. The G10 and German Mass Surveillance 474
B. The Transmission of Personal Data to the NSA 476
V. Conclusion 478
Sarah Bothe / Charlotte Gaschke: Germany’s Proposal of a ‘Grexit auf Zeit’ 481
I. Introduction 481
II. The German Proposal of a ‘Grexit auf Zeit’ 483
III. Legal Options for Leaving (and Re-entering) the Eurozone 486
A. Applicability of Public International Law? 487
B. Voluntary Exit (and Re-entry) 490
1. Unilateral Right to Leave (and Re-enter) the Eurozone 490
a) Direct Applicability of Article 50 TEU 490
b) Indirect Applicability of Article 50 TEU 493
c) Application of Article 2 (1) TFEU 495
d) Application of Article 62 VCLT 496
2. Consented Exit from (and Re-entry into) the Eurozone 497
C. (Temporary) Expulsion from the Eurozone 498
1. Annulment of Council Decision 498
2. Suspension of Rights 499
a) Suspension Under the TEU 499
b) Suspension of Rights Under Article 60 VCLT 499
IV. Conclusion 501
Jens T. Theilen: Towards Acceptance of Religious Pluralism: The Federal Constitutional Court’s Second Judgment on Muslim Teachers Wearing Headscarves 503
I. Introduction: Uneasy Religious Pluralism 503
II. The Backstory in Germany 505
III. The Federal Constitutional Court’s Second Judgment on Teachers Wearing Headscarves 508
IV. Analysis of the Judgment’s Main Issues 511
A. The Distinction Between Civil Servants and Public Administration 511
B. Grounds for Restricting Religious Freedom: What (Level of) Danger? 513
C. Discrimination, Intersectionality, and Quandaries 515
V. A Step Back: European Union Law 517
VI. Conclusion: What Changes? 519
Book Reviews 521
Amal Alamuddin/Nidal Nabil Jurdi/David Tolbert (eds.): The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Law and Practice (Schabas) 523
Aharon Barak: Human Dignity: The Constitutional Value and the Constitutional Right (Roeder) 526
Majorie Cohn (ed.): Drones and Targeted Killing: Legal, Moral, and Geopolitical Issues (Nelson) 528
Richard K. Gardiner: Treaty Interpretation (Dörr) 531
Lauri Mälksoo: Russian Approaches to International Law (Morris) 533
Marko Milanovic/Michael Wood (eds.): The Law and Politics of the Kosovo Advisory Opinion (Hipold) 537
Jens David Ohlen/Kevin Govern/Claire Finkelstein (eds.): Cyberwar: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts (Stadlmeier) 542
Donald R. Rothwell/Alex G. Oude Elferink/Karen N. Scott/Tim Stephens (eds.): The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea (Haake) 545
Carsten Stahn (ed.): The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court (Krzan) 548
Neil Walker: Intimations of Global Law (Wackernagel) 550
Gerhard Werle/Lovell Fernandez/Moritz Vormbaum (eds.): Africa and the International Criminal Court (Krzan) 554
Books Received 557