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Wolfrum, R. (Ed.) (1991). Law of the Sea at the Crossroads: The Continuing Search for a Universally Accepted Régime. Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Symposium of the Kiel Institute of International Law July 10 to 14, 1990. Duncker & Humblot.
Wolfrum, Rüdiger. Law of the Sea at the Crossroads: The Continuing Search for a Universally Accepted Régime: Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Symposium of the Kiel Institute of International Law July 10 to 14, 1990. Duncker & Humblot, 1991. Book.
Wolfrum, R (ed.) (1991): Law of the Sea at the Crossroads: The Continuing Search for a Universally Accepted Régime: Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Symposium of the Kiel Institute of International Law July 10 to 14, 1990, Duncker & Humblot, [online]


Law of the Sea at the Crossroads: The Continuing Search for a Universally Accepted Régime

Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Symposium of the Kiel Institute of International Law July 10 to 14, 1990

Editors: Wolfrum, Rüdiger

Veröffentlichungen des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht an der Universität Kiel, Vol. 113


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Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Foreword 5
Contents 7
Abbreviations 10
Michael Müller-Wille: Address 13
Franz Froschmaier: Address 15
Rüdiger Wolfrum: Address 18
José Luis Jesus: Statement on the Issue of the Universality of the Convention 21
I. Introduction 21
II. Unilateral Activities of States 22
III. The Framework of Negotiations 24
IV. Questions to Be Considered 26
1. Entry into Force of Amendments to Part Xl 27
2. Decision-making 27
3. Representation and Seats in Permanence 28
4. The Costs of lnstitutional Arrangements 29
V. The Issue of Timing 30
L. D. M. Nelson: The Preparatory Commission for the International Sea-Bed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea: An Evaluation 31
I. Introduction 31
II. Membership and Participation 31
III. Structure 32
IV. The Progress of Work 32
1. The Implementation of Resolution II 32
2. The Preparation of Draft Agreements, Regulations and Rules of Procedures for the Authority 37
3. The Protection of the Interests of Developing Land-based Producer States (Special Commission 1) 38
4. The Enterprise (Special Commission 2) 38
5. The Drafting of the Mining Code (Special Commission 3) 39
6. The Tribunal (Special Commission 4) 39
V. The Preparatory Commission and the Convention on the Law of the Sea 40
VI. Conclusion 44
Cristian Maquieira: Statement on the Implementation of Resolution II of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea by the Preparatory Commission for the International Sea-Bed Authority 45
Rüdiger Wolfrum: Decision-making in the Council: An Assessment and Comparison 59
I. Introduction 59
II. Composition and Decision-making in the Council according to Article 161 61
1. Composition 61
2. Voting System 65
III. Assessment and Conclusion 70
1. Evaluation and Assessment 70
2. Suggestions 72
Discussion 75
Hjalmar Thiel: Environmental Impact Resulting from Deep Sea-Bed Mining and Risk Assessment 87
I. The Precautionary Principle 87
II. The General Problem: Mass Transport 88
III. Mining Impacts 88
1. Surface Water Impacts 89
2. Deep Water Impacts 90
a) Disturbance from Nodule Collection 90
b) Disturbance from Nodule Transport 91
3. Precautionary Decisions 92
IV. Precautionary Investigations 93
1. Research Demands 93
2. The DISCOL Project 94
V. Precautionary Legislation 95
VI. Precautionary Articulation 95
Literature 96
Discussion 97
Barbara Kwiatkowska/Etty R. Agoes: Archipelagic Waters: An Assessment of National Legislation 107
I. Introduction 107
II. State Practice 108
1. Conforming Practice of Archipelagic States Not Using Archipelagic Baselines and Not Claiming Archipelagic Waters 108
2. Conforming Practice Concerning Non-Self-Governing Archipelagic Territories 110
3. Non-Conforming Practice Concerning Non-State Archipelagos 112
4. Archipelagic States Conforming to the Rules on Archipelagic Baselines and Archipelagic Waters 113
5. Archipelagic States Conforming to the Rules on Archipelagic Waters but Not Determining Archipelagic Baselines 119
6. Archipelagic States Presumably Conforming to the Rules on Archipelagic Baselines anti Archipelagic Waters 119
7. Archipelagic States Presumably Conformingto the Rules on Archipelagic Waters but Not Conformingto those on Archipelagic Baselines 120
8. The Case of the Philippines 122
9. The Case of Indonesia 130
III. Evaluation 137
1. Definition of Archipelagic State and Construction of Archipelagic Baselines 137
2. The Nature of the Archipelagic State's Competence 138
3. Right of Innocent Passage 139
4. Right of Archipelagic Sea Lanes Passage and Archipelagic Straits 140
5. Navigational Rights of Third States - The Essence of Controversy 146
Discussion 152
Günther Jaenicke: Joint Ventures for Sea-Bed Activities: A Viable Alternative 165
Discussion 174
Klaus Dicke: Deciding upon the Budget of the United Nations: A Comparison 189
I. Introduction 189
II. The Variable "Budget" 192
1. Objective-of-Expenditure Budgets 192
2. Programme Budgets 195
III. The Variable "Deciding upon" 198
IV. Just and Fair? A Comparative Assessment 202
V. Budgeting the International Sea-Bed Authority 203
VI. Conclusion 208
Budget of the International Sea-Bed Authority – The Provisions of the Law of the Sea Convention: An Assessment. United Nations Office for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea 213
I. Introduction 213
II. Budgetary Provisions of the Three Organizations 216
1. Budgetary Provisions of the United Nations 216
2. Budgetary Provisions of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 216
3. Budgetary Provisions of the International Sea-Bed Authority 216
III. Functions of the Various Organs of the Authority 217
1. The Assembly and the Council 218
2. Organs of the Council 218
3. The Proposed Finance Committee 219
4. The Enterprise 219
5. Tasks of the Secretariat Flowing from the Functions of the Organs of the Authority 219
IV. Factors That Would Influence the Initial Set-up of the Secretariat of the Authority 219
1. Status of Resource-related Activities and Prospects for Commercial Exploitation 220
2. Impact of Projected Nodule-related Activities on the Work of the Authority 221
3. Impact of the Work of the Preparatory Commissionon the Initial Work Load of the Authority 222
V. Approaches to the Budget of the Authority 223
1. Evolutionary Approach 223
a) The Initial Secretariat Set-up 223
b) The Initial Enterprise Set-up 224
2. Strategies for a Cost-Effective Initial Secretariat Set-up 225
a) Staff Costs 225
aa) Staff for Conference Servicing 225
bb) Administration and Management Staff 226
cc) Substantive Technical Staff 226
dd) Use of Short-Term Staff/Consultants/Groups of Experts 228
b) Other Items of Expenditure 228
c) Non-Recurrent One-Time Expenditures 228
d) Cost-Sharing 229
aa) The Authority and Enterprise 229
bb) The Authority and Other International Organizations 229
cc) The Authority and the UN 229
3. Transitional Arrangements 229
VI. Financial Implications for the States Parties 230
Discussion 236
Klaus Brockhoff: The Production Regulation of the Law of the Sea Convention: An Assessment and Alternatives 251
I. The Essence of the Law of the Sea Regulations 251
II. An Assessment 254
1. Technical Problems 254
2. Political Implications 256
3. Market Implications 257
4. Results 259
III. Alternatives 259
1. The Enterprise as the Only Producer 259
2. The Enterprise as a Buffer Stock Manager 260
3. Auctions 261
Denis Tytgat: The Economic Adjustment System under Lomé, World Bank and Others: A Comparison 263
I. Introduction 263
III. Structural Adjustment Support in Lomé IV 266
IV. World Bank 266
V. Regional Development Banks 267
VI. Common Fund 267
VII. Conclusion 268
Discussion 269
Pedro Roffe: Technology Issues in the International Agenda: A Review of Two Decades of Multilateral Deliberations in the United Nations and GATT 285
I. Introduction 285
II. The General Background 286
1. The Decade of the Seventies 287
2. The Eighties 290
a) Technology as a Major Factor in International Competitiveness 290
b) Immediate Antecedents to the Multilateral Agenda of the 1980s 291
III. The Aspirations of the Developing Countries 294
1. The Revision of the Paris Convention 296
a) Inventors' Certificates 297
b) Article 5A of the Paris Convention 298
2. An International Code of Conduct on the Transfer of Technology 299
IV. The New Agenda of the Decade of the Eighties 300
1. Intellectual Property and the Multilateral Trade Negotiations 301
2. The lssues 302
3. Main Proposals by lndustrialized Countries 303
4. Proposals by Developing Countries 306
V. The Seventies and the Eighties: Two Agendas in Perspective 307
1. The Different Settings: the 1970s and the 1980s 307
2. The Basic Premises of the Intellectual Property System and Its Evolution 309
VI. Conclusions 312
Discussion 315
Hans-Joachim Kiderlen: The Review Provisions of the UN Law of the Sea Convention and the Powers of the Review Conference 319
Discussion 327
Tullio Treves: Deep Sea-Bed Mining: The Practice of the Pioneer Investors 331
I. The Pioneer Investors: a Multi-Faceted Group 331
II. The Background: the Different Positions on the Lawfulness of Unilateral Exploitation of the Deep Sea-Bed 333
III. Resolution II and the Need to Eliminate Overlapping between Pioneer Mining Sites 335
IV. The Elimination of Overlapping amongst Western Consortia and Enterprises Belonging to States Applying for Registered Pioneer Status 336
V. The Interests of the "Potential Applicants" 338
VI. The Elimination of Overlapping between the Soviet Enterprise and the Four Western Consortia: the "Midnight Agreement" 339
VII. The Registration of the Indian, French, Japanese and Soviet Enterprises 340
VIII. The Importance of Certain Obligations in the "Midnight Agreement" for Future Developments 341
IX. Trends of Practice after the Registration of Pioneer Investors 342
X. The Obligations of Registered Pioneer Investors under the Test of the Realities of the Present Situation 342
XI. The Universality of the 1982 Conventionas a Commonly Shared Objective 344
XII. Conclusions Drawn from Practice 345
XIII. Prospects for the Future 347
Francisco Orrego Vicuña: State Practice and National Legislation Relating to the Exclusive Economic Zone, the Continental Shelf and Straits Used for International Navigation: Basic Trends 351
I. Trends Relating to the Exclusive Economic Zone 351
1. Conceptual Content of the Claims 352
2. Trends Regarding the Rights and Duties of Third States 354
3. Régime of Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources 355
4. Declarations of States and Other Functions of Interpretation 358
5. Evaluation of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Light of National Legislation and Practice 359
II. Issues and Trends Relating to the Continental Shelf Régime 360
1. The Integration of the Continental Shelf and Exclusive Economic Zone Régimes 361
2. The Outer Limit of the Continental Shelf 361
3. Specialized Legislation on the Continental Shelf 365
4. Evaluation of Continental Shelf Trends 366
III. Straits Used for International Navigation: the Continuing Uncertainty 367
1. Divergent Practice as to Innocent Passage in General 367
2. The Practice Relating to Transit Passage and Freedom of Navigation 368
Wolf Plesmann/Volker Röben: Marine Scientific Research: State Practice versus Law of the Sea? 373
I. Introduction 373
II. Provisions of the Convention 375
III. State Practice 376
1. Preparation of a Research Cruise 376
2. RV Meteor 377
3. RV Meteor/Brazil 382
4. RV Poseidon 384
5. RV Sonne 384
IV. Analysis 385
1. Legal Analysis 385
2. Factual Analysis and Proposals 389
V. Conclusion 390
Discussion 393
Olivier Jalbert: Straddling Stocks, Protection of the Environment and Drug Control: Unsolved Problems of Coastal States’ Powers and Obligations 411
I. Introduction 411
II. Straddling Stocks 411
III. Applicable International Law 412
IV. Regional Organizations: NAFO 413
V. International Co-operation on Enforcement 415
VI. Protection of the Environment 415
VII. The Intervention Convention 416
VIII. Dumping 417
IX. Basel Convention 418
X. Drug Control 418
XI. Conclusion 419
Discussion 420
J. Enno Harders: Deep Sea-Bed Mining and the Protection of the Environment: Developments in Pollution Control, Responsibility and Liability 431
I. Law of the Sea Convention 432
1. The Substantive Law of the Convention 432
2. Enforcement of the Convention's Provisions 433
II. Deep Sea-Bed Mining Code 435
1. Scope of Application 436
a) Definition of Pollution 436
b) Material Scope of the Definition of Pollution 438
2. Environmental Reference Zones 439
3. Marine Pollution Control Measures Taken by the Operator 440
4. Enforcement of the Draft Provisions 441
a) Enforcement by the Authority 441
b) Enforcement by the States 444
5. Liability Provisions of the Draft 445
a) Responsibility and Liability of the Contractor 445
b) Responsibility and Liability of the Sponsoring State 448
c) Unlimited Liability without Fund for Compensation 449
III. Conclusion 452
TUSCH Research Group, Germany: Research Perspectives on Protecting the Marine Environment during Deep-Sea Mining 455
I. Introduction and Objectives 455
ll. Deep-Sea Mining 457
1. Manganese Nodules 457
a) General Aspects 457
b) Ferromanganese Nodule Mining and Environmental Impact 459
2. Metalliferous Muds 461
a) General Aspects 461
b) Mining of Metalliferous Muds and Environmental Impact 462
3. Manganese Crusts 463
a) General Aspects 463
b) Mining of Manganese Crusts and Environmental Impact 463
4. Massive Sulfides 464
a) General Aspects 464
b) Mining of Massive Sulfides and Environmental Impact 464
5. Phosphorites 465
a) General Aspects 465
b) Mining of Phosphorites and Environmental Impact 465
III. Research Topics 466
1. Seafloor Boundary Layer 466
2. Chemical Environment of the Seawater/Sediment lnterface 467
3. Benthic Communities 469
4. Suspended Particulates and Currents 470
5. Relationship of Chemical Elements in the Water Column and the Bottom Boundary Layer 472
6. Plankton 473
IV. The TUSCH (Tiefsee-Umweltschutz) Research Group 475
1. National Aspects 475
2. International Aspects 476
Discussion 478
Round Table: Modifications to the Law of the Sea Convention: The Choice of the Right Format 487
Discussion 519
Closing Remarks 525
Jörn Thiede /Harald Bäcker: Annex: GEOMAR – A New Scientific Concept, a New Road to the Transfer of Technology 527
GEOMAR - The Kiel Perspective 528
Foundation for Marine Geosciences GEOMAR 529
The Technical Component of GEOMAR 530
The Tasks of the GTG 531
The GEOMAR Equipment Pool 532
Technical Developments 533
The GEOMAR Technology and Research Park 533
The GEOMAR Study Center 534
Location and Regional Advantages for GEOMAR 534
Experience and Perspectives 535
List of Participants 539