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German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 59 (2016)

Editors: Arnauld, Andreas von | Decken, Kerstin von der

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 59


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About The Author

Prof. Dr. Andreas von Arnauld ist Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität Kiel und Direktor des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Zuvor lehrte er als Professor für Öffentliches Recht, insbesondere Völker- und Europarecht an der Helmut-Schmidt-Universität der Bundeswehr in Hamburg (2007–2012) sowie an der Universität Münster (2012–2013). Seine Forschungsschwerpunkte umfassen das internationale Friedenssicherungsrecht, den Grund- und Menschenrechtsschutz, Rechtsstaatlichkeit (rule of law), rechtswissenschaftliche Grundlagenforschung sowie Recht und Literatur.

Prof. Dr. Kerstin von der Decken (geb. Odendahl) ist Inhaberin des Lehrstuhls für Öffentliches Recht mit Schwerpunkt Völkerrecht, Europarecht und Allgemeine Staatslehre an der Universität Kiel sowie Geschäftsführende Direktorin des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht. Davor war sie von 2004 bis 2011 Professorin für Völker- und Europarecht an der Universität St. Gallen, Schweiz. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen bei den Grundlagen des Völker- und Europarechts sowie dem internationalen Umwelt,- Kultur- und Sicherheitsrecht.


The German Yearbook of International Law, founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the Kiel University. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Forum: Paris Climate Agreement 9
Jorge E. Viñuales: The Paris Agreement on Climate Change: Less is More 11
I. Introduction 11
II. The Negotiation Process Leading to the Paris Agreement 14
A. Of ‘Roads’ and Other Storylines 14
B. Climate Negotiations at the International Level 15
C. Climate Negotiations and Domestic Politics 17
III. The Architecture of the Paris Agreement 21
A. The Three Components of the Paris Agreement 21
B. Goals of the Paris Agreement 23
C. Action Areas 25
1. Mitigation 25
2. Adaptation 29
3. Loss and Damage 31
D. Implementation Techniques 32
1. Overview 32
2. Information-based Techniques 34
3. Facilitation Through Assistance and Efficiency 38
E. Management of Non-Compliance 42
IV. Concluding Observations 43
Focus: Frozen Conflicts: How Does PIL Deal with Them? 47
Thomas D. Grant: Three Years After Annexation: Of ‘Frozen Conflicts’ and How to Characterise Crimea 49
I. Introduction 49
II. Crimea 2014 51
III. Developments Concerning Crimea Since 2014 55
A. State and International Organisation Practice 56
B. The Human Rights Situation 58
C. Preliminary Examination by the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court 61
IV. Crimea as an Unlawful Claim – but Not a Frozen Conflict 62
A. Defining ‘Frozen Conflict’ 64
1. Legal Problems Associated with Frozen Conflicts but Not Distinguishing them as a Class 64
2. The Core Criteria of ‘Frozen Conflict’ 66
B. Is Crimea a ‘Frozen Conflict’? 67
1. Absence of Armed Hostilities Between a State and Separatists 68
2. Absence of a Putative Separatist Entity 70
3. Absence of Formal Ceasefire Lines 73
4. Absence of a Dispute Settlement Process 74
V. Conclusion 77
Milena Sterios: Self-Determination and Secession Under International Law: Nagorno-Karabakh 81
I. Introduction 81
II. Factual Background: Nagorno-Karabakh 83
III. International Law on Secession 85
A. Territorial Integrity and Uti Possidetis 86
B. Self-Determination 89
C. Remedial Secession 99
IV. Anomaly: The Kosovo Case 103
V. Analysis: Nagorno-Karabakh 106
VI. Conclusion 112
Christopher J. Borgen: Moldova: Law and Complex Crises in a Systemic Borderland 115
Introduction 115
I. A History of Interconnected Challenges and Complex Crises 118
A. Moldovan History 118
1. Prior to the Second World War 118
2. World War II and the Soviet Period 120
3. Moldova Since the Dissolution of the USSR 122
a) 1992–2002: State Consolidation and Transnistrian Negotiations 122
b) 2002–2003: The Kiev Document and Kozak Memorandum 124
c) 2005–2011: Action Plans and Association Agreements 126
B. Disentangling Ongoing Challenges and Complex Crises 130
II. The Challenge of Secessionism band the Uses of International Legal Argument 131
A. The Law 131
B. Law and the Transnistrian Challenge: In Theory and in Practice 134
III. The Challenge of Stabilising a Young State 138
A. Political Gridlock 139
B. Corruption and the Moldovan State 140
C. Domestic Politics, Geopolitics, and the Rule of Law 142
IV. The Challenge of Foreign Policy in a Systemic Borderland 143
A. Moldova and the European Neighbourhood Policy 143
B. The ENP, Domestic Stability, and Secessionism 146
1. Treaties and the Challenge of Domestic Political Stabilisation 146
2. The European Neighborhood Policy and the Challenge of Transnistrian Secessionism 147
C. Moldova in the EU Neighbourhood and in the Russian Near Abroad 149
1. Treaties as Bridges or Treaties as Walls 150
2. Russian Responses: Sticks and Carrots 151
3. Treaties as Bridges or Treaties as Walls: the Challenge of Foreign Relations in a Systemic Borderland 156
V. Identity, Power, Sovereignty, and Law: Complex Intersections in a Systemic Borderland 158
Enrico Milano: Unfreezing and Settling the Conflict over Kosovo 163
I. Introduction 163
II. Settling Kosovo 165
III. The ‘Frozen’ Conflict over Northern Kosovo 171
IV. Nature and Content of the Brussels Agreement 173
V. The Brussels Agreement’s Legal Consequences on the Question of Status and its Contribution to the Settlement of the Conflict 180
VI. Concluding Remarks 184
Juan Soroeta: The Conflict in Western Sahara After Forty Years of Occupation: International Law versus Realpolitik 187
I. Introduction 187
II. ‘Spanish Sahara’ (1884–1975) 188
III. The Advisory Opinion of the ICJ 191
IV. The Withdrawal of Spain and its Consequences (1975–1991) 192
A. The Green March and the Tripartite Madrid Accords 192
B. The Armed Conflict 195
V. The Peace Process (1991–2000) 197
A. Introduction 197
B. The Settlement Plan and the Creation of MINURSO 198
C. The Exploitation of the Census Problem in Order to Bury the Settlement Plan 199
1. First Blow to the Peace Process: Javier Pérez de Cuéllar Modifies the Identification Criteria (1982–1991) 199
2. Second Blow to the Peace Process: Boutros Boutros Gali Seeks to Dismantle MINURSO (1992–1996) 200
3. Third (and Definitive?) Blow to the Peace Process: Kofi Annan Abandons the Settlement Plan and Seeks a Solution Based on the Establishment of an Autonomous Western Sahara Within Morocco (1997–2006) 201
a) Officially, Annan Resumes the Settlement Plan (the Houston Agreements) … 201
b) … But in Reality he had Already Buried it (Baker Plans I and II) 204
4. With the Peace Process Blocked, Ban Ki-moon Focuses his Efforts on Seeking to Protect the Human Rights of the Sahrawi People (2007–2016) 205
VI. The Legal Status of the Territory 207
A. Spain is the Administering Power of Western Sahara 207
1. International Law 207
2. Spanish Law 208
a) Spanish Jurisdiction over the Territory According to Spanish Courts 208
b) Spain Monitors the Air Space over Western Sahara 209
B. Morocco is not the ‘de facto Administering Power’, but Rather the Occupying Power of Western Sahara 210
VII. The Exploitation of Natural Resources 212
A. The Corell Opinion and the Exploitation of the Natural Resources bof the Territory 212
B. The Legality of the Agreements Between the EU and Morocco for the Exploitation of the Natural Resources of the Territory 214
1. The Agreement Between the European Union and the Kingdom of Morocco Concerning Reciprocal Liberalisation Measures on Agricultural Products, Processed Agricultural Products, Fish and Fishery Products (2012) 214
2. The Fisheries Agreements 216
VIII. Concluding Remarks 218
Nikos Skoutaris: The Paradox of the Europeanisation of Intrastate Conflicts 223
I. Introduction 223
II. The Closer the Association with the EU, the Stronger the Potential for Conflict Resolution 226
A. European Neighbourhood Policy 226
B. Enlargement Process 229
III. The Limits of the ‘Catalytic Effect’: The Case of the Accession of Cyprus to the EU 234
A. The Limits of the ‘Catalytic Effect’: Lifting the Conditionality 234
B. Accomodating an Intrastate Conflict 237
IV. Understanding the Limits of the ‘Catalytic Effect’: A Law Perspective 240
A. Member States as ‘Masters of the Treaties’ 242
B. The Legal Basis Problem 245
1. The Common Foreign and Security Policy 246
2. Other Union Competences 248
3. An Informal Way Out of the Legal Conundrum: The EU Role in the Croatia-Slovenia Border Dispute 250
V. Socialisation 251
VI. Conclusion 252
General Articles 255
Andreas Kulick: From Problem to Opportunity?: An Analytical Framework for Vagueness and Ambiguity in International Law 257
I. Introduction 257
II. Law, Language and VaA 262
III. Systematising VaA: Actors and Aspects, Forms, Functions and Manifestations 265
A. VaA Manifestations 265
B. VaA Actors 266
C. VaA Forms 269
D. VaA Functions 271
E. VaA Aspects 273
IV. VaA and Authority 275
V. VaA, Adjudication and the Judicial Function 277
VI. VaA Production and Reception in the Practice of International Law-Making: The Example of ‘Constructive Ambiguity’ 283
VII. Concluding Remarks 288
Lando Kirchmair: What Came First: The Obligation or the Belief? A Renaissance of Consensus Theory to Make the Normative Foundations of Customary International Law More Tangible 289
I. Introduction 290
II. The Classical Two-Elements Approach and the Prominent Paradox 291
III. The Way Out: an Evolutionary Perspective 296
IV. A Renaissance of Consensus Theory 298
V. Practical Implications of Consensus Theory 303
A. The Challenge of Tacit Agreement and the Necessity to Distinguish the Identification of CIL Regulated in Article 38 ICJ Statute from the Emergence of CIL Guided by a Meta-Norm 303
B. Inductive v. Deductive Approach and Consensus Theory 308
C. The Challenge of ‘New States’, Consensus Theory, and what we can Learn to Make CIL More Tangible 313
VI. Conclusion 318
Paul Behrens: The Crime of Genocide and the Problem of Subjective Substantiality 321
I. Introduction 321
II. Requirement and Challenge: The Establishment of Subjective Substantiality 324
A. Between Percentage and Absolute Numbers: The Numerical Approach 327
B. Between Strategic Importance and Leadership: The Functional Approach 330
1. Towards an Assessment of Functionality 330
2. Towards the Disappearance of Substantiality? The Trouble with the Functional Approach 333
3. Further Questions Relating to the Functional Approach: The Problem of Selectivity 336
C. Between Municipalities and the World: The Geographical Approach 340
III. Towards a New Assessment? The Individualised Approach Towards Substantiality 344
A. The Individualised Approach and its Treatment in the Courts 344
B. The Individualised Approach and the Search for Objectivity 349
IV. Concluding Thoughts 351
Philipp Janig / Sara Mansour Fallah: Certain Iranian Assets: The Limits of Anti-Terrorism Measures in Light of State Immunity and Standards of Treatment 355
I. Factual Background 355
II. Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice 359
A. The Treaty of Amity and its Current Legal Status 359
B. The Compromissory Clause as Applied to Certain Iranian Assets 361
III. Some Preliminary Issues of Treaty Interpretation 363
A. The Current Understanding of Treatment Standards in the Treaty of Amity 363
B. Terms of the Treaty of Amity: Interpreting ‘Companies’ and ‘Nationals’ 365
IV. State Immunity of Iranian State-Owned Corporations 367
A. Subsuming State Immunity Under the Treaty of Amity 367
B. Immunity from Adjudication 370
C. Immunity from Enforcement 372
D. The ‘Terrorism Exception’ Under General International Law and Concluding Remarks on State Immunity 376
V. Expropriation and Standards of Treatment Under the Treaty of Amity 377
A. Article IV (2) – Most Constant Protection and Security and Expropriation 378
1. General Issues of Expropriation 378
2. Expropriation Through the Blocking of Assets 380
3. Expropriation Through Court-Ordered Execution 382
B. Article IV (1) – Fair and Equitable Treatment 384
VI. ‘Essential Security Interests’ and Countermeasures 387
VII. Conclusion 388
Christoph Schewe: Clearing Up? Transparency in the Dispute Settlement of International Trade Agreements 391
I. Introduction 391
II. Transparency and International Trade Dispute Settlement 395
A. Transparency – Meaning, Objective and Historic Development in Context 397
B. Transparency in Courts and Dispute Settlement 398
1. Objectives and Legal Foundation 399
2. Negative Aspects of Transparency 400
C. Who is Interested in International Trade Dispute Settlement, or: Why Enhance Transparency? 401
1. The Interest in Settling International Trade Disputes 401
2. International Trade Dispute Settlement and Democratic Legitimacy 402
3. Actors and Interests in International Trade Disputes 404
III. Transparency in International Trade Dispute Settlement: The WTO and CETA 405
A. Transparency on the Different Procedural Levels of Trade Dispute Settlement 406
1. Trade Dispute Settlement – An Overview of the Different Stages 406
2. Transparency in the Different Stages of WTO and CETA Trade Dispute Settlement 408
a) The Consultative Phase 408
b) WTO Panel and CETA Arbitration Panel Procedure 409
c) The DSB (Adoption Phase) 411
d) The Appellate Body Procedure 411
e) The 21 (5) Implementation-Procedure/CETA Compliance 412
B. Tendencies in WTO Disputes: Enhancing Transparency? 412
1. The First Open Hearings: The “Beef Hormones” Dispute 413
2. Open Hearings After Beef Hormones 414
3. With or Without Open Hearings – is WTO Dispute Settlement Transparent? 417
IV. Transparency in the Dispute Settlement Today and Tomorrow: Lessons for Other FTAs and ISDS? 419
A. Transparency in Trade Dispute Settlement Today and Tomorrow 420
1. Elements Providing Transparency in EU and US FTAs 420
2. Is Dispute Settlement Under EU and US FT as More Transparent? 421
B. Transparency and ISDS – Lessons (to be) Learned from Trade Dispute Settlement? 423
1. The Differing Regimes for Investment and Trade Disputes 424
2. The Growing Interest in Transparency Requirements in ISDS 427
3. The Transferability of Trade Dispute Transparency-Standards to ISDS 429
V. Conclusion 431
Lilian Richieri Hanania: The Social Dimension of Sustainable Development in EU Trade Agreements: Strengthening International Labour Standards 435
I. Introductory Remarks: International Trade Agreements and Labour Standards 435
II. Labour Standards Towards Sustainable Development 439
III. Reinforcing Protection of International Labour Standards 443
A. Fostering Cooperation, Including Through International Assistance 443
B. Reaffirming Protection Obligations 446
1. The Incorporation of ILO Standards 446
2. The Promotion of Corporate Social Responsibility 450
3. The ‘Social Clause’ Issue 451
IV. Controlling Enforcement of International Labour Standards 454
A. ILO Compliance Mechanisms 454
B. Complementary Mechanisms in EU Trade Agreements 456
1. Assessment of Implementation 457
2. Involvement of Civil Society and Transparency 458
3. Cooperation and Problem-Solving Through International Consultation 460
4. Specific Dispute Settlement Mechanisms 462
V. Conclusion 464
German Practice\r 467
Thomas Giegerich: In Germany International Law may be Honoured in the Breach: The Federal Constitutional Court Gives the Legislature Carte Blanche to Override Treaties 469
I. Introduction 469
II. Facts and Procedural Basis 470
III. The Decision’s Shaky Ground in International Law 471
IV. The FCC’s Vacillation Between the Nazi Reichskonkordat and the Communist Land Reform 472
A. The Konkordat Judgment of 1957: Foundation of the Post-War Foreign Relations Law 472
1. Content and History of the Konkordat Judgment 472
2. The FCC’s Cornerstones of Foreign Relations Law 473
B. The Order of 2004 on the Communist Land Reform (CLR): A Change of Mentality? 474
1. Extension and Elevation of the BL’s Friendliness Towards International Law ... 474
2. ... But Only “Controlled Commitment” of German Institutions to Some Rules of International Law 476
C. The Internationalist Potential of the Görgülü Order of 2004 477
V. The ‘Friendliness Towards International Law’ of the DTA Order Disappoints Friends of International Law 478
A. Reaffirmation and Expansion of the Three Cornerstones of the Konkordat Judgment 478
B. Disrespect for the Fundamental Rule ‘Pacta Sunt Servanda’ 479
C. Playing Off the Principle of Democracy Against the Principle of Friendliness Towards International Law: The Emperor’s New Clothes 481
1. International Law Reduced to a Plaything of Republican Power Politics 481
2. The Treaty-Friendly Interpretation of the Principle of Democracy is Preferable 481
3. Misleading Parenthesis on the Rule of Law Principle 483
4. The Unfortunate Legacy of the Pershing Judgment: The Foreign Relations Power Continues to be an Executive Domain 483
5. Is the Arbitrary Treaty Override Even Under the Protection of Article 79 (3) BL? 485
6. The Antithesis: Compliance with International Law as Component of the Democracy Concept of Carlo Schmid 486
D. The Violation of International Law Accompanying any Treaty Override is Downplayed by the FCC 487
E. Reduction of the Constitutional Principle of Friendliness Towards International Law to a Mere Means of Interpretation 489
1. But the FCC Immediately Disregards that Means of Interpretation 489
2. May Germany of Late Sovereignly Defy International Law? 490
3. The “Controlled Commitment” Reservation Formulated in the CLR Order is Stripped of its Constitutional Constraint 492
F. Not even the Rule of Law Principle is Said to Prohibit Breaches of Treaties 493
G. Is there a Human Rights Bright Spot in the Cloud of the DTA Order? 494
VI. The Balancing Approach in the Dissenting Opinion of Judge König 495
VII. Conclusion: The Friendliness of the BL Towards International Law – A Swan Song 497
Felix Telschow: “Gliding O’er All”: Human Dignity and Constitutional Identity in the Federal Constitutional Court’s Recent Jurisprudence 499
I. Introduction 499
II. Identity Review and its Theoretical Conceptualisation 500
III. Analysis of the Case at Hand 504
A. Facts and Ruling 504
1. Facts and History of Proceedings 504
2. The FCC’s Ruling in Overview 505
B. Introducing an Individual Case Admissibility Standard 506
C. Ex Ante Conformity with ECJ Jurisprudence? 507
D. Identity Review as Obiter Dictum 509
E. Acte Clair? 510
F. Diluting Human Dignity? 511
G. The ECJ’s Response in Aranyosi: Ex Post Conformity? 513
IV. Conclusion 515
Mareike Nürnberg and David Schenk: Deployment of Soldiers for the Protection of Nationals Abroad and Inner-State Justification: The German Federal Constitutional Court’s Decision on the Operation of German Military in Libya 517
I. Introduction 517
II. Deployments of the German Armed Forces Under National Law 518
A. The Facts of the Rescue Operation Pegasus Case 518
B. The National Legal Framework and its Development (the Requirement of Parliamentary Approval) 519
1. The German Statute on Parliamentary Participation 520
2. AWACS II 521
C. The Novelties of the Rescue Operation Pegasus Judgment 522
III. The Doctrine of the Protection of Nationals Abroad 524
A. Overview 524
B. Customary International Law Status 525
C. Assessment and Outlook 528
IV. Conclusion 531
Berenike Schriewer: The German Federal Constitutional Court’s First Reference for a Preliminary Ruling to the European Court of Justice: A 2016 Follow-Up 533
I. Procedural History 534
II. The FCC’s Judgment of 21 June 2016 535
III. Evaluation 537
Isabell Böhm: Genocide in Rwanda: The Judgment of Frankfurt’s Higher Regional Court Against a Former Rwandan Mayor of 29 December 2015 541
I. Introduction 541
II. The Case of R. Before the German Courts 543
A. Facts of the Case 543
B. Legal Framework 545
C. Proceedings of the Case 546
1. Judgment of the Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt of 2014 546
2. Judgment of the German Federal Court of Justice of May 2015 548
3. Judgment of the Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt of December 2015 548
III. Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects 550
Jens Kaiser: German Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in 2016 555
I. Introduction 555
II. The OSCE Chairmanship 556
A. Determining the Chairing State 556
B. Responsibilities and Competences of the Chairmanship 557
1. Policy-Making and Representation 558
2. Administration and Coordination 559
3. Communication and Information 559
III. The German Chairmanship in 2016 560
A. Crisis and Conflict Management 561
1. Conflict Area Ukraine 561
2. Conflict Area Nagorno-Karabakh 563
3. Conflict Area Transnistria 564
4. Conflict Area Georgia 564
B. Strengthening the OSCE’s Capacities over the Entire Conflict Cycle 565
C. Using the OSCE as a Platform for Dialogue 566
D. Promoting Sustainable Connectivity and Good Governance in the OSCE Area 568
E. Focusing on the Human Dimension 568
F. Strengthening Exchange Between Societies and the Public 569
IV. Summary 570
Avril Rushe / Joschka Peters-Wunnenberg: Are the Maghreb States ‘Safe’? 571
I. Introduction 571
II. Origin and Rationale of the Safe Country of Origin Concept 572
III. Are Safe Lists Contrary to Fundamental Rights Standards? 573
IV. Safe Country of Origin Concept in Germany 575
V. The Individual Countries 577
A. Morocco 578
1. Freedom of Expression and Assembly 578
2. Torture and Other Ill-Treatment 579
3. Rights of LGBTI Persons 580
4. Women’s Rights 580
B. Algeria 581
1. Freedom of Expression and Assembly 581
2. Torture and Other Ill-Treatment 582
3. Rights of LGBTI Persons 583
4. Women’s Rights 583
C. Tunisia 583
1. Freedom of Expression and Assembly 584
2. Torture and Ill Treatment 585
3. Rights of LGBTI Persons 585
4. Women’s Rights 586
VI. Does the Designation by Germany of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia Comply with the Terms of the Annex I to the APD? 587
A. Generally and Consistently No Persecution 587
B. No Torture or Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment 589
C. No Threat by Reason of Indiscriminate Violence in Situations of International or Internal Armed Conflict 591
VII. Conclusion 591
Sebastian Tho Pesch: Finding a Solution Without Addressing the Problem: The 2014 Ems-Dollard Treaty 593
I. Introduction 593
II. The Background 593
III. The Ems-Dollard Regime 595
IV. The 2014 Treaty 597
A. An Extended Sans Préjudice Clause 597
B. A Different Approach 598
C. A Central Marine Traffic Management and Other Provisions Concerning Waterworks 599
V. Critique 599
VI. Conclusion and Outlook 600
Marcus Schladebach: The Germanwings Disaster: Legal Debates and Consequences 603
I. The Chronology of the Disaster 603
II. Legal Debates 605
A. Political Discussion 605
B. Legal Discussion 605
C. The Previous Mozambique Airline Accident of 2013 606
III. Consequences in EU Law 607
A. European Air Law 607
B. EASA Recommendation 608
C. European Initiative in the ICAO 610
IV. Consequences in International Law 611
A. ICAO Statement 611
B. The 39th Session of the ICAO Assembly 611
V. Conclusion: A Technical Recommendation 612
Thomas Hoppe: The German Federal Court of Justice Marks a Possible Way for the CJEU’s Preliminary Ruling: The Compatibility of Investment Arbitration Clauses in Intra-EU Bilateral Investment Treaties with European Union Law 615
I. Introduction 615
II. Facts of the Case 617
III. Questions Referred to the CJEU for a Preliminary Ruling 618
A. Compatibility of the Investment Arbitration Clause with Article 344 TFEU 618
B. Compatibility of the Investment Arbitration Clause with Article 267 TFEU 619
C. Compatibility of the Investment Arbitration Clause with Article 18 TFEU 621
IV. Conclusion and Implications for the Future 622
Book Reviews 625
Michael Bowman/Peter Davies/Edward Goodwin (eds.): Research Handbook on Biodiversityand Law (van Doorn) 627
Eric de Brabandere, Investment Treaty Arbitration as Public International Law – ProceduralAspects and Implications (Hoppe) 631
Stuart Casey-Maslen et al.: The Arms Trade Treaty:A Commentary (Brandes) 634
Alice Edwards / Laura van Waas (eds.): Nationality and Statelessness under InternationalLaw (Forlati) 636
Yves Haeck / Oswaldo Ruiz-Chiriboga / Clara Burbano-Herrera (eds.): The Inter-AmericanCourt of Human Rights: Theory and Practice, Present and Future (Stöckle) 638
Pierre Hauck / Sven Peterke (eds.): International Law and Transnational Organised Crime (Salvadego) 640
Gro Nystuen / Stuart Casey-Maslen / Annie Golden Bersagel (eds.): Nuclear Weapons underInternational Law (Schöberl ) 645
Ben Saul (ed.): The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.Travaux Préparatoires 1948–1966 (Roeder) 648
Yuval Shany: Questions of Jurisdiction and Admissibility before International Courts (Ogbodo) 650
Malcolm Shaw: Rosenne’s Law and Practice of the International Court 1920–2015 (Zimmermann) 653
Katja Weigelt: Die Auswirkung der Bekämpfung des internationalen Terrorismus auf diestaatliche Souveränität (How the war against international terrorism affects Statesovereignty) (Mührel) 656