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The Law of the International Civil Service

Institutional Law and Practice in International Organisations

Ullrich, Gerhard

(2018)

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About The Author

Gerhard Ullrich studierte Rechtswissenschaften an den Universitäten München, Lausanne und Genf; 1967 Doktor der Rechte; Vertreter der deutschen Bundesregierung in zahlreichen internationalen Konferenzen und im Interimsausschuss der Europäischen Patent Organisation (EPO) (1973–1977); Justiziar des Europäischen Patentamts (1977–2005); Mitglied der Rechtsanwaltskammer München (seit 2005); Vize-Präsident des Beschwerdeausschusses des Rats der EPO (2010–2012); Beratung mehrerer internationaler Organisationen bei der Implementierung ihres Dienstrechts; zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen zum Dienstrecht der internationalen Organisationen; Richter am Verwaltungsgericht des Europäischen Stabilitätsmechanismus (seit 2014). Gerhard Ullrich studied law in Munich, Lausanne and Geneva; 1967 Doctor of Laws; Representing the German Government in various international conferences and at the Interim Committee for the establishment of the European Patent Organisation (EPO) (1973–1977); General Legal Counsel of the European Patent Office (1977–2005); Member of the Munich Bar (since 2005); Vice-President of the Appeals Committee of the Council of the EPO (2010–2012); Advising various international organisations on the implementation of their employment law; Numerous publications on the law of the international civil service; Member of the European Stability Mechanism Administrative Tribunal (since 2014).

Abstract

Gerhard Ullrich provides an overall review of the employment law of international intergovernmental organisations. In the first part of the book, he explains the basics of employment law and provides statistical data. He comments extensively on the privileges and immunities of international officials. The core of the book is dedicated to the examination of the legal sources for international civil service law. Here, the international administrative tribunals' case law on the general principles of law occupies a particularly broad area. A second legal source are the structures and elements of the statutory employment in international organisations. The author finally comments on the system of legal protection for the staff of the international civil service.

Despite the differences in the employment laws across international organisations, in many aspects it is more than justified today to speak of a unity of the law of the international civil service within diversity. This trend continues. With his overall presentation of the law of the international civil service, Gerhard Ullrich makes an important practice-oriented and legal-dogmatic contribution to this increasingly important part of international institutional law.
Gerhard Ullrich provides an overall review of the employment law of international intergovernmental organisations. In the first part of the book, he explains the basics of employment law and provides statistical data. He comments extensively on the privileges and immunities of international officials. The core of the book is dedicated to the examination of the legal sources for international civil service law. Here, the international administrative tribunals' case law on the general principles of law occupies a particularly broad area. A second legal source are the structures and elements of the statutory employment in international organisations. The author finally comments on the system of legal protection for the staff of the international civil service.

Despite the differences in the employment laws across international organisations, in many aspects it is more than justified today to speak of a unity of the law of the international civil service within diversity. This trend continues. With his overall presentation of the law of the international civil service, Gerhard Ullrich makes an important practice-oriented and legal-dogmatic contribution to this increasingly important part of international institutional law.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Preface 5
Summary of Contents 7
Table of Contents 9
Abbreviations 26
Introduction 31
A. The civil service law of international organisations – unity within diversity 31
B.  Objectives 32
Part 1: Basic elements 33
Chapter 1: The international organisations 33
A.  The legal nature of international organisations 33
B.  The classification of international organisations 34
C.  Other types of international organisations 35
I. Supranational organisations 35
II. Non-governmental organisations 36
D.  The number of public international organisations 37
Chapter 2: The employment law of the international civil service 38
A.  Legal basis for the employment law of the international organisations 38
I. The organisational sovereignty 38
II. The autonomous sovereignty in personnel matters 40
III. The drafting of service regulations (secondary law) prior to the entry into force of the constituent instrument (primary law) 41
IV. The development of the service regulations 41
V. The influence of the jurisprudence 41
VI. The power to initiate proposals to amend the service regulations 42
B. The four large civil service systems of the international organisations as pars pro toto 43
I. General introduction 43
II. The systems 43
1. The UN Common System 43
2. The civil service system of the EU 44
3. The civil service system of the co-ordinated organisations (CO) 45
4. The mixed (hybrid) civil service system 45
III. The unity of the employment systems of international organisations 46
IV. The dual role of international organisations as an employer and a substitute state 48
V. The numbers of staff members in international organisations 49
1. The numbers of staff members in organisations participating in the UN Common System 49
2. The number of staff members participating in the civil service system of the EU 50
3. The number of staff members participating in the civil service system of the co-ordinated organisations 50
4. The number of staff members participating in some organisations of the mixed system 50
5. The total number of staff members employed by international organisations 50
6. The number of retired staff members 51
C.  The law of the international civil service and national law 51
D. The privileges and immunities of the international organisations and international civil servants 52
I. Legal basis 52
1. The privileges and immunities of international organisations 52
2. The privileges and immunities of staff members, their family members, and other persons performing functions for the organisation 55
a) The personal scope of privileges and immunities 55
b) The geographical scope of privileges and immunities 57
II. Immunity of staff members and inviolability of official documents 57
1. The immunity of staff members in respect of official acts 57
2. The attachment of earnings 59
3. The assignment of earnings 59
4. Inviolability of documents 60
5. Personal immunities of high officials 60
III. Fiscal privileges of active staff members 60
1. The exemption of salaries from national taxation 60
2. Internal taxation 61
3. Progressive taxation 62
4. Additional privileges for high officials 64
5. The privileges of other persons 65
6. The exemption of invalidity benefits from national taxation 65
IV. The taxation of pensions 66
V. Other fiscal privileges 69
VI. Exemption from compulsory national social security schemes 70
VII. Various other privileges and facilities 72
1. General 72
2. Facilities concerning immigration, right of residence and repatriation 73
3. Laissez-passer 73
4. Working permits for spouses 73
5. Private servants 74
6. International crisis 74
7. Exemption from military service 74
8. Tax and duty-free purchase of goods 74
E. The liability for employment derived damages 75
I.  The liability of the organisation 75
II.  The liability of the official 76
F.  The criminal responsibility of the officials 76
Part 2: The sources of international civil service law 78
Chapter 1: Statutory employment law and general legal principles – basics and survey 78
Chapter 2: The general legal principles of the international civil service law 81
A.  Introduction 81
I.  The concept of general principles of law 82
II.  The derivation of general legal principles applicable to the law of the international civil service 82
1.  General 82
2.  Special derivations 84
III.  General legal principles as superior rules of law 87
IV.  The general legal principles as a basis for the incidental (indirect) review of staff regulations 87
V.  The dynamic nature of general legal principles 89
VI.  The limitations of the general legal principles 90
1.  The limitations in general 90
2.  The codified limitations of the general legal principles 91
3.  The guarantee of the very essence of a general legal principle 92
VII.  The guarantee of social security and participation rights 92
VIII.  The doctrine of special status 93
IX.  Methods of interpretation in public international law 95
X.  The methods of interpretation applied by the international administrative tribunals 96
B.  The application of human (fundamental) rights in the international civil service 100
I.  The protection of human dignity at work 100
1.  General 100
2.  Psychological (moral) and sexual harassment 101
II.  Protection of privacy 106
III.  Data protection 108
IV.  The principle of equal treatment and non-discrimination 112
V.  Freedom of association, assembly and trade union matters 117
1.  General information 117
2.  Staff committees 119
3.  Trade unions 120
4.  Other groupings 124
5.  Collective bargaining 124
6.  The right to strike 128
a)  The principle 128
b)  Content and scope of the right to strike 130
7.  The freedom of assembly 133
VI.  The freedom of expression 133
VII.  The right to property 136
VIII.  Freedom of thought, conscience and religion 138
IX.  The right to a safe and healthy working environment 139
X.  The right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial 142
XI.  Excursus: Immunity of international organisations from national jurisdiction in staff matters 144
1.  The jurisprudence of the ECHR 144
2. The German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) 148
3.  The Supreme Court of the Netherlands (Hoge Raad) 149
4.  The Belgian Supreme Court (Cour de Cassation) 150
5.  Other Supreme and Appeal Courts 151
C. Objective legal principles of the international civil service law 152
I. The derivation 152
II.  The principle of legality 152
1.  The administration 152
a)  General 152
b)  Reasonable discretion and value judgments 153
c)  Areas of judicial discretion 156
aa)  Appointment, promotion, selection board 156
bb)\tBenefits/allowances 157
cc)\tDisciplinary measures 157
dd) Dismissal/termination of contract 159
ee)\tExtension of retirement age limit 159
ff)  Facilities granted to staff union 160
gg)  Leave 160
hh)  Immunity 160
ii)  Organisational measures 160
jj)  Patere legem 161
kk)  Probation 162
ll)  Renewal/extension of contract 162
mm)  Salary adjustment 163
nn)  Seniority (prior experience) 164
oo)  Staff (appraisal, performance) reports 164
pp)  Transfer/reassignment 165
qq)  Vacancy notice 165
rr)  Miscellaneous 166
d)  Misuse of authority (non-discretionary decisions) 168
2.  The legislative power 169
III.  Legal certainty (stability in law) 170
1.  General 170
2.  Deadlines for complaints and appeals 171
3.  Limitation periods for claims 173
4.  Res judicata and stare decisis 174
5.  Clarity and precision of acts, rules and applications 174
6.  Revocation or alteration of decisions 175
7.  Unjust enrichment, recovery of undue payment 178
8.  The principle of non-retroactivity 180
9.  Delegation of authority 182
IV.  The principle of proportionality 183
V.  The principle of good faith (bona fide), fairness, equity and estoppel 185
VI.  Good administration and due process 188
1.  General 188
2.  The duty to state grounds of decisions 191
3.  The right to be heard (right to reply) 195
4.  Reasonable periods for decisions 197
D.  The specific general legal principles of the international civil service 199
I.  The Introduction 199
II.  The principle of the protection of legitimate expectation 199
1.  The principle in general 199
2.  The assurance (promise) 201
3.  The principle of acquired rights 203
a) The doctrine of acquired rights as applied by the judicature of the ILOAT 204
aa)  General introduction 204
bb)  Details 204
b) The doctrine of acquired rights as applied by the judicature of the CJEU 209
4. The protection of legitimate expectation in the renewal or extension of fixed-term contracts 210
5. The principle of stability, foreseeability and a clear understanding of the results of a salary adjustment method 214
6.  The withdrawal of an administrative decision 218
7.  The recovery of undue payment 218
8.  The right to information 219
III.  The principle of unimpeded accomplishment of tasks of the organisation 220
1.  The privileges and immunities 220
2.  The independence of the organisation and its staff 221
3.  The Noblemaire and Fleming principles 223
4. Facilitating the possibility for staff members to retain personal links with the place of origin 226
IV.  Other specific legal principles 227
1.  Participation rights 227
a)  The right of the staff associations to consultation 227
aa)  General introduction 227
bb)  The activities of staff committees 230
cc)  Facilities provided to staff committees 230
dd)  The details of the right to consultation 231
b)  Co-determination 233
2.  The right to receive care and assistance 235
a)  General introduction 235
b)  The duty to provide care (solicitude) 236
c)  The duty of assistance 236
3.  The patere legem principle 240
4.  The hierarchy of norms 242
5.  The right to material and moral damages 243
a)  General introduction 243
b)  The competences of international administrative tribunals 245
c)  Actions for annulment and damages in detail 247
aa)  Action for annulment 247
bb)  Action for damages 248
Chapter 3: The typical structures and elements of employment rules 258
A.  The legal nature of employment 258
I.  Permanent staff 258
II.  Contract staff 259
1.  Continuing appointments 259
2.  Fixed-term and temporary staff 260
III.  Local staff 261
IV.  Non-staff personnel 261
1.  Contractors 261
2.  Temporary agency staff 262
3.  Trainees 262
4.  De facto employment relationship 263
V.  Structures of employment 263
B.  Recruitment, development and termination of employment 268
I.  Recruitment 268
1.  General introduction 268
2.  The recruitment procedure 269
a)  The publication of the vacancy notice 270
b) The admittance to the selection procedure (pre-selection, pre-screening) 271
c)  The selection process 272
aa)  The selection committee 272
bb)  The assessment 273
d)  Legal review of the selection process 274
e) Excursus: The European Personnel Selection Office (EPSO) and the “inspira” system of the UN secretariat 276
aa)  EPSO of the EU 276
bb)  The “inspira” system of the UN secretariat 277
f)  The obligation to give reasons to unsuccessful candidates 277
g)  The appointment 278
h)  The probationary period 279
II.  The development of employment 281
1.  Career development 281
a)  General introduction 281
b)  Advancement in incremental steps 281
c)  Promotion 282
aa)  General information 282
bb)  The appraisal report 283
cc)  The joint promotion committees and review bodies 286
dd)  The judicature on promotion 287
d)  Temporary posting 289
e)  The transition from one category of grade (functional groups) to the other (vertical transition) 289
2.  Change of the administrative status 290
a)  General information 290
b)  Special leave 290
aa)  Secondment 291
bb)  Leave on personal grounds 292
cc)  Leave for military service 292
dd)  Assignment to non-active or reserve status 292
ee)  Parental (paternity) leave 292
ff)  Family leave 293
3.  Transfer and reassignment within the organisation 293
4.  Conversion of appointment (horizontal transition) 295
5.  Downgrading (demotion) 296
III.  The termination of employment 296
1.  General introduction 296
2.  EU 297
a)  Officials 297
aa)  Termination of service 297
bb)  Assignment to non-active status and resignation 298
b)  Temporary staff 299
c)  Contract staff 299
d)  Unemployment allowance for temporary and contract staff 299
3.  UN 300
4.  CoE 301
5.  EPO 301
6.  The termination of service due to age 302
7. The protection of legitimate expectation in the renewal or extension of fixed-term contracts 302
C. Rights and obligations of staff 303
I.  The rights 303
1.  Introduction 303
2.  Entitlement to remuneration 303
a)  The basic salary 303
aa)  The amount of salaries in general 303
bb)  The salary scales 304
cc)  Examples of the amount of salaries of the international civil service (after deduction of internal tax) 306
dd)  Adjustment of salaries 308
ee)  The salary increase 308
ff)  Payment arrangements 308
gg)  Forfeit or reduction of salary 309
b)  Allowances and reimbursement of expenses 310
aa)  Family allowances 311
(1)\tThe household allowance 311
(2)\tDependency benefits 312
(3)\tThe education allowance 315
(4)\tNo duplication (overlapping) of benefits 316
(5) Excursus: Benefits for staff members in a union of two persons (same-sex marriage, registered partnership, cohabitation agreement etc) equal to married hetero-sexual staff members 318
bb)  The expatriation allowance 323
(1)\tEU 324
(2)\tUN 324
(3)\tCoE 325
(4)\tEPO 325
cc)\tRent allowance (rental subsidy) 328
dd)  Service allowances 328
(1)\tLanguage allowance 328
(2)\tOvertime compensation/remuneration 329
(3) Compensation for night work, shift and on-call duty, work on Sundays, Saturdays and public holidays 329
(4)\tCompensation for temporarily performing duties of a post in a higher grade 329
(5)\tEarly termination indemnity 330
(6)\tCompensation for protection of confidence (compensatory allowance) 331
ee)  Reimbursement of expenses 332
(1)\tExpenses for official journey 332
(2) Removal costs and travel expenses related to recruitment, transfer and termination of service 332
(3)\tTravel expenses to the place of origin 333
(4)\tResidence allowance and accommodation expenses 333
(5)\tInstallation allowance, resettlement allowance 333
(6)\tOther expenses 333
(7)\tExtinctive prescription 336
3.  The remuneration adjustment systems 336
a)  The adjustment systems of the EU, the CO, the EPO, CERN and ESO 336
b)  Exceptions from the regular adjustment procedure 338
aa)  The EU 338
bb)  The CO 339
cc)  The EPO, CERN and ESO 340
c)  The adjustment system of the UN-CS 340
4.  The social security 343
a)  General 343
b)  The social security system in case of illness, maternity, birth, long-term care, unemployment and in case of hardship 345
aa)  Health care 345
(1)\tClaims 346
(2) Premiums and contributions 346
(3)\tBenefits 347
(4)\tFunding of the health insurance 348
bb)  Paid sick leave 348
cc)  Long-term care insurance 349
dd)  Protection against unemployment 350
ee) Paid leave in the event of maternity and adoption, unpaid parental or family leave, birth grant, allowances for parental and family leave, paid special leave 352
ff)  Hardship 353
gg)  Special issues 353
(1)\tShort term employment, local staff 353
(2)\tFormer staff 354
c) Retirement pensions, invalidity (pensions, allowances) and death benefits 354
aa)  Retirement benefits 354
bb)  The general structure of pension systems 355
cc)  General prospects for pension entitlements 355
dd)  Special issues concerning retirement benefits 355
(1)\tThe rate of contributions 355
(2)\tThe level of benefits 356
(3)\tThe DCPS more in detail 357
ee)  Taxation of retirement benefits 358
ff)  Attachment and subrogation of retirement benefits 358
gg)  Individual retirement benefits 358
(1)\tConditions of entitlement 358
(2)\tCommencement of entitlement 358
(3)\tYearly accrual rate of pension benefits 360
(4)\tMaximum and minimum rate of pensions 360
(5)\tThe salary taken as calculatory basis for the pension benefits 360
(6)\tPension benefits for surviving spouses and dependants 360
(7)\tInward and outward transfer of pension rights 361
(8)\tTaxation of pensions 361
(9)\tAllowances 361
(10) Annual adjustment of pensions 361
hh)  Permanent invalidity and death benefits 363
(1)\tGeneral benefits 363
(2)\tOccupational disease and accident at work 364
(3)\tTaxation of invalidity benefits 366
5.  The pension schemes of international organisations 367
a)  Introduction 367
b)  Legal structures of the pension schemes 367
c)  Actuarial balance of pension schemes 368
d)  Legal protection of beneficiaries 369
e)  Financing guarantee of the pension scheme 369
aa)  During the existence of the international organisation 370
bb)  After dissolution of the international organisation 370
(1)\tPensions 370
(2)\tHealth and long-term care insurance 371
f)  Legal status of the pension (reserve) funds 372
6.  Brief overview of major pension and pension reserve funds of international organisations 373
a)  The United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund (UNJSPF) 373
b)  The CERN/ESO Pension Fund 375
c) The EPO Reserve Funds for Pensions and Social Security (EPO-RFPSS) 375
d)  The Scheme Assets of the European Central Bank 376
e)  The Pension Reserve Funds of the co-ordinated organisations 376
7. Other rights 377
a) Leave entitlements 377
aa) Survey 377
bb) Annual leave 377
cc) Leave on personal grounds 378
dd) Home leave 379
ee) Public holidays 379
b) The right to assistance and vocational training 382
aa)\tAssistance 382
bb) Vocational training 383
c) Protection of dignity and professional reputation 383
d) Occupational safety and health (OSH) 384
e) Privileges and immunities 385
f) Right to compensation for damages 385
g) Legal protection 386
h) The right to inspect the personal file 386
i) Data protection 387
j) Other benefits 389
8.  Collective rights of staff 390
a)  Survey 390
b)  The staff committees 392
aa)  General remarks 392
bb)  Facilities provided to staff committees 393
cc)  Formal participation in staff matters 393
dd)  Informal participation in staff matters 395
ee)  Co-determination 396
ff)  The right of staff committees to file complaints 396
c)  Trade unions and professional associations 396
aa)  Statutes of international trade unions 398
bb)  The right to strike 400
cc)  Framework agreements of international organisations with staff unions 400
II.  Duties and breach of duties 403
1.  Survey 403
2.  Public service obligations 404
a)  The duty to provide service 404
aa)  The duty to execute orders (duty to obey, subordination) 405
bb)  Hours of work, unauthorised absence 405
cc)  Place of work 406
dd)  Overtime, shift work, on-call duty 406
b)  Additional duties, which directly ensure the duty to provide service 406
aa)  Duty of residence 406
bb)  Duty to notify violations of privileges and immunities 407
cc)  Duty to transfer industrial property rights 407
dd)  Recovery of undue payment 407
ee)  Duty to undergo a medical examination 408
c)  Other obligations 408
3.  Duty of conduct 408
a)  The duty of loyalty and allegiance 409
b)  The duty of integrity 411
aa)  The duty of independence, impartiality and incorruptibility 412
bb)  The duty of maintaining discretion and secrecy 413
cc)  The duty to report possible illegal activity 414
dd)  The duty to respect the law and ethical standards 415
ee)  The duty to respect the dignity of colleagues (psychological and sexual victimisation) 416
ff)  Excursus: The duty of conduct and the freedom of expression 416
4.  Legal consequences for breaches of duties 418
a)  General 418
b)  Disciplinary and administrative consequences 418
aa) Disciplinary measures 420
bb) Disciplinary proceedings 421
c)  Hidden disciplinary measures 426
d)  Non-disciplinary actions and recourse claims 427
Part 3: The system of legal protection for the international civil service – The international administrative tribunals 430
Chapter 1: General 430
A.  The obligation to grant legal protection 430
B. The legal basis for establishing an international administrative tribunal 431
C.  The limited jurisdiction of the international administrative tribunals 431
I.  The principle of limited subject matters 431
II.  The principle of limited remedial powers 433
III.  The principle of limited standards of judicial review 434
IV. Details of the case law of the CJEU, ILOAT, UNDT/UNAT and the CoEAT on the application of general legal principles as standards for their judicial review 436
D.  The international administrative tribunals as genuine judicial organs 438
E.  The legal status of the international administrative tribunals and their judges 440
F.  The number of international administrative tribunals 441
G.  The success rate of complaints 442
H.  Legal assistance for staff in employment disputes 442
I.  Conflict of jurisdiction 442
J.  Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms (arbitration, mediation, ombudsman services) 443
I.  Overview 443
II.  Internal ADR mechanisms 445
Chapter 2: International administrative tribunals and their legal proceedings 449
A.  International administrative tribunals 449
I.  Unity within diversity 449
II.  ADR and court proceedings 449
1.  The UNDT 449
2.  The CJEU 450
3.  The ILOAT 450
B.  The most important international administrative tribunals 450
I.  Tribunals extending their jurisdiction to several international organisations 450
1.  The ILOAT 450
2.  The UNDT and the UNAT 452
3.  The CJEU (CJ, GC, CST) 453
4.  The Administrative Tribunal of the World Bank Group (WBAT) 454
5.  The Administrative Tribunal of the Council of Europe (CoEAT) 454
6.  The Administrative Tribunal of the Organization of American States (TRIBAD) 454
II.  The tribunals competent for individual organisations 454
1.  The Tribunals of the co-ordinated organisations 454
2. The Administrative Tribunal of the International Monetary Fund (IMFAT) 455
3.  The African Development Bank Administrative Tribunal 455
4.  The Asian Development Bank Administrative Tribunal 455
5.  The Inter-American Development Bank Administrative Tribunal 455
6. The Administrative Tribunal of the European Stability Mechanism (ESMAT) 455
7.  The Complaints Board of the European Schools 456
C.  The right to bring an action (locus standi) 456
I.  Staff members and legal successors 456
II.  External candidates for a vacant post 456
III.  De facto employment relationships 457
IV.  Experts, independent contractors and agency staff 458
V.  Locus standi of staff committees and trade unions 458
VI.  Limited right of the organisation itself to bring an action 459
D.  Persons taking part in the proceedings 459
I.  Representation by another staff member or by a legal counsel 459
II.  Intervention 460
III.  Friend-of-the-court briefs (amicus curiae briefs) 460
E.  The admissibility of a complaint 461
I.  Overview, general questions and preconditions for admissibility 461
1.  The formal conditions of an application 461
2.  Examination of admissibility proprio motu 462
3.  Strict application of the rules regarding admissibility 463
4.  Misdirection of an appeal 463
5.  Summary dismissal 463
6.  Types of admissible actions 464
7.  Filing fees (deposit) 464
8.  Precise terms of the claims 464
9.  Waiver to bring an action 465
10.  Amicable settlement of a dispute 465
II.  The specific admissibility requirements of a complaint 465
1.  Overview 465
2.  Individual and general decisions 466
a)  The appeals system 466
aa)  The individual decision 466
bb)  The general decision 467
b)  Preparatory, provisional and preliminary acts 468
c)  Cause of action – the adverse effect of a decision 470
d)  Confirmatory decisions 471
e)  Decisions with recurring effect 472
f)  Consistency between the administrative complaint (pre-litigation procedure) and the legal action 472
g)  Class actions, representative complaints 473
h)  The incidental (indirect) challenge of an act of general application (regulatory act) 474
3.  The direct challenge of a general decision (regulatory act) 475
a)  General 475
b)  The special case of the EPO 477
4.  The formal pre-litigation procedures 478
a)  Overview 478
b)  Non-peer administrative review 480
c)  Administrative review with the involvement \nof a peer advisory body 482
d) The interaction between internal appeal proceedings and court proceedings 484
aa)  The importance of internal appeals committees 484
bb)  Consequences of the admissibility of an action brought before the tribunal based on an implied decision 485
cc)  Internal appeal proceedings and legal actions brought before the ILOAT – interpretation of Art. VII of its statute 486
e)  Time limits for the internal appeal proceedings 488
f)  The failure to exhaust the internal appeal proceedings 490
5.  The time limits for bringing an action 490
6.  Restitutio in integrum (Re-establishment of rights) 493
III.  Interim measures 493
IV.  Interlocutory judgments/orders 496
V.  Stay of proceedings 497
F.  Procedural matters 497
I.  The principles of procedural law applicable to the international administrative tribunals 497
1.  General 497
2.  General legal principles 501
a)  The essence of the right to a fair trial 501
b)  Equality of the parties in the court proceedings 502
c)  Fundamental errors in procedure – failure in justice 502
d)  Publicity of an oral hearing 502
e) International minimum standard of elementary procedural justice 502
f)  Oral hearing, accessibility, length of proceedings 503
II.  The proceedings before the tribunals 503
III.  Evidence and proof 505
1.  General 505
2.  The burden of proof 506
3.  Evidentiary presumption and shifting the burden of proof 507
4.  Standard of proof, evaluation of evidence 508
5.  Means of evidence 508
IV.  Change of claims 509
V.  Ex tunc assessment (tempus regit actum) 510
VI.  Withdrawal of complaint (discontinuance of proceedings) 510
VII.  Joinder of cases 511
VIII.  Prolongation of deadlines 511
G.  The judgment 511
I.  Content and other aspects 511
II.  Application for the interpretation of judgments 513
III.  Supplementary decisions 514
1.  Decisions as to costs 514
2.  Default interest on damages 515
H.  Res judicata, stare decisis 516
I.  General 516
II.  Substantive res judicata 516
III.  Right of appeal, review 517
IV.  Stare decisis 519
I.  Enforcement (execution) 520
I. General 520
II. ILOAT Judgments 520
III. CJEU Judgments 521
IV. UNDT Judgments 522
Bibliography 523
Index 529