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German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 60 (2017)

Editors: Arnauld, Andreas von | Decken, Kerstin von der | Matz-Lück, Nele

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 60

(2018)

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Abstract

The German Yearbook of International Law, founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the Kiel University. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to ist German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Table of Contents 5
Obituary 9
Antonius “Tono” Eitel † (1933–2017) 11
Forum: The Relationship between African States and the International Criminal Court 15
Gerhard Werle and Moritz Vormbaum: African States, the African Union, and the International Criminal Court:A Continuing Story 17
I. The Beginning – From Honeymoon to Marital Crisis 17
A. Background to the Tension: Controversy between African States and the International Criminal Court 18
B. Validity of the Criticism 19
1. Racial Bias Against Africans 20
2. Violation of Heads of State Immunity 24
3. Reform of the Regulation on the Presence of Accused Persons Before the International Criminal Court 25
4. ‘Abuse’ of Universal Jurisdiction 26
C. Interim Conclusion 27
II. Current Status – Should I Stay or Should I Go? 27
A. South Africa’s Withdrawal Declaration 28
B. The Judicial Aftermath 29
III. The Next Chapter – An ‘African Criminal Court’? 32
A. Content of the Protocol – Overview 33
1. Establishment of the Chambers 33
2. Subject Matter Jurisdiction 34
3. Further Provisions 37
B. Analysis 37
1. Regionalisation 38
2. Weaknesses of the Malabo Protocol 40
IV. Conclusions 42
Dire Tladi: Of Heroes and Villains, Angels and Demons: The ICC-AU Tension Revisited 43
I. Introduction 43
II. The ICC Targets Africa 46
A. General 46
B. Africans Have Referred the Situations Themselves 48
C. Jurisdictional Constraints Prevent the ICC from Looking Elsewhere 49
D. The Role of Power 53
III. Immunity Debate 55
A. General 55
B. The AU’s Position Concerning Immunities of Heads of State 56
C. The ICC’s Approach(es) to the Question of Immunity 60
IV. Conclusion 66
Post-Script 67
Focus: International Law and the Dehumanisation of Activities 69
Helmut Philipp Aust: “The System Only Dreams in Total Darkness”: The Future of Human Rights Law in the Light of Algorithmic Authority 71
I. Introduction 71
II. The Construction of Algorithmic Authority 75
III. Human Rights Strategies to Cope With Algorithmic Authority 80
A. Doctrinal Dead Ends 80
B. Escape Routes 86
IV. Concluding Observations 88
Thomas Burri: International Law and Artificial Intelligence 91
I. Introduction 91
II. Argument 1: International Law Will Not Be Automated 92
III. Argument 2: As Artificially Intelligent Entities with Legal Personality Emerge, the Law Must Be Reviewed 95
IV. Argument 3: The Geneva Process Will Result in a Ban on Autonomous Weapons Systems, But It Will Be Limited to Weapons Systems Operating Beyond Meaningful Human Control 98
V. Argument 4: Existing International Law Offers Valuable Insights into the Meaning of Control Over Artificial Intelligence and the Limits of Delegation 101
VI. Argument 5: Supersoft Law Will Govern Artificial Intelligence 105
VII. Conclusion 107
Aldo Chircop: Testing International Legal Regimes: The Advent of Automated Commercial Vessels 109
I. Introduction 109
II. Technology and Terminology 115
III. Implications for the International Law of the Sea 119
A. Flag State 120
B. Coastal State 124
C. Port State 127
IV. Implications for International Maritime Law 128
A. Maritime Safety 128
B. Crew Training, Certification, and Work Conditions 131
C. The ‘Rules of the Road’ 134
D. Environment Protection 136
V. Discussion 137
VI. Conclusion 141
Stephan Hobe and Benjamyn I. Scott: International Civil Aviation and the Dehumanisation of Activities 143
I. Introduction 143
II. Manned Aviation 144
A. Terminology 144
B. Automation in Aviation 147
C. Growth in Automation 148
1. Examples of Automation 148
2. The Evolution of Automation 150
3. Why is Automation Important? 152
D. Issues 154
III. Unmanned Aircraft 160
A. Introduction 160
B. Definitions 161
C. Applicability to Current International Air Law 164
D. Some Issues Encountered in Europe 165
1. Responsibility 167
2. Visual Line of Sight 168
IV. Conclusion 170
Stefan A. Kaiser: Legal Challenges of Automatedand Autonomous Systems 173
I. Introduction: The Evolving Environment 173
A. From the Industrial Revolution to Autonomous Systems 174
B. Autonomy as Action Independent from Direct Human Control 175
C. Autonomy and Connectivity 176
D. Autonomy and Levels of Automation 176
E. Interface with the Real World 176
F. Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence 177
G. Autonomous Weapons 178
H. The Relationship Between Humans and Autonomous Systems 179
II. The Impact of Information Technology and Software 179
A. Common User Interface 180
B. Interoperability 180
C. Safety Culture and Business Culture 180
III. Responsibility, Control, and Attribution 183
A. Legal Responsibility as a Safeguard of Fundamental Rights 183
B. Responsibility and Control 185
1. Responsibility of the Operator 185
2. Responsibility of the Manufacturer and Information Providers 186
3. Attribution of Responsibility by a Special Regime 187
IV. Establishing a Precautionary Regulatory Regime 187
A. Principle of Comprehensive Prime Responsibility 188
B. Fair Sharing of Responsibility 189
C. Transparency 190
D. Waivers and Disclaimers 191
E. Training and Qualification 192
F. Mandatory Human Override and Fallback Modes 192
1. Layered and Hard-Wired Fallback Modes 192
2. Intuitive Fallback Modes 193
G. Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence to Respect Fundamental Rights 194
H. Cyber Security 195
V. Liability 196
A. Different Methodologies: Precautionary Rules and Liability 196
B. Non-Fault Liability 197
VI. Conclusion 199
Nicholas Tsagourias and Russell Buchan: Automatic Cyber Defence and the Laws of War 203
I. Introduction 203
II. Automatic Cyber Defence and Jus ad Bellum 207
A. Armed Attack 207
B. Necessity 212
C. Proportionality 215
III. Automatic Cyber Defence and Jus in Bello 218
A. Automatic Cyber Defence and Armed Conflict 219
1. Automatic Cyber Defence and IACs 220
2. Automatic Cyber Defence and NIACs 224
3. Automatic Cyber Defence and Challenges to the Classification of Armed Conflict 225
B. The Principle of Distinction 229
C. The Principle of Proportionality 234
IV. Conclusion 237
Antja von Ungern-Sternberg: Artificial Agents and General Principles of Law 239
I. Introduction 239
II. Technology 243
III. Responsibility 245
A. Responsibility Without Human Fault 247
B. Relocating Human Fault 250
IV. Explainability 251
A. Human Rights 252
B. Other Sources of a Duty to Explain 254
V. Autonomy 258
A. Privacy and Data Protection 259
B. Individuality 261
C. Manipulation 263
VI. Conclusion 265
Walter Schücking Lecture 267
Philip Allott: Beyond War and Diplomacy:A Giant Step for Mankind 269
I. War and Diplomacy: A Sinister Partnership 270
II. War and History: The Rule of the Past Over the Present 272
III. First Cognitive State of the Human Mind: Supernaturalism. Fatalism. War and the Particularising of the Universal 277
IV. Second Cognitive State of the Human Mind: Humanism. Self-Evolving. War and the Universalising of the Particular 281
V. Third Cognitive State of the Human Mind: Revolutionary Socialism. Naturalism. War and Universal Human Unsociety 287
A. Exclusive Religions 291
B. Self-Glorifying Kings 293
C. The Poetical Nation-State 295
VI. The Cognitive State of the Human Mindin the 21st Century: Universal Human Society 305
A. Universal Human Society 306
B. International Government 307
C. International Law 307
D. International Economy 307
E. International Politics 307
F. International Consciousness 308
G. Profound Mental Confusion 310
Special Section: Towards Utopia – Rethinking International Law 313
Jens T. Theilen, Isabelle Hassfurther, and Wiebke Staff: Guest Editors’ Introduction: Towards Utopia – Rethinking International Law 315
I. From Despair to Hope: A Utopian Counterpoint 315
II. Grand Blueprints, Everyday Utopias, and International Law 320
III. Critique and Utopianism 324
IV. Towards Utopia: Transformation by Law, Transformation of Law 330
Jens T. Theilen: Of Wonder and Changing the World:Philip Allott’s Legal Utopianism 335
I. Introduction: An Antilegal Tradition? 336
II. Mapping Utopia(nism): Philip Allott and Ernst Bloch 340
A. Dreams, Imagination, and Hope 340
B. Defamiliarisation from the Present 343
C. Heading Out to Sea, Towards Utopia 346
III. Utopian Perspectives on Law 352
IV. In Lieu of Conclusions: Prospects 361
Ka Lok Yip: What is Human? Reading Social Idealism against the Reality of Blackman and Azaria 365
I. Introduction 365
II. Blackman and Azaria through the Lens of Social Theories 366
III. The ‘Real’ Moment – the Shooting 370
A. Agency 370
B. Culture 370
C. Structure 372
D. Dualist (Non-Emergentist) Versus Dualistic (Emergentist) Account 373
IV. The ‘Legal’ Moment – the Verdict 375
A. Legal Self-Constituting 375
B. Dualist Account 377
C. Dualistic Account 382
V. The ‘Ideal’ Moment – the Thinking About Thinking 384
A. What is Human? 384
B. Philosophical Approaches 384
C. Legal Presuppositions 388
VI. Conclusion 391
Radhika Jagtap: Resistance through Utopia: Reflections on the Niyamgiri Anti-Mining Movement and International Law 393
I. Social Movements and International Law: The Utopian Projects within the Discipline 395
A. Social Movements and Counter-Hegemonic Resistance in International Law 398
B. Social Movements and Restructuring International Law 400
C. Social Movements and Rethinking International Law 402
II. The Dongria Imagination of the Niyamgiri 405
III. Niyamgiri and its Relevance in International Law 407
A. Counter-Hegemonic Use of Local Laws 408
B. The Niyamgiri Movement and International Solidarity 413
C. Niyamgiri Against the Global Dystopia 417
IV. Conclusion 421
Wiebke Staff: Customary International Law: A Vehicle on the Road from Istopia to Eutopia? 423
I. International Law in Istopia 424
II. International Law in Eutopia 428
III. Getting from Istopia to Eutopia 428
A. Treaty Law, Customary International Law, and General Principles of Law 429
B. Customary International Law as a Vehicle 435
1. Customary International Law as a Normative System 437
2. International Governmental Organisations 439
3. International Courts and Tribunals 441
4. The Question of Time 444
5. Persistent Objector 446
IV. Conclusion 448
Isabelle Hassfurther: Transforming the “International Unsociety”: Towards Eutopia by Means of International Recognition of Peoples’ Representatives 451
I. Introduction – Abuses of Power in an “International Unsociety” 452
II. Eutopian Quests for Legitimate Peoples’ Representation 456
A. Whose Eutopia? Legitimacy and International Recognition 457
1. Different Subjects of Legitimacy … 459
2. … with Different Normative Expectations … 460
3. ... Leading to Different ‘Legitimacy Eutopias’ 460
B. Contemporary Criteria of Legitimacy – Eutopia or Dystopia? 460
1. Relative Normative Expectations of Peoples – A Right to Representative Governments 461
2. Absolute Normative Expectations of the “International Unsociety” 465
a) Cementing Illegitimate Regimes – Self-Determination versus Legality 466
b) A Shared International Eutopia? – The Alleged Gold Standard of Democracy 469
III. A ‘Transitory Eutopia’ – Reconciliation of Relative and Absolute Standards of Legitimacy 474
A. Relative Normative Expectations of Peoples 474
B. Absolute Normative Expectations of an “International Society” 475
IV. Towards Eutopia – Flourishing of a Human Society 479
Dorothy Makaza: Towards Afrotopia: The AU Withdrawal Strategy Document, the ICC, and the Possibility of Pluralistic Utopias 481
I. The Case Against Utopianism and Universalism in ICL 483
A. Questioning the Legitimacy of Universalism in ICL 484
B. Interpretation and Its Influence on Categories of Compliance and Non-Compliance 488
II. The African Union Withdrawal Strategy Document (WSD) 491
A. Concrete Proposals in the WSD 492
1. ICC-Related Reforms and Rome Statute Amendments 492
2. UNSC-Related Reforms 498
3. African State Party-Targeted Reforms 500
B. Brief Commentary on the Feasibility of the WSD 501
C. Withdrawals and State Compliance 502
D. Weighing the Feasibility of a Singular Utopiain ICL in the Midst of the WSD Proposals 504
III. Possible Solutions 505
A. Pluralistic Utopias 505
B. Afrotopia 507
IV. Concluding Remarks 513
Severin Meier: The Influence of Utopian Projects on the Interpretation of International Law and the Healthy Myth of Objectivity 515
I. Introduction 515
II. Social Darwinism and World War I or Why Utopian Thought in International Law Can Lead to Human Suffering 516
III. The Role of Utopian Thought in Liberal and Critical Legal Theory 523
IV. The Healthy Myth of Objectivity 528
V. Conclusion 537
Marnie Lloydd: Persistent Tensions? International Legal Perspectiveson ‘Other’ Foreign Fighters 539
I. Introduction: The Dilemma Posed by Other Foreign Fighters 539
II. State Responsibility and Diligent Prevention of Harm 545
A. Primary Legal Duties Regarding Other Foreign Fighters 551
B. Flexibility within Due Diligence 554
III. Protection and Global Justice 555
A. R2P and Solidarity with Local Resistance? 557
B. The ‘Common Good’ Standing for Something 563
IV. Concluding Reflections: The Relevance of Stepping Back 564
A. Persistent Tensions in International Legal Argument 566
B. Practical Dilemmas in Policymaking 569
Michelle Staggs Kelsall: From a Stark Utopia to Everyday Utopias 575
I. Introduction 576
II. The Emergence of the Business and Human Rights Agenda 580
A. The Business and Human Rights Agenda 580
B. The United Nations Global Compact and the Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises 581
C. The United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights 583
III. Conceptual Underpinnings of the BHR Agenda: From Embedded Liberalism to Embedded Pragmatism 586
A. Embedded Liberalism Part I: The Post-World War II Economic Order 587
B. Embedded Liberalism Part II: Embedding Legitimate Social Purpose in the Global Public Domain 590
C. The Limits of Embedded Liberalism: Polanyi’s Stark Utopia, Laissez-Faire Markets, and the Global Public Domain 593
IV. The UN Guiding Principles and the Shift Toward Embedded Pragmatism 596
A. Embedded Pragmatism, the UN Guiding Principles, and the Forum for Business and Human Rights 599
B. Evidence of Everyday Utopias: Human Rights Due Diligence Processes 600
C. From the Quotidian to Crisis: Salient Human Rights Issues 604
V. Conclusion 605
Rossana Deplano: Building Pragmatic Utopias: The “Other” Security Council, International Law, and the United Nations Dream 607
I. Introduction 607
II. The Security Council’s Practice Unpacked (1946–2017) 612
A. Tracing International Law in the Text of Resolutions 618
B. Significance and Limits of the Thematic Resolutions 623
III. A Pragmatic Utopia of International Law? 630
IV. Conclusion 635
General Articles 637
Peter Lawrence and Lukas Köhler: Representation of Future Generations through International Climate Litigation: A Normative Framework 639
I. Introduction 640
II. International Law Should Promote Justice Defined as Promotion of Core Human Rights Extended to Future Generations 642
III. International Tribunals Should Promote Justice, Including in Relation to Future Generations 647
A. INTs Ought to Promote Justice, Including Intergenerational Justice 647
B. INTs Must Exercise Discretion in Clarifying indeterminate International Legal Rules 649
IV. Rehfeld’s Concept of Representation in the Context of International Climate Litigation 651
A. Rehfeld’s Concept of Representation 651
B. Rationale for Representation of Future Generations in INTs 653
V. Representation of Future Generations in International Climate Litigation through Reforming Procedural Rules 655
A. ICJ Advisory Opinion 656
B. Amicus Curiae Briefs 661
VI. Conclusion 665
Anja Seibert-Fohr: From Complicity to Due Diligence: When Do States Incur Responsibility for Their Involvement in Serious International Wrongdoing? 667
I. Introduction 667
II. Modes of Participation and the Rules of State Responsibility: What Is Missing? 672
A. Participation in Serious Human Rights Abuses Below the Level of Complicity 672
B. Complicity in Human Rights Abuses and the Lex Specialis Hypothesis 676
III. Examining Contributions under Primary Rules of International Law 680
A. Point of Departure: Positive or Negative Obligations? 681
B. Due Diligence as a Yardstick for Indirect Participation 685
C. The Legal Parameters of Due Diligence 692
D. Applying Due Diligence to Indirect Participation 697
IV. Locating Indirect Participation Within the Framework of Responsibility 699
A. Direct Involvement 700
B. Complicity and Other Forms of Derived Responsibility 701
C. Indirect Participation and Non-Intervention 702
D. Complementarity Instead of Exclusiveness 704
V. Conclusion 705
German Practice 709
Avril Rushe: Same-Sex Marriage under the Grundgesetz and the European Convention on Human Rights 711
I. Introduction 711
II. Marriage under German Law 712
A. Registered Life Partnerships 714
B. Jurisprudence of the FCC 714
C. Debate Around Possibility of Same-Sex Marriage 715
D. Is the Law for the Introduction of Same-Sex Marriage Unconstitutional? 715
III. The European Story 718
A. Evolution of LGBTQI Rights Under the ECHR 718
B. Schalk and Kopf and the Protection of Same-Sex Relationships 719
C. The Right to Marry under the ECHR 720
1. Article 12 ECHR 720
a) Hämäläinen v. Finland 721
b) Chapin and Charpentier v. France 722
2. Article 8 ECHR 723
3. Article 14 ECHR 724
IV. The ECHR as a Living Instrument 724
A. The Margin of Appreciation 725
B. Consensus 726
V. Conclusion 728
Isabelle Hassfurther: Will There Be “Justice for Syria”? The Assad Regime in German Courts 731
I. Introduction 731
II. Accusations against the Assad Regime 734
III. Approaches to Criminal Justice on the International Plane 735
A. Blockade of the International Criminal Court 736
B. The International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism 737
IV. Germany’s Role 737
A. The Legal Framework 738
B. Present Focus: Evidence and Terrorism 742
C. Recent Initiatives 745
1. Complaints against Assad and High-Ranking Members of Military Intelligence 745
2. Difficulties and Prospects 748
Felix Würkert: The German Past between Collectives and Individuals 751
I. Guilt and Responsibility 752
II. Compensating Collective Actors 755
III. Using the Collective-Individual Dichotomy to Achieve Compensation 759
IV. The Difficulty of Quantifying the Unquantifiable 760
Tobias Thienel: Application and Repeal of the Offence of Insulting Foreign Heads of State: The Böhmermann Affair 763
I. Introduction 763
II. Judicial Proceedings 764
III. Legislative Efforts 765
IV. Significance to International Law 766
Alena Kunstreich: Prohibition or Non-Proliferation? Germany’s Point of View Concerning the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons and Effective Nuclear Arms Control and Disarmament 773
I. Introduction 773
II. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 774
III. Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 776
A. Developments Leading to the Adoption of the Treaty 776
B. Obligations and the Safeguards System under the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 779
IV. Germany’s Point of View 780
A. Reasons Why Germany Does Not Support the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 780
B. A “Step-By-Step Approach” – Alternatives Encouraged by Germany 781
Markus Gentzsch and Marc Becker: PSPP: Curtain Up for a New Act in the Drama “German Federal Constitutional Court versus European Court of Justice” 785
I. Introduction 785
II. Background of the Drama: Instruments for the Stabilisation of the Financial Markets 786
A. Public Sector Purchase Programme 786
B. The Outright Monetary Transaction Programme 788
III. Act II – Will the FCC Become a Regicide in the PSPP Case? 789
A. Scene 1: The Ultra Vires Review 789
1. Prohibition of Monetary Financing 791
2. Principle of Conferral 794
B. Scene 2: The Identity Review 795
IV. Summary 797
Book Reviews 799
ONUMA Yasuaki: International Law in a Transcivilizational World 801
Andrzej Jakubowski/Karolina Wierczyńska (eds.): Fragmentation vs the Constitutionalisation of International Law: A Practical Inquiry 804
Rosalyn Higgins/Philippa Webb/Dapo Akande/Sandesh Sivakumaran/James Sloan: Oppenheim’s International Law: United Nations 806
Nobuo Hayashi/Cecilia M. Bailliet (eds.): The Legitimacy of International Criminal Tribunals 809
Christine Chinkin/Mary Kaldor: International Law and New Wars 811
Marina Lostal: International Cultural Heritage Law in Armed Conflict: Case-Studies ofSyria, Libya, Mali, the Invasion of Iraq, and the Buddhas of Bamiyan 816
Brian D. Lepard (ed.): Reexamining Customary International Law 820
Anne Peters: Beyond Human Rights. The Legal Status of the Individual in International Law 823
C. J. Jenner/Tran Truong Thuy (eds.): The South China Sea: A Crucible of Regional Cooperation or Conflict-making Sovereignty Claims? 825
Daniel Bodansky/Jutta Brunnée/Lavanya Rajamani: International Climate Change Law 828
Andreas Kulick (ed.): Reassertion of Control over the Investment Treaty Regime 830