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Biology, Culture, and Environmental Law

Editors: McGuire, Michael T. | Rehbinder, Manfred

Schriftenreihe zur Rechtssoziologie und Rechtstatsachenforschung, Vol. 73

(1993)

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Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Contents 5
Preface by Margaret Gruter 7
I. Introduction 9
Michael T. McGuire and Manfred Rehbinder: Can Biology Inform Environmental Law? 9
II. Theory and General Concepts 17
1. Zdenek Madar: Environmental Protection: The Necessity of an Interdisciplinary Approach 17
I. Importance of the Interdisciplinary Approach in Scientific Research in General 17
II. Importance of Interdisciplinarity in the Field of Legal Protection of Environment 19
III. Conclusion 25
2. Margaret Gruter: Ethology and Environmental Law 27
I. Species-Characteristic Behaviors and the Environment 27
1. Self-interest 28
2. Nepotism 28
3. Reciprocity 30
4. Indirect Reciprocity 31
II. Biology and Laws Dealing with Preservation to the Environment 34
1. Public Education 36
2. Laws with Harsh Penalities, Tempting Awards, and Attractive Subsidies 37
3. Community-Support Systems 38
4. Auctioning off the Environment 38
Ill. Reduced Competitiveness; Limited Environmental Density; and Ideological/Religious Solutions 39
IV. Conclusion 40
3. Hans Rudolf Trüeb: Economics and the Environment: The Case For Tradeable Emission Permits 43
§ 1 Introduction 43
§ 2 Ecology and Economics: A Dangerous Liaison? 45
§ 3 Of Commons, Coase and Clean Air 49
3.1 The Invisible Hand, or: Doing What Comes Naturally 49
3.2 Bargaining in the Shadow of the Smoke-Stack 53
3.3 Beyond Command and Control 54
§ 4 Tradeable Permits: A New Instrument in Environmental Policy 58
4.1 The Idea... 58
4.2 ...and Its Refinements 60
§ 5 Collective Choice for Command and Control 64
5.1 Pressure Groups and Environmental Policy 65
5.2 Synopsis 69
§ 6 Aphorisms to a Theory of Instrument Choice 70
6.1 Environmental1ncidence 71
6.2 Cost Savings: Facts and Illusions 72
6.3 Organizational Viability: The Role of Certainty 75
6.4 Distributional Effects and Equal Treatment 77
6.5 Administrative Burden: Noble Dream or Nightmare? 79
6.6 Enforcement and Compliance 81
6.7 Public Opinion: A License to Pollute? 82
6.8 Summary 84
§ 7 Emissions Trading 86
7.1 Regulatory Background 86
7.2 EPA's «Final» Emissions Trading Policy 87
7.3 Successes and Failures 92
§ 8 Acid Rain Allowances 94
§ 9 Tradeable Permits in Other Fields 98
§ 10 Market-Based Approaches in European EnvironmentalLaw 101
10.1 International Organizations 101
10.2 Countries - Overview 104
10.3 Germany 106
10.4 Switzerland 109
§ 11 Conclusion 115
4. Michael T. McGuire: Environmental Protection, Improvement, and the Biology of Behavior 117
Introduction 117
1. Background 118
2. Human Investment and the Environment 121
3. Possible Solutions 129
Conclusion 131
References and Notes 131
III. Western European Issues 135
1. Ulf D. Lemor: Developments in the Field of Environmental Liability and Insurance Within the EEC and Especially in Germany 135
I. International developments 135
II. The problems of environmental impairment liability in Germany 139
III. The new pollution liability insurance concept 145
IV. Conclusion 149
2. Michael Lehmann: The New German Act on Strict Liability for Environmental Damage. Some Internalization of Negative External Effects 151
I. Civil Liability Law as an Instrument of Internalization 151
II. History of the Development of the German Act on Strict Liability for Environmental Damage 153
III. Details of the New German Act on Strict Liability for Environmental Damage 157
IV. Summary 159
IV. Eastern European Issues 161
1. Andras Sajo: Property Rights and Environmental Prospects in Post-Communism 161
I. 164
II. 168
III. 179
2. Sergei Zalygin: Ecological Problems in the USSR, as Seen by the State and the Public 189
3. A.S. Mishchenko: Experience from an Independant Examination of the Design Flood-Control Works in Leningrad (The Leningrad Dike) 197
4. N.G. Minashina: Ecological State of the Soils in the Aral Basin: Sources-and Scope of the Crisis 203
5. M.I. Zelikin and A.S. Demidov: The Aral Crisis and Departmental Interests 209
6. B.V. Vinogradov: Ecological Crisis in the North-Western Caspian Area and an Agricultural and Ecological Alternative Program to Develop the Region 213
V. US-American Issues 217
1. William H. Rodgers, Jr.: The Environmental Laws of the United States: Poison to be Shunned or Nourishment to be Embraced? 217
I. Introduction 217
II. Describing the U.S. Environmental Laws 218
III. Evaluating the U.S. Environmental Laws 219
1. Prospective Regulation, Based upon best Technology 220
2. Prospective Regulation, Based upon Risk Assessment 221
3. Environmental Impact Assessment 223
4. Strict, Joint, Several, and Retroactive Liability 225
5. Integrated Pollution Control 226
6. Controlling Environmental Risks through Economic Incentives 228
IV. Conclusion 229
2. Susan Low Bloch: The Evolution of American Environmental Regulation: The Impact of Political Structure and Culture on the Substance of the Law 231
A. Forms o/Governmental Control 232
I. How clean do we want our environment to be and at what cost? 232
II. How do we get there? 233
1. Command and Control Regulation 233
2. Government Subsidization 237
3. Pollution or Effluent Charges and Permits 238
4. Common Problems in all these Approaches 241
Ill. Role of the National and State Governments 242
B. Experience afthe United States 244
I. Structural Constraints 244
II. The Evolution of Regulation in the United States 247
III. Understanding the Factors that influenced this Evolution 255
Conclusion 260
VI. Final Remarks 261
Michael T. McGuire: Modeling Legal Compliance for Environmental Law Using Concepts from Biology 261
1. The range of answers 261
2. Modeling legal compliance 263
3. Conclusion 268