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Maydell, B., Nußberger, A. (Eds.) (1996). Social Protection by Way of International Law. Appraisal, Deficits and Further Development. Duncker & Humblot.
Maydell, Bernd Baron von and Nußberger, Angelika. Social Protection by Way of International Law: Appraisal, Deficits and Further Development. Duncker & Humblot, 1996. Book.
Maydell, B, Nußberger, A (eds.) (1996): Social Protection by Way of International Law: Appraisal, Deficits and Further Development, Duncker & Humblot, [online]


Social Protection by Way of International Law

Appraisal, Deficits and Further Development

Editors: Maydell, Bernd Baron von | Nußberger, Angelika

Schriftenreihe für Internationales und Vergleichendes Sozialrecht, Vol. 15


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More than ever the modern welfare state is in the centre of public discussion. Long-term achievements in the field of social rights are being questioned. New approaches try to adapt the social net to the demands of a strong economy. Since these reflections are not specific to one country only, all attempts to solve the problem in the national context are deemed to fail: The model of the welfare state as such is in crisis. Since World War I a great number of rules in the field of social and labour protection have been elaborated. Many of them were ratified by more than half of the States of the World. Transnational law-making has even increased after World War II on the regional and the universal level, with the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the European Community as the main protagonists. It is the aim of the book presented here to show international social and labour law in its historical context, to discuss the impact of its norms on the work of practioners and tribunals and to explain their importance for the on-going discussion. The volume comprises the lectures given at a conference that was held in 1994 on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the International Labour Organization.

Das Modell des Sozialstaats steht mehr denn je im Mittelpunkt der öffentlichen Diskussion. Langjährige Errungenschaften im sozialen Bereich werden in Frage gestellt, neue Ansätze zum Aufbau eines sozialen Netzes angedacht. Diese Entwicklungen betreffen nicht nur Deutschland: Das Modell des Sozialstaats ist allgemein in der Krise. Deshalb greifen Lösungsansätze, die nur den jeweiligen nationalen Kontext berücksichtigen, zu kurz. Seit dem ersten Weltkrieg ist eine Vielzahl von sozial- und arbeitsrechtlichen Schutzregelungen ausgearbeitet worden, die zum Teil von mehr als der Hälfte der Staaten dieser Erde ratifiziert wurden. Die normsetzende Tätigkeit im staatenübergreifenden Bereich wurde nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg auf internationaler wie auch auf regionaler Ebene ve

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Preface 5
Table of Contents 7
Abbreviations 9
Bernd von Maydell/Angelika Nußberger: General Introduction 13
Part I: Standard-Setting Activities in the Field of Social and Labour Law 19
Héctor G. Bartolomei de la Cruz: International Labour Law: Renewal or Decline? 19
I. Introduction 19
II. Main Contributions of ILO Standards to Public International Law 21
1. Conventions and Recommendations 21
2. Supervisory Procedures 24
III. Main Subjects Covered by ILO Conventions and Recommendations 31
1. Freedom of Association 32
2. Forced Labour 32
3. Equal Opportunity and Treatment 33
4. Employment Policy 33
5. Labour Inspection 33
6. Tripartite ConsuItation 33
IV. Influence of ILO Standards 34
1. At the International Level 34
2. At the National Level 35
V. Future Development of ILO Standards 36
VI. Challenges: Universality Versus Relativism 38
VII. Some Closing Reflections 41
Theo Öhlinger: Standard-Setting Activities by Regional Institutions, Taking the Council of Europe as an Example: The European Social Charter 43
I. Introduction 43
II. Contents of the Social Charter 44
III. The Legal Nature of Charter Obligations 45
IV. The Ability to Limit Charter Obligations (Article 20) 47
V. The Effectiveness of the Charter 48
VI. The Supervisory Procedure 51
1. National Reports 52
2. Participation of the Social Partners 53
3. Examination of National Reports by the Committee of Independent Experts 54
4. Participation of the Parliamentary Assembly 55
5. The Committee of Ministers 55
VII. The Future of the Social Charter 56
Manfred Zuleeg: Social Rights in the European Community 59
I. Fundamental Social Rights 59
1. The Prelude of the Stauder Case 59
2. The Development of Fundamental Social Rights 60
II. Social Rights in General 65
1. Subjective Rights and Compensations for Damages 65
2. Principles of tbe Application of Social Rights 66
3. The Reaction in Germany 68
Part II: Law-Making, Enforcement, Supervision: Mechanisms Provided by International Law 69
Bruno Simma/Markus Zöckler: Social Protection by International Law: Law-Making by Universal Organizations (Especially the United Nations) 69
I. In Quest for a Broader Perspective: Law-Making as a Process 69
II. Social Protection Through Treaty Law 71
1. Social Issues in UN Human Rights Treaties 72
2. Functional Dimensions of Economic and Social Rights 73
3. Rights as \"Rules\" and \"Principles 76
III. Social Protection Through Soft Law 78
1. The Spectrum of Non-Binding Standards 78
2. The Legal Relevance of Standards: Law as a Process 80
IV. Social Protection Through International Supervisory Mechanisms 82
1. The Function of General Comments and Concluding Observations 82
2. International Supervision as a Process of Norm-Concretization 84
Rüdiger Wolfrum: Obligations Under Public International Law to Implement International Rules: Mechanisms to Monitor such Implementation 87
I. Introduction 87
II. Mechanisms for Monitoring Implementation Through International Bodies 91
III. Monitoring of Implementation and Enforcement of International Obligations Through States 98
IV. Conclusion 104
Budislav Vukas: The Diverse Supervisory Procedures in a Comparison 105
I. Introduction 105
II. The Nature of Economic, SociaI and CulturaI Rights 106
III. Supervisory Procedures 109
IV. Political Methods 110
V. Reporting Procedures 113
VI. Settlement of Disputes 126
VII. Final Remarks 131
Part III: International Standards and National Law 133
Jürgen von Muralt: The Role of Technical Cooperation in the Promotion of International Labour Standards 133
I. Introduction 133
II. International Labour Standards in Developing Countries 134
III. Technical Cooperation in Support of the Application of Standards 135
1. The Strengthening of the Institutional Frame Work 136
2. Sector and Group Specific Standards 137
a) Selected Standards Relating to the Rural Sector 137
b) The Maritime Industry 140
c) Particular Occupational Groups 141
IV. Outlook 142
Rolf Schuler: The Consideration of International Standards in National Legal Practice (Administration and Court Decisions) 143
I. Subject and Scope of the Investigation 143
1. Standard-Setting Rules of International Labour and Social Law 143
2. The Specific Question of the Relevance of International Standards to German Administrative and Court Practice 145
II. International Standards in Court Rulings on Labour Law 148
1. Guarantees in Respect of Claims to Holiday 148
2. Guarantees to Employees' Associations and to Employees' Representatives in Enterprises 151
a) Prerequisites Governing the Collective Bargaining Capacity of an Employee Association 151
b) Trade Union Rights in the Enterprise 153
III. International Standards in Court Rulings on Social Law 153
1. Neutrality Obligation of the Federal Employment Agency in the Event of Industrial Disputes 153
2. Exclusive Placing Right of the Federal Employment Agency 157
3. Refusal of Victims' Compensation Owing to Contributory Fault or Self-Injury of the Victim 158
4. Are Land Parental Allowances Not to be Granted to Turkish Nationals for Their Children? 159
5. International Standards Governing the Award of Social Insurance Benefits to Non-Nationals Residing Abroad 161
IV. On the Significance of International Labour and Social Law Standards to Other Fields of Law 163
1. International Social Standards and German Law on Competition 163
2. Receipt of Sodal Assistance by Non-Nationals with a View to Their Residence Status 164
V. Results and Conclusions 168
Ludwik Florek: The Significance of International Labour Standards to the Transformation Process in Poland 171
I. Introduction 171
II. Influence of ILO Conventions and Recommendations on Polish Legislation 172
1. Until 1980 172
2. In the 1980s 173
3. Following 1989 177
III. Influence of European Law 182
IV. International Rules of Law and the Case Law of the Polish Supreme Court Concerning International Obligations 183
Part IV: Panel Discussion: Is There a Need for the Further Development of Existing Protection Standards in the Field of Social Security? (Examined in the Light of Convention No. 102 Concerning Minimum Standards of Social Security) 187
Introduced by Bernd von Maydell 187
Héctor G. Bartolomei de la Cruz 190
Wilhelm Adamy 193
Christian Hess 200
Gisbert Brinkmann 203
Wolfgang Ohndorf 208
Part V: Summary of Discussions 211
Angelika Nußberger: Is the International Labour Organization in a State of Transition? 211
I. Introduction 212
II. Structural Changes in the International Realm 213
1. End of the East-West Conflict 213
2. Shift in the Weighting of Interests Between Industrialized and Developing Countries 215
3. Increase in International Approaches to Solving Problems 215
4. Liberalization and Globalization in the Economic Field 216
III. Standard Setting in the International Realm 217
1. The Term \"Standard 218
2. Possibilities of Framing International Standards 218
IV. Application of International Standards in the National Realm 220
1. Standards Set by the ILO and the ESC 220
a) Legal Consequences of Ratification 220
b) Problems of Application 221
2. Significance of the Case Law of the European Court of Justice to the Further Development of National Law 223
a) General Dogmatic Problems in the Development of Fundamental Rights Protection 223
b) Concrete Issues of lnterpretation 226
aa) Interpretation of Art. 119 E(E)C Treaty 226
bb) Interpretation of Section 613a of the German Civil Code (BGB) 227
V. Supervisory Mechanisms for the Enforcement of International Standards 228
1. Function of the Reporting Systems 229
2. The Committees' Conception of Themselves 229
3. Procedure 230
a) Acquisition of Information 230
b) Procedures for the Examination of Government Reports 231
c) Bindingness of the Results 231
4. Steps Taken to Coordinate the Work of the Diverse Committees 232
VI. Additional Possibilities for the Global Enforcement of Social Values 233
1. Technical Assistance 233
2. Social Clauses 233
3. Conditionality of Assistance Programmes 234
4. Alternative Approaches 234
VII. Cooperation of the ILO with Other Organizations 235
1. World Bank and International Monetary Fund 235
2. World Trade Organization 235
3. Demographic Programmes Within the Framework of the UNO 236
4. World Social Summit 236
5. Council of Europe 236
6. European Union 237
VIII. Further Development of Protection Standards in the Field of Social Security 237
1. Rank of Social Security Within the Entire Body of ILO Standards 237
2. Arguments in Favour of and Against a Revision of Convention No. 102 239
3. Prerequisites for a Revision 240
4. Basic Features of a New Concept 241
a) Conceptualization 241
b) Points of Emphasis 241
IX. Summary of the Findings 243
List of Participants 245