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Herman, S. (1993). Medieval Usury and the Commercialization of Feudal Bonds. Duncker & Humblot.
Herman, Shael. Medieval Usury and the Commercialization of Feudal Bonds. Duncker & Humblot, 1993. Book.
Herman, S (1993): Medieval Usury and the Commercialization of Feudal Bonds, Duncker & Humblot, [online]


Medieval Usury and the Commercialization of Feudal Bonds

Herman, Shael

Schriften zur Europäischen Rechts- und Verfassungsgeschichte, Vol. 11


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Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Geleitwort 7
Preface 9
Table of Contents 11
I. Introduction 13
II. The Church, Contrary to Its Roman Law Heritage, Condemns Lending at Interest 19
a) Roman Law as Damnosa Hereditas 19
b) The Church Rejects the Roman Practice of Lending at Interest 19
III. Theological Foundations of the Usury Ban and Its Evasions 23
IV. Commercialization of Feudal Bonds 25
a) Overview 25
b) Norman Financing Practices During the Tenth through Thirteenth Centuries 26
c) Landed Revenues as Natural Camouflage for Interest 28
d) Rents: A Natural Outgrowth of the Personal Bond of Lord and Vassal 29
e) Two Forms of Tenement Transfers: Subinfeudation and Substitution 30
aa) Substitution 30
bb) Subinfeudation 30
f) Commutation of Services: A Sign of Commercialization of Feudal Bonds 32
g) More Evidence of Commercialization of Feudal Bonds: Subinfeudation ut de vadio 33
h) The Nontenurial Rent: Both Euphemism and Convenient Disguise for Usury 34
i) Blurring Lease and Loan 34
j) Distraint: Compulsory Rendition of Rent Payments and Services 36
k) The “Thinglikeness” of Rents 38
V. French Experience with Gages, Subinfeudations, and Rents 40
a) Commercialization of Feudal Bonds in Medieval France 40
b) French Financing Practices 42
c) Waning Obstacles to Liquidating a Fee on Default 43
d) Jewish Lenders in France 45
VI. Recapitulation 47
VII. English Experience with Usurious Lending and Its Evasions 48
a) Jewish Lenders in England 48
b) Subinfeudations and the Locus of Creditor Leverage 50
c) Subinfeudations ut de feodo 50
d) Subinfeudations ut de feodo and ut de vadio Contrasted 51
e) Subinfeudations ut de vadio as Investment 53
f) Jewish Holdings by Subinfeudation 53
g) Christian Holdings by Subinfeudation 54
h) Royal Statutes Aimed at Investors in Encumbered Estates 54
i) Statutes of 1269 and 1271 Divest Jews of Encumbered Estates 55
j) Quia Emptores (1290) 56
k) Milsom’s Observations on Quia Emptores 57
l) Mortmain Statute [De Viris Religiosis] (1279) 59
m) Specific Instances of Subinfeudations ut de vadio 63
n) Westminster II: Elegit 65
VIII. Assize of the Jews (Assisam Judaismi) 68
IX. Conclusion 76
Appendix A: Charters of William de Valence made in Favour of Nicholas Fitzmartin Touching 50 Marks of Yearly Fee-Rent 78
Appendix B: Analysis of Charters 82
Endnotes 86
Bibliography 123
Index 131