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Bulygin, E., Leiser, B., Van Hoecke, M. (Eds.) (1998). Changing Structures in Modern Legal Systems and the Legal State Ideology. Preface by Aulis Aarnio. Duncker & Humblot.
Bulygin, Eugenio; Leiser, Burton M. and Van Hoecke, Mark. Changing Structures in Modern Legal Systems and the Legal State Ideology: Preface by Aulis Aarnio. Duncker & Humblot, 1998. Book.
Bulygin, E, Leiser, B, Van Hoecke, M (eds.) (1998): Changing Structures in Modern Legal Systems and the Legal State Ideology: Preface by Aulis Aarnio, Duncker & Humblot, [online]


Changing Structures in Modern Legal Systems and the Legal State Ideology

Preface by Aulis Aarnio

Editors: Bulygin, Eugenio | Leiser, Burton M. | Van Hoecke, Mark

Rechtstheorie. Beihefte, Vol. 18


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In den staatlich organisierten Rechtssystemen der modernen Gesellschaft vollzieht sich gegenwärtig ein rascher Wandel. Er ist nicht nur dadurch bedingt, daß in zahlreichen Regionalgesellschaften die vormals ganz unangefochtene, prominente Rolle des Staates in einer tiefgreifenden Veränderung und Transformation begriffen ist. Auch die Staatengemeinschaften, wie die Europäische Union, aber auch die internationale Völkergemeinschaft befinden sich in Umbildung.

Die Idee des modernen Rechtsstaats hat - unbeschadet ihrer vielfältigen Erfolge in der Vergangenheit - als alleiniges Strukturprinzip rechtlicher Gemeinschaftsbildung an innovativer Wirkkraft eingebüßt, wenn es darum geht, auf der Ebene normativer Strukturbildung des Rechts eine verläßliche Ausgangsbasis nicht nur für »state legal systems«, sondern auch für »non-state legal systems« zu schaffen. Es geht hier nicht, national wie international betrachtet, um eine Art Transplantation von Prinzipien und Regeln, sondern um eine politisch-rechtliche und moralische Erneuerung der Grundlagen des geltenden Rechts.

Zur rechtsideologischen Aufklärung der gegenwärtig anstehenden Probleme in diversen Rechtskulturen wollen die hier zusammengefaßten Untersuchungen und Forschungen beitragen, die aus Anlaß des 17. Weltkongresses der Internationalen Vereinigung für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie (IVR) in Bologna vorgelegt wurden.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
On the Legal State Ideology in the Modern Society VII
I. New Legal Cultures and Normative Structures in a Global Community 1
Percy Black: Babel of Cultures: Challenge to Law in the 1990’s and Beyond 3
I. How Are Good Persons Made? 4
II. How Are Bad Persons Made? 5
III. What Makes Restive Subgroups Restive? 6
IV. Why Are Western Hosts Upset About Immigrants? 7
V. How Do Immigrants See Themselves? 10
VI. Strategies of Hope 11
1. Rights and Obligations of Host and Immigrant 11
2. Birthing of a Universal Immigrant Ethic 11
3. Permanent Cultural Liaison Commissions 12
4. Uphold the Model Immigrant 12
5. Establish Joint Ventures Toward Superordinate Goals 13
6. Dismantle Global Stereotypes 13
VII. Concluding Comment 13
References 14
Robert D’Amico: Three Kinds of Argument in Modern Political Philosophy: The Example of Populism 17
I. Institutional Design Type Arguments 18
II. Structural Constraint-Type Arguments 20
III. Moral Assessment Arguments 24
IV. Conclusion 26
James F. Doyle: Legal Accommodation of Social Diversity 27
I. 27
II. 28
III. 30
Kevin T. Jackson: Sovereignty, Citizenship, and the Global Community: When Domestic Courts Adjudicate International Human Rights 33
I. Introduction 33
II. Sovereignty and International Human Rights 33
III. Citizenship and Dworkin's \"Community of Principle 48
IV. Interpreting Rights for the Global Community 50
1. \"Constructive\" Interpretation 53
2. \"Structural\" Interpretation 55
3. Habermas' \"Psychoanalytic\" Interpretation 56
4. Interpreting Human Rights 59
5. The \"Universal Audience 62
6. Finding Community Consensus 64
7. Justifying Legal Theories 67
8. Counterfactual Acceptability 67
9. Conflict and Convergence 69
V. Conclusion 70
Gerhard Sprenger: Collective Morality and the Legitimation of Law 73
I. Law and Public Morality 73
ll. The Everyday World and its Ethos 74
III. Public Morality: Its Strangeness 77
IV. Public Morality: Its Meaning 80
References 83
Antonio Tarantino: Person, Nature of Institutions and Sovereignty 85
I. 85
II. 86
III. 88
IV. 89
II. Rule of Law in National and International Communities 93
Erwin Bader: Theoretical Problems of Democracy and Law with Austria’s Joining the EU 95
Uta U. Bindreiter: Motivating the Direct Applicability of Community Law 105
I. Introduction 105
II. The Legitimation of Directly Applicable Norms 106
1. External Point of View 106
2. Internal Point of View 108
III. Legal-Internal Legitimation 109
1. Monistic Systems 109
2. Dualistic Systems 112
IV. The Wider Perspective: A Moral/Functional Justification of Directly Applicable Norms 114
Anna N. Georgiadou: Nouvelles Formes de la Souveraineté et l’Union Européenne 117
I. Introduction 117
II. L'Union Europeenne entre deux formes de Souverainete 118
1. Souverainete «unique» ou souverainete «communautarisee» 118
2. Souverainete «multinationale» 120
III. Vers une Nouvelle Forme de la Souverainete Etatique dansle cadre de l'Union Europeenne 122
1. La citoyennete europeenne comme concept nouveau de la notion de la souverainete en general 122
2. La citoyennete europeenne comme droit politique nouveau influençant la souverainete etatique dans le cadre de I'Union Europeenne 124
Roberta Kevelson: Crises in International Law: Signs and Symptoms 129
I. 129
II. 138
III. 142
Lech Morawski: The Rule of Law in the Welfare State 147
I. 147
II. 148
III. 151
IV. 152
III. Law and Economics 155
Philippe Gérard: Fairness, Consent and Political Obligation 157
I. Fairness and Cooperation 158
II. The Acceptance of Benefits 162
Peter Lewisch: Doorkeepers of Justice? The Legal Services of Judges and Lawyers in an Economic Perspective 169
I. Introduction 169
II. The Behavior of Judges 169
III. The Behavior of Lawyers 174
IV. Concluding Remarks 179
William N. R. Lucy / Catherine Mitchell: The Case for Stewardship 181
I. Preliminaries 181
II. A Dysfunctional Concept 182
III. Between Private Property and Common Property 184
IV. Understanding Stewardship 185
V. The Promise of Stewardship 190
Christian Schmidt: The Distinction Between “Public” and “Private”. An Economic Perspective 193
I. Introduction 193
II. Two Examples of the Intricate Relationship Between Private and Public in Economies 194
1. The Market System 194
2. The Voting System 195
III. Are Economic Goods Necessarily \"Private\" or \"Public\"? 196
1. Samuelson's Discrete Distinction 196
2. A Continuum of Mixed Situations Between \"Pure Public\" and \"Pure Private\" Goods 198
3. From Goods to Individuals: The Group Dimension 201
IV. Public Choice Versus Social Choice 202
1. Questioning the Social Choice Function 202
2. Is Public Choice a Private Matter? 206
3. Towards Distinctions Based on Public and Private Information 210
References 211
Herbert Wagner: Some Observations to the Relation on Law and Economy 215
Ross Zucker: Democracy and Economic Justice 225
I. Introduction 225
II. Basic Definition of Democracy 226
III. Democracy and Primary Economic Rights 228
IV. Constitutional Democracy and Economic Rights 230
V. Substantive Democracy: Prospective or Specified 232
VI. Democracy as Rule Respecting Egalitarian Property 233
VII. Theory of Rights or Choice of Rights 235
VIII. Criteria for the Democratic Process 237
IX. Substantive Democracy and Rights: Are Substantive Rights Internal to Democracy or Internal to Justice? 239
X. Substantive Democracy and the Problem of Specificity 240
XI. Property and the Theory of Social Rights 240
XII. Can There Be a Speculative Theory of Rights? 242
References 246
IV. Community Consensus and Individual Rights 247
Anne F. Bayefsky: Cultural Sovereignty, Relativism, and International Human Rights: New Excuses for Old Strategies 249
I. Introduction 249
II. The Practical Realities of Cultural Sovereignty 250
1. The Protagonists 250
a) Example 1 250
b) Example 2 254
c) Example 3 259
d) Conclusion 260
2. The Respondents 261
III. Tbe Theoretical Underpinnings of Cultural Sovereignty 263
Gustavo Gozzi: Fundamental Rights and Democratic Constitution. Trends in the Contemporary Debate in the Federal Republic of Germany 269
I. Beyond Weimar 269
II. Fundamental Rights as Subjective Rights and as Objective Norms 271
III. The Constitution as Fundamental Order (Grundordnung) and as Framework Order (Rahmenordnung) 273
IV. Rights and the Intervention State 274
V. Rights and Procedures 276
VI. Rights and Aims of the State 278
VII. The Democratic Constitution 282
Leszek Leszczyñski: Social Rights in Central and East European Constitutions: A Problem of Method of Regulation 285
I. The Social Change 285
II. The Scale of Regulation 286
III. The Implementation 288
IV. Some Comparisons 292
Bente Puntervold Bø: Law and Asylum: The Use of Legal Means to Limit the Responsibility of the Nation State Towards Refugees 295
I. Introduction 295
II. From Material to Procedural Laws 297
III. The Limitation of the Moral Scope of Law 297
IV. Legal Means are Used by the State Administration to Limit the Number of Asylum-Seekers and Refugees 298
1. By Inventing New \"Legal\" Concepts 298
2. By Limiting the Scope of Existing Legal Concepts 299
a) Personal Target as a Requirement 300
b) Agents of Perseeution 301
c) Time in Prison 301
d) First Country of Asylum 302
3. By Creating New Legal Obstacles Which Block the Access to the Refugee Determination Procedures 302
4. The Use of \"Innocent Language\" to Justify this Policy 303
V. Conclusion: The Moral Concerns 303
Rosemary C. Salomone: Individual Rights, Community Consensus, and National Goals: The Challenge for Education in a Pluralistic Society 305
I. Introduction 305
II. History of the Common School 309
III. A View from the Courts 313
IV. A Search for Common Ground 316
V. Conclusion 320
Roman A. Tokarczyk: The Paradigm of Social Contract 321
I. A Definition of the Social Contract 321
II. The Forms of the Social Contract 321
III. The Origins of Contractualism 322
IV. Contractualism in Antiquity 324
V. Contractualism in the Middle Ages 326
VI. Modern Contractualism 327
VII. Contemporary Contractualism 329
VIII. The Model of Contractualism 331
IX. Contractualism Criticised 332
X. The Significance of Contractualism 334
Guodong Xu: Freedom of Migration and Difference Between City and Countryside – From the Point of View of Marxism 337
I. 337
II. 340
III. 345
IV. 348
V. Conformity and Deviance in Legal Behaviour – Legal Change in Criminal Law 351
Mario A. Cattaneo: Punishment and Human Rights 353
I. Introduction 353
ll. The Purpose of Punishment 355
III. Legality and Security of Law 356
IV. Humanity and Punishment 356
V. Conclusion: Has a Man a Right to Judge and to Condemn Another Human Being? 357
Wesley Cragg: Mens Rea and its Twentieth Century Critics 361
I. 365
II. 368
III. 373
References 375
Patrick J. Hurley: American Criminal Defense in the Next Millennium 377
Hendrik Kaptein: Jumping to Conclusions in Criminal Law. Facts, Offenses and the Logic of Loose Ends in Between 385
I. Horses Behind Carts, Dead Cats, Criminal Court Proceedings & Careless Dress 385
II. The Need for Decisive Evidence in Criminal Law Reversal of the Burden of Proof? 387
III. Four Kinds of Criminal Evidence - Still More Problems With Criminal Evidence - Unbridgeable Gaps Between Evidence and the Facts of the Charge? 388
IV. Jumping to Conclusions: Simple Logic Clarifying Complex Stories 389
V. Facts, Stories, Probabilities and the Logic of Justification 391
VI. One Last Cart Put Before Horses: Lack of Certainty Leading to Criminal Law Reform? 392
References 393
Vincent Luizzi: New Technologies, New Punishments, and New Thoughts About Punishment 395
Lorenz Schulz: Time and Law. How Life-World Acceleration Affects Imputation in Criminal Law 405
I. 406
II. 410
III. 411
List of the Authors 415
General Index 418