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Dippel, H. (Ed.) (1999). Executive and Legislative Powers in the Constitutions of 1848-49. Duncker & Humblot.
Dippel, Horst. Executive and Legislative Powers in the Constitutions of 1848-49. Duncker & Humblot, 1999. Book.
Dippel, H (ed.) (1999): Executive and Legislative Powers in the Constitutions of 1848-49, Duncker & Humblot, [online]


Executive and Legislative Powers in the Constitutions of 1848-49

Editors: Dippel, Horst

Schriften zur Verfassungsgeschichte, Vol. 58


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In the course of the development of modern constitutionalism the biennium of 1848-9 has been continuously underrated. No collection of its constitutions has ever been published, nor any systematic interpretation of them has yet been written in spite of the fact that during the revolutionary upheaval of 1848-9, more than 40 constitutions were, with at least some sort of public legitimacy, drafted in Europe and most of them enacted.

The twelve articles assembled in this volume were written to illustrate, with a focus on the organization of legislative and executive powers, some major aspects of this struggle. Besides several German, Italian, and Austro-Hungarian constitutions and those of France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, the constitution of Wisconsin is deliberately included to document the whole range of ideas from nearly unconcealed opposition to major constitutional concessions to the rule of popular sovereignty in a democratic republic and to demonstrate the similarities as well as the differences between European and American constitutional concepts at the time. As a result, the years 1848-9 stand out for some major results that transformed the performance of modern constitutionalism in Europe during the second half of the nineteenth and in the twentieth centuries.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Acknowledgments V
Contents VII
Introduction 1
Antonio Chiavistelli and Luca Mannori, Florence: The Tuscan Statute of 1848. Background and Genesis of a Constitution 7
I. The Institutional Background from the Medici to Napoleon 9
II. The Restoration and the Return to a Patemalistic Government 12
III. The pre-1848 debate: its generallines and topics 14
IV. The Road Towards the Consultative Monarchy 16
V. The Unexpected Advent of Representative Government: The "Fundamental Statute" of February 15, 1848 18
VI. Which Frame of Government for Constitutional Tuscany? 21
VII. The Statute put to the test. The legislative-executive relationship until July 31, 1848 24
VIII. The Cabinet and the Parliament from August 1848 to February 1849 27
IX. Conclusion 32
János Zlinszky, Budapest: The First Hungarian Civil Constitution (1848). Organization of Executive and Legislative Power 35
I. 35
II. 38
III. 39
IV. 41
V. 47
VI. 50
VII. 53
Wilhelm Brauneder, Vienna: Separation of Powers in Austria’s First Constitutions 55
I. The Separation of Powers in General 55
II. Austria's First Constitution of 1848 57
III. Draft Constitutions from Outside the Imperial Diet 59
IV. The Draft Constitution of 1848/49 60
V. The Constitution of 1849 62
VI. Immediate Consequences 63
VII. Longer-Iasting Consequences 63
Winfried Speitkamp, Gießen: Die Verfassungsfrage in Kurhessen 65
I. Reformvorschläge in der Revolution 66
II. Vorgeschichte und Rahmenbedingungen 68
III. Verfassungsreformen in der Revolution 75
IV. Verfassungskonflikt und Verfassungsrevision am Ende der Revolution 79
English Summary 85
Andreas Schulz, Frankfurt: „Starke Regierung auf volksthümlicher Grundlage.“ Die revolutionären Verfassungen der Hansestädte von 1848/49 87
I. Der kommunale Verfassungstypus 88
II. Grundzüge der revolutionären Verfassungen von 1848/1849 92
III. Ergebnisse 102
English Summary 105
Arend H. Huussen Jr., Groningen: Constitutional Reform in the Netherlands 1847–1848 107
I. The System of the Revised 1848 Constitution 107
II. Reasons for Constitutional Reform: Autocracy and Liberalism, 1840-1847 113
III. Continuity and Change, 1795-1840 121
IV. Conclusion 126
Hartmut Ullrich, Kassel: The Statuto Albertino 129
Introductory Remarks 129
I. Main features of the Statuto Albertino 130
II. The genesis of the Statuto Albertino 132
1. The Historical Context 132
2. The Decision in Favor of a Constitution and the Choice of a Model 134
III. The organization of powers, in particular Executive and Legislative, in the Statuto Albertino 141
IV. Flexibility of the Constitution, Contrasting Contemporary Interpretations, and the Role of the Cabinet 144
Appendix: Recollections Regarding King Victor Emmanuel II and the Constitution, Written by Carlo Cadorna in 1878 155
Dieter Hein, Frankfurt: „Self-Government der Nation.“ Exekutive und Legislative in der deutschen Reichsverfassung von 1849 163
English Summary 185
Rainer J. Schweizer, Saint Gall: Die Ausgestaltung der Regierung des Bundes in der Schweizerischen Bundesverfassung von 1848 187
I. Einleitung 187
II. Die Bundesreform von 1832/33 188
a) Vorgeschichte 188
b) Die Bundesverfassungsentwürfe von 1832/33 190
aa) Allgemeines 190
bb) Ausgestaltung der Exekutive 191
III. Die Exekutive in der Verfassung von 1848 195
a) Allgemeines 195
b) Ausgestaltung 196
aa) Kollegialbehörde 196
bb) Zahl der Bundesräte und Wahlvoraussetzungen 197
cc) Amtsdauer 198
dd) Wahlgremium 199
ee) Funktionen 199
jj) Bundeskanzlei 200
IV. Revisionsbestrebungen 200
V. Ausblick 201
English Summary 203
Frédéric Lambert, Paris: La Genèse de la Constitution du 4 novembre 1848. De la confiscation de la Révolution à la défaite de la République 205
Un Preambule expurge: la defaite de la Republique sociale 209
Les rapports exécutif-Iégislatif: un bricolage institutionnel 216
Réversibilités de la Constitution et volte-faces politiques 222
English Summary 230
Giuseppe Galasso, Naples: La Costituzione romana del 1849 231
English Summary 270
Horst Dippel, Kassel: “A mixed form of government founded on democratic principles.” The Wisconsin Constitution of 1848 and the Virtuous Republic 271
List of Contributors 287