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Oppermann, T., Petersmann, E. (Eds.) (1987). Reforming the International Economic Order. German legal comments. Duncker & Humblot.
Oppermann, Thomas and Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich. Reforming the International Economic Order: German legal comments. Duncker & Humblot, 1987. Book.
Oppermann, T, Petersmann, E (eds.) (1987): Reforming the International Economic Order: German legal comments, Duncker & Humblot, [online]


Reforming the International Economic Order

German legal comments

Editors: Oppermann, Thomas | Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich

Tübinger Schriften zum internationalen und europäischen Recht, Vol. 1


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Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Preface 7
Contents 9
THOMAS OPPERMANN: Introduction 11
I. On the Necessity for Peaceful Change in International Economic Relations 11
II. The Contribution of the International Law Association to the Reform of the International Economic Order 12
III. The Activities of the International ILA Committee on "Legal Aspects of a New International Economic Order" 13
IV. German Contributions to the ILA Activities 15
PART I: German Papere Issued for Governmental and Non-governmental Organisations (especially ILA) 17
Pros and Cons of the Signing of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of December 10,1982 by the Federal Republic of Germany 19
Comment 19
Vote 22
Thomas Oppermann: Existing and Evolving Principles of International Law in the Field of a New International Economic Order 24
1. Name of the Committee 25
2. Legal and Functional Principles 25
3. Equity and Solidarity 26
4. UNITAR-principles 27
5. Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources, Economic Activities and Wealth 27
6. Preferential Treatment 28
7. Participatory Equality 28
8. Co-operation of States 29
9. Common Heritage of Mankind 29
10. Right to Development 29
11. International Law of Economic Development 30
12. Sources of International Law of Economic Development 31
13. Future Approach of the Committee 31
On Legal and Optional Principles of the Existing and Future International Economic Order 32
1. Some basic remarks 32
2. The fundamental legal principles of the existing and future international economic order 33
3. The "optional principles" of the world economy as foundation of treaty law in the NIEO-discussion 34
Investment Risks and International Law 36
1. Basic facts of investment practice 36
1.1. Bilateral investment treaties — the example of the FRG 37
1.2. Multilateral agreements 37
2. Principles of NIEO influencing the share of investment 38
3. Compensation standards for expropriation measures 40
Thomas Oppermann: Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources, Compensation in Case of the Taking of Foreign Property 43
1. Preliminary observations 44
2. Illegal taking of foreign owned property and reparation for injuries 44
3. Legal taking of foreign owned property (appropriate compensation) 45
Declaration on the Progressive Development of Principles of Public International Law relating to a New International Economic Order 47
I. Specific part (list of principles) 50
1. The rule of public international law in international economic relations 50
2. Pacta sunt servanda 50
3. The principles of equity and solidarity 50
3.1. Principle of equity 50
3.2. Principle of solidarity 51
3.3. Development assistance 51
4. The duty to co-operate for global development 51
4.1. 51
4.2. 52
4.3. 52
4.4. 52
5. Permanent sovereignty over natural resources , economic activities and wealth 52
5.1. 52
5.2. 53
5.3. 53
5.4. 53
5.5. 53
6. The right to development 53
6.1. 53
6.2. 53
6.3. 54
7. The principle of common heritage of mankind 54
7.1. 54
7.2. 54
7.3. 54
7.4. 55
7.5. 55
8. The principle of equality or non-discrimination 55
9. The principle of participatory equality 55
10. The principle of substantive equality , including the preferential and non-reciprocal treatment of developing countries 56
10.1. 56
10.2. 56
10.3. 56
11. The right to benefit from science and technology 56
11.1. 56
11.2. 56
11.3. 57
11.4. 57
11.5. 57
II. General Part 57
12. Principles of interpretation and application 57
13. The principle of peaceful settlement of disputes 58
13.1. 58
13.2. 58
14. 58
Annex: Final Statement 59
PART II: Individual Contributions 61
DETLEV CH. DICKE: The Taking of Foreign Property and the Question of Compensation 63
1. Preliminary remarks 63
2. Property 64
3. Acquired or vested rights 67
4. Reparation for injuries 70
a) Contractual situations 70
b) Non-contractual situations 71
5. The taking of foreign owned property as such 71
a) Requisitioning 71
b) Confiscation 72
c) Expropriation 72
d) Nationalisation 73
6. Unjust enrichment 73
a) Methodological questions 73
aa) Point of departure 74
bb) The questions of uncertainty 74
b) First conclusions 75
aa) Error 75
bb) Enrichment and loss 75
c) Groups of states 76
aa) Continental Europe 76
bb) Common Law countries 76
cc) Latin America 76
dd) Arab states and Africa 77
ee) Asia 77
d) Two different issues 78
WOLFGANG FIKENTSCHER and IRENE LAMB: The Principles of Free and Fair Trading and of Intellectual Property Protection in the Legal Framework of a New International Economic Order 81
I. The historical background 81
II. Current code activities 83
A. International antitrust and restrictive business practices (the principle of avoiding trade restraints) 84
B. Principles and rules against unfair competition 89
C. Transfer of technology and protection of intellectual property 91
III. Some basic problems in connection with international business regulation for an international economic order 94
A. The legal character of Codes of Conduct 94
B. International economic order and "Development Aid" 96
IV. Chances for progress in the code activities 98
KAY HAILBRONNER: Foreign Investment Protection in Developing Countries in Public International Law 99
I. Introduction 99
II. Legal sources of investment protection 101
III. Investment protection — international and municipal law 104
IV. The present state of customary international investment law 108
a) The connotation of international investment law 108
b) The requirements for expropriations and nationalisations 110
c) State responsibility in cases of illegal deprivations of foreign-owned wealth 113
d) Standard of compensation 115
V. The concept of property and new forms of foreign investment 118
a) The definition of property 118
b) Contractual rights 119
VI. Indirect expropriation and the social function of property 121
MEINHARD HILF: The Right to Food in National ana International Law 125
I. Survey 125
II. Historical perspective 126
III. The right to food — a basic human right? 127
IV. Constitutional law 128
V. Public international law 131
1. The Universal Declaration 132
2. Article 1 CESCR 133
3. Article 11 CESCR 133
Article 11 133
aa) The states' domestic duties 137
bb) The states' external duties 137
cc) The duties of the individual 139
dd) The duties of the international community 140
4. Further conventional texts 142
5. Customary international law and general principles 145
VI. Conclusion 145
GÜNTHER JAENICKE: The Law of the Sea Convention and the Development of a New International Economic Order 147
I. 147
II. 149
III. 151
IV. 156
HUGO LUEDERS: Aspects of Transborder Data Services within the Manufacturing Industry 161
I. Operational aspects of transborder data services 162
a) ODETTE communication standards for trade data interchange with the assistance of the European automotive industry 163
b) Intelsat-based multiservice tieline between Volkswagen Germany/VW do Brasil/ VW of America- VW Canada: Rechner-Verbund-System (RVS) 164
c) Mark III-System of General Electric for product services of the Volkswagen Group 165
II. Legal aspects of transborder data services 166
a) Informational Freedom vs. Information Sovereignty 166
b) Basic issues of the Brazilian "Informatic Law" 168
III. Assessment and conclusions 170
KARL M. MEESSEN: IMF Conditionality and State Sovereignty 173
I. On the risk of lending money to foreign sovereigns 173
II. Increase of IMF leverage 174
III. Sovereign imbalances 176
IV. As to restoring the balance 179
1. Softening Conditionality? 179
2. Involving the World Bank 180
3. Opening the political process 181
4. In search of symmetry 183
V. Preserving confidence in international finance 183
THOMAS OPPERMANN: On the Present International Economic Order 187
1. The starting point: "Bretton Woods" 187
2. The challenge: "New International Economic Order" 189
3. The real development: reform not abolition of the existing economic order 190
4. The main legal instrument: consensus by treaty 193
5. "Principles" — second pillar of the international economic order? 195
6. The reality: "mixed international economic order on liberal foundations" 198
ERNST-ULRICH PETERSMANN: International Trade Order and International Trade Law 201
Introduction 201
1. 201
2. 202
3. 202
4. 203
5. 204
Part A: International trade policy and international trade law: some basic issues 204
I. Trade liberalisation and the national interest 204
6. The national gains from liberal trade 204
7. The economic theory of optimal intervention 205
8. Trade protectionism as an indication of "government failure" 206
II. "Domestic policy functions" of public international trade law 207
9. The need to distinguish "foreign policy functions" and "domestic policy functions" of international law 207
10. Trade policy as a "constitutional problem" 208
III. Principles of international trade law 209
11. Principles, rules and order 209
12. Principles of general public international trade law 210
13. Principles of GATT law 211
14. Principles of international commodity agreements 213
15. Principles of national foreign trade laws 213
16. Principles of private transnational commercial law 215
IV. Participation of LDCs in the GATT legal system: some basic policy issues 215
17. The adjustment of GATT law to the demands from LDCs 215
18. Some current problems relating to the principle of non-reciprocity 217
a) Do LDCs benefit from their exemptions from the legal GATT disciplines? 218
b) Why do States have a national self-interest in the legal GATT disciplines? 219
c) Does the principle of reciprocity serve the national self-interest of LDCs? 221
d) Is there a linkage between "positive discrimination" for and "negative discrimination" against LDCs? 222
e) Do the legal freedoms of LDCs protect their "economic souvereignty"? 223
19. Some further problems relating to the principle of "special and differential treatment" of LDCs 224
a) Are LDCs significantly benefitting from the GSP? 224
b) Does "special and differential treatment" of LDCs lead to a politicization of North-South trade ? 226
20. The LDCs self-interest in "rule-oriented" and non-discriminatory trade 227
Part Β: The questionnaire of Professor Schachter (Questions 1 to 3) 228
Question 1: "What trade control measures involving restriction of imports should be regarded as legitimate ?" 228
Question 2: "What international rules should be recommended for structural adjustment needed to relieve the pressure on governments to undertake protectionist measures? What obligations may reasonably be acceptable for corrective measures after restrictions have been imposed?" 230
Question 3: " What steps can be taken to restore ' multilateral disciplines ' in international trade ?" 234
a) The principle of non-discrimination in GATT law For centuries, numerous bilateral trade agreements have 234
b) Constitutional functions of the non-discrimination principle 235
c) VERs and the rise in bilateral and sector-specific protectionism 236
d) The need for returning to the non-discriminatory trading system embodied in GATT 238
Annex I: Comparison of the trade policy recommendations of the "Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States" with GATT law (see question 15 in the questionnaire of Professor Schachter) 239
WOLFGANG GRAF VITZTHUM: The European Economic Community, the Law of the Sea Development and a New International Economic Order 243
1. The split decision of the Federal Republic, the EEC and the LOS 243
2. The Law of the Sea development 245
2.1. UNCLOS III and the LOS Convention 245
2.2. A review of the LOS Convention 248
3. Recent LOS developments and EEC Member States 251
3.1. Territorial sea and Exclusive Economic Zone 251
3.2. The deep sea-bed mining two-regime structure 253
4. The EEC and the LOS 256
4.1. The EEC and the LOS Convention 256
4.2. Territorial and extra-territorial EEC competence 261
5. The EEC as an emerging maritime Community 263