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The Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions for the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Repercussions on the Law of Naval Warfare

Report to the Committee for the Protection of Human Life in Armed Conflicts of the International Society for Military Law and Law of War

Rauch, Elmar

Veröffentlichungen des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht an der Universität Kiel, Vol. 90

(1984)

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Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Prefatory Note 5
Table of Contents 7
Abbreviations 10
I. Introduction 11
II. Armed Conflict at Sea in general 20
1. National Liberation Movements and Warships 20
2. Perfidy and Ruses of War 24
3. Normal Mode of Navigation for Submarines 27
III. Area of Naval Operations 31
1. Territorial Sea 31
2. Archipelagic Waters 32
3. Exclusive Economic Zone 33
4. International Straits 38
a) Transit Passage 38
b) Long-Standing Treaty Regime 49
5. Archipelagic Sea Lanes 53
6. Deep Sea Bed and Ocean Floor 53
7. Self-Defense in Neutral Waters 54
IV. Scope of Application of Protocol I 57
1. Textual Interpretation of Art. 49 57
2. Preparatory Work 61
V. Attacks from the Sea against Objectives on Land 67
1. Prohibitions and Restrictions 67
2. Use of Nuclear Weapons 71
VI. Imposition of a Blockade 80
1. Legal Regime 81
2. State Practice 83
a) World War I 83
b) World War II 87
3. Protocol I 90
a) Relief Actions 90
b) Starvation of Civilians 93
VII. Control of Contraband 95
1. Legal Regime 95
2. State Practice 96
a) World War I 96
b) World War II 99
3. Protocol I 99
VIII. Submarine Warfare 102
1. Legal Regime 102
2. State Practice 103
a) World War I 103
b) World War II 107
3. Protocol I 108
IX. Mine Warfare 112
1. Legal Regime 113
2. State Practice 117
a) World War I 117
b) World War II 119
3. Law of the Sea Convention 120
4. Protocol I 127
a) Applicability 127
b) Prohibitions and Restrictions 130
c) Atomic Mines 131
X. Other Measures against Maritime Commerce 132
1. Capture and Destruction of Enemy Property 132
2. Right of Angary 133
3. Unneutral Service 134
XI. Immunity of Ships, Aircraft and other Vessels 135
1. Legal Regime 135
2. Protocol I 136
a) Ships and Vessels 136
b) Medical Aircraft 137
XII. Protection of the Marine Environment 139
1. Protocol I 139
a) Relationship between Art. 35 and 55 140
b) Meaning of “widespread”, “long-term” and “severe” 141
2. Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Weapons 143
3. Destruction of Nuclear Submarines 143
4. Torpedoing of Supertankers 147
5. Attacks on Off-Shore Oil Installations 151
XIII. Reprisals 154
1. Legal Regime 154
2. State Practice 154
a) World War I 154
b) World War II 157
3. Protocol I 159
XIV. Conclusion 163