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Water Development in Less Developed Areas

Transactions of an International Conference held in Berlin from 17 to 21 May 1963. With an Analysis by H. P. Michael

Schriften der Deutschen Stiftung für Entwicklungsländer, Vol. 2


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Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Table of Contents 5
A. Preface 7
B. Water Development in Less Developed Areas 9
An analysis by H. P. Michael 9
I. Introduction 9
II. The Background of the Conference 11
III. Criteria for Decision Making 14
IV. General Problems and Conclusions 19
Institutional Difficulties 19
Institutional Needs 20
Training of Staff 23
Experts 24
Irrigation and Drainage 25
Community Water Supply and Sewerage 26
Allocation of Water Resources — Pollution Control 28
International Rivers 28
V. Technical Considerations 30
Procuring Basic Data at Short Notice 31
Adaptation of Technical Solutions to Special Physical Conditions of the Tropics 32
Economy in Imported or Expensive Construction Materials and Mechanical Equipment 34
Shortage of Skilled Staff 35
Infrastructure and Construction Practice 36
VI. The Lessons of Water Development as Affecting Foreign Aid Programmes 37
Projects of Technical Aid; Training of Local Staff 37
Research and Investigation Work in the Interest of Water Development 40
Assistance through the United Nations 40
Capital Investment and Loans 41
Temporary Concessions to Foreign Organizations 42
VII. Postscript 43
C. Papers Presented to the Conference 45
Gilbert F. White: I. Water Development as Part of a Development Aid Policy 45
Defining the Development Aims 48
Water Management versus other Methods 50
Water versus Water 51
Complementary Activity 52
Fiscal Limits 53
Institutional Adjustments 54
Summary Questions 55
References 56
H. G. Baity: II. Community Water Supply in the Developing Countries 57
Part I: Depatures from Normal Design Standards 57
A Different Background 58
Governing Principles 59
Economies in Design Standards 59
General Considerations 60
Water Supply Facilities 61
Water Treatment Plants 62
Distribution Systems 64
Other Economies 65
Postlude 66
References 67
Part II: Water, People, and Progress 67
Quest for the Better Life 70
The Greatest Needs 70
The most Effective Help 72
Postscript 73
References 73
Khan Mohammed Azam: III. Flood Control and River Training in East Pakistan 74
Introduction 74
Rivers 74
Flood Control 75
Flood Control Projects 77
The East Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority 79
A. de Vajda: IV. Factors Influencing Planning and Operation of Irrigation and Drainage Projects in Developing Countries 81
Technical Factors 86
Non Technical Factors 94
Summary and Conclusion 101
References 102
K. L. Rao: V. Special Problems on Water Development in Less Developed Areas 104
Part I: Characteristic Demands on Design and Construction of Major Works in Less Developed Countries 104
Introduction Salient Features of Development Works in Less Developed Countries 104
Engineering Handicaps 105
Special Technical Features of Design 108
Special Technical Features of Construction 112
Part II: Aspects of Organization of a Water Development Department; Training of Staff; International Co-operation 113
Effective Water Development Projects 113
Water Development Department 116
Training of Staff 118
International Co-operation 120
References 121
L. J. Tison: VI. Erosion et Transport des Sediments 123
Introduction 123
Erosion Continentale (Land-Erosion) 125
1. La Source des sédiments 125
2. Mesures de l'érosion 126
3. Lutte contre l'érosion 127
Erosion et Transport Généraux 128
Models Réduits 131
Conclusions 132
References 133
A. Volker: VII. Hydrologic Investigations in the Absence of Long Range Records 135
Hydrologic Methods with Special Regard to Insufficient Data 135
1. Surface Water Hydrology 135
Methods 135
Synthetic Hydrographs 136
2. Groundwater Hydrology 140
Matters of Policy in Connection with Hydrologic Investigations 143
1. Short-Term Needs 144
2. Long-Term Needs 144
References 145
E. Gigas: VIII. Mapping and Photo Interpretation 147
References 152
H. Flathe, H. Kleinsorge, O. Strebel und E. Schönhals: IX. Die Mitarbeit der Geologie, Geophysik und Bodenkunde bei dem Ausbau der natürlichen Wasservorkommen in Entwicklungsländern 154
Einleitung 154
Geologische Mitarbeit bei dem Ausbau der natürlichen Wasservorkommen 155
1. Groß-Wasserbau 155
2. Grundwasseraufschluß 156
Zur Methodik der geologischen Mitarbeit bei dem Ausbau der natürlichen Wasservorkommen in Entwicklungsländern 157
1. Geophysikalische Mitarbeit bei Wasserbauprojekten 157
2. Bodenkundliche Mitarbeit bei Bewässerungsprojekten 158
Summary 159
References 161
A. H. Naylor: X. Hydro-Electric and Integrated River Basin Development in Less Developed Countries 163
Background 163
Survey of Resources 163
Political 164
Optimum Development 164
Role of Hydro-Electric Power 165
Linked Development 166
Organization and Finances 166
Technical Aspects 168
Construction 168
References 169
L. J. Mostertman: XI. Aspects of Organization of a Water Development Department. Training of Staff. International Co-operation 171
Engineering Department 174
H. P. Michael: XII. General Principles of Water Legislation at Different Stages of Development 179
References 182
D. Annex 185
Recommendations and Findings 185
I. Water Development in Less Developed Areas 186
II. Criteria for Review of Water Programs 188
III. Cartographic Data 190
IV. Geology 190
V. Community Water Supply and Sewerage in the Developing Countries 191
VI. Hydro-Electric Development 194
Technical Aspects 194
Policy 194
VII. Irrigation and Drainage 194
VIII. Recommendations on Flood Control 196
IX. Recommendations on River Training 197
X. Aspects of Organization of a Water Development Department; Training of Staff; International Co-operation 197
XI. Water Laws in Developing Countries 199
List of Participants 201