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Antarctic Challenge III

Conflicting Interests, Cooperation Environmental Protection, Economic Development. Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Symposium July 7th - 12th, 1987. Organized by the Institut für Internationales Recht an der Universität Kiel and the Alfred-Wegener-Inst

Editors: Wolfrum, Rüdiger

Veröffentlichungen des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht an der Universität Kiel, Vol. 105


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Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Contents 5
Abbreviations 9
Preface 13
Opening Ceremonies 15
Jost Delbrück: Welcoming Address 15
Roger Asmussen: Welcoming Address 17
Rüdiger Wolfrum: Opening Address 19
John A. Heap: The Role of Scientific Advice for the Decision-Making Process in the Antarctic Treaty System 21
General Discussion 29
R. Tucker Scully: The Institutional Development of the Antarctic Treaty System: The Question of a Secretariat 41
Alberto L. Davérède: Comment 53
General Discussion 58
Patrick Quilty: Cooperation in Antarctica in Scientific and Logistic Matters: Status and Means of Improvement 65
I. Why is Science so Important? 65
II. The Science/Logistics Nexus in Antarctic Affairs 67
III. Modes of Coordination of Antarctic Science/Logistics 69
Treaty Instruments with a Scientific Component 70
Global Programs with Antarctic Components 71
Small Group Arrangements 72
Private Expeditions 72
Managers of National Antarctic Programs (MNAP) 72
IV. Scope for Improvement 72
Exchange of Scientists 72
Conference on the Future of Antarctic Science 73
Advance Notice of Future Science Programs 73
Common Use of Facilities 74
Common Publication 75
V. Conclusion 76
Acknowledgements 76
Literature 76
Scott A. Hajost: International Agreements Applicable to Antarctica: A Survey 79
I. Arms Control 81
II. Hijacking, Sabotage and Terrorism 83
III. Wildlife Conservation 85
IV. Marine Environment 87
V. Maritime 90
VI. Nuclear 93
VII. Outer Space 95
VIII. Law of the Sea 96
IX. Intergovernmental Organizations 98
X. Conclusion 103
Patricia Birnie: Effect of Article VI of the Antarctic Treaty on Scientific Research 105
I. Introduction 105
1. The Meaning, Value and Relevance of Scientific Research 105
2. Definition of \"scientific research 105
3. Scientific Research Requirements under the Antarctic Treaty 106
4. Scientific Research under the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora 108
5. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals 109
6. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources 109
7. Draft on Antarctic Mineral Resources 110
II. Article VI of the Antarctic Treaty: Its Relation to the Law of the Sea 111
1. Territorial Sea (Article 245) 113
2. EEZ and Continental Shelf (Article 241) 113
III. Relation of Article VI of the Antarctic Treaty to Article IV 114
IV. Articles IV and VI of the Antarctic Treaty and their Relation to Research under the UNLOSC Deep Seabed Regime 117
V. Marine Scientific Research in Antarctica: The Way Ahead 118
Panel Discussion 121
Orlando R. Rebagliati 121
Wolfgang E. Burhenne 125
Reinhard Müller 128
Alfonso Muñoz Seca 129
General Discussion 131
E. Augstein: Air – Sea – Ice Interactions in the Antarctic Pack Ice Region 139
I. General Considerations 139
II. Antarctic Sea Ice 140
III. Atmospheric Forcing 141
IV. Final Remarks 141
General Discussion 142
Dietrich Sahrhage: CCAMLR – Its Practical Side: The Polarstern Expedition 143
General Discussion 147
Dietrich Karl Fütterer: Geology and Geophysics of the Weddell Sea 149
I. Introductlon and Physiographic Setting 149
II. Plate Tectonic Setting 151
III. Age of the Weddell Sea Basin 153
IV. Geology of the Weddell Sea Embayment 154
V. Climatic and Sedimentary Evolution of the Weddell Sea 158
References 162
John C. Behrendt: Geophysical and Geological Research in Antarctica Related to the Assessment of Petroleum and Mineral Resources and Potential Environmental Hazards 165
Introduction 165
Examples of Resource Assessment and Environmental Hazards Types of Research 169
Dufek Intrusion 169
Petroleum Resources in the Ross Sea 171
Environmental Hazards, Ross Sea 173
Summary 175
Acknowledgements 176
Refrences 176
Franz Tessensohn: Geophysical and Geological Data in Antarctica – The Overlap Between Science and Prospection 179
General Discussion 184
Christopher Joyner: Antarctic Resources and Remote Sensing by Satellite: The Interplay of Technology, Mission and Law 191
I. Introduction 191
II. The Antarctic Resource Base 192
1. The Continent 192
2. The Southern Ocean 193
III. The Technology of Remote Sensing in Antarctica 194
1. Techniques and Instrumentation 194
2. Visible and Infrared Sensors 195
3. Microwave Sensors 196
4. Radar Sensors 196
IV. Application of Remote Sensing to Antarctica 199
1. The Continent 199
a) Prospecting for Minerals 199
b) Determining Glaciological Conditions 201
2. The Southern Ocean 205
a) Phytoplankton Determination 205
b) Polymetallic Nodule Location 207
V. International Law Governing Remote Sensing over Antarctica 207
1. Sovereignty Issues and Remote Sensing 208
a) Freedom to Sense, with Open Dissemination 210
b) Prior Consent for Remote Sensing and Data Dissemination 211
2. International Liability and Remote Sensing 213
3. Concerns by Lesser Developed Countries over Remote Sensing 216
4. Remote Sensing and the Antarctic Regime 220
a) The Antarctic Treaty System 220
b) The Common Heritage of Mankind Regime 223
VI. Conclusion 225
General Discussion 226
Richard Woolcott: The Legitimacy of the United Nations’ Challenge to the Antarctic Treaty 229
I. Background 230
II. Relationship with the United Nations Charter 231
III. The Present Challenge in the United Nations 232
IV. Practical Considerations 234
V. Need for Consensus 234
VI. Majorities in the General Assembly 235
VII. The UN Does Not Have to Deal with Everything 238
VIII. Conclusion 240
Abdul Koroma: Safeguarding the Interests of Mankind in the Use of Antarctica 243
Cristian Maquieira: The Question of Antarctica at the United Nations – The End of Consensus? 253
I 253
II 254
III 264
Conclusion 269
Mohamed Haron: The Issue of Antarctica – A Commentary 271
Panel Discussion 277
Nils Bølset 277
Vladimir Golitsyn 278
Ian Hendry 286
H. P. Rajan 288
F. Orrego Vicuña 290
Jost Delbrück 292
Finn Sollie: The Legitimacy of Concluding an Antarctic Mineral Resources Regime among the Antarctic Treaty Parties 297
I. Introductory Remarks 297
II. Approaches to the Problem 299
III. Law and Change 300
IV. Law in the Making 300
V. Need as Basis for Action 301
VI. From Science to Resources 303
VII. Attitudes 305
VIII. Legality 306
IX. Representation 306
X. Competence 307
Song Li: Comment: The Legitimacy of Negotiating an Antarctic Mineral Resources Convention among the Antarctic Treaty Parties 308
I. Legal Bases of the Antarctic Treaty Parties to Negotiate an Antarctic Mineral Resources Regime 308
II. Origin of the Question of Legitimacy 312
1. lnfluence of the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 312
2. Inadequacies of the Antarctic Treaty System 314
III. How to Evaluate the Situation Faced by the Antarctic Treaty System 315
1. The Right of Outsider States to Criticize the Treaty 315
2. How to Evaluate the Situation 316
Arthur D. Watts: Lessons to be Learned from the Mineral Resources Negotiations 319
I. Nomadic Negotiation 320
II. Continuous Chairmanship 322
III. Informal Consultation 323
IV. Personal Proposals 324
V. Consensus 326
VI. Privacy 327
VII. Linguistic Restraint 328
VIII. Constructive Ignorance 329
IX. Procrastination: Present Principle 330
X. Conclusion 330
Nicolás Roncagliolo: Non-Consultative Parties: The Peruvian Approach to the Antarctic Treaty System and to Antarctic Mineral Resources 333
I. Peru's Approach to the Antarctic Treaty System 333
II. Peruvian Interests in the Antarctic 334
1. Peruvian Presence and Real Participation in the Antarctic Treaty System 335
2. The Preservation of International Peace and Security 335
3. Protection of National Economy 335
4. The Preservation of the Ecosystem and the Antarctic Environment 336
III. Evolution of the Antarctic System 336
IV. Non-Consultative Parties: Peru's Approach to the Antarctic Mineral Regime 339
Panel Discussion 341
Alberto Davérède 342
Abdul Koroma 343
Vladimir Golitsyn 344
Jorge Berguño 346
Scott Hajost 348
Rüdiger Wolfrum 350
General Discussion 352
Bo Johnson Theutenberg: Comment 367
Gerard J. Mangone: The Legal Status of Ice in International Law 371
I. Physical Aspects of Ice for Legal Consideration 372
1. Pack Ice 372
2. Fast Ice 373
3. Shelf Ice 373
4. Icebergs 374
5. lnterstitial Ice 374
6. Pingo Ice 375
7. State Sovereignty Over Territory 375
II. Jurisdiction Over Ice 377
1. Pack Ice 377
2. Fast Ice 379
3. Shelf Ice 380
4. Icebergs 382
5. Interstitial Ice 384
6. Pingo Ice 385
III. Conclusion 386
Sudhir Chopra: Comment: The Legal Consequences of Antarctic Stations 389
I. The Consequences of Polar Stations under the Present Treaty System 389
II. The Legal Consequences of Antarctic Stations in the Absence of the Treaty 391
Francisco Orrego Vicuña: Air Traffic in Antarctica – The Need for a Legal Regime 397
I. The Growing Importance of Antarctic Aviation 397
1. Main Uses of Antarctic Airspace 398
a. Trans-Antarctic Flights 398
b. Access to Antarctica 400
c. Intra-Antarctic Flights 403
II. Legal Issues Prior to the 1959 Antarctic Treaty 403
1. The Commonwealth-French Negotiation of Air Rights 404
2. The Underlying lssue of Territorial Claims 406
3. Argentine-Chilean Discussion on Air Transit 407
III. Air Traffic under the Antarctic Treaty 407
1. The 1959 Antarctic Treaty 408
2. Article IV and the Question of Claims 409
IV. Developments under the Antarctic Treaty System 411
1. Air Issues Relating to Resource Regimes 413
V. The Need for a Joint Legal Regime 415
1. A Joint Regime Governing Trans-continental Flights over Antarctica 415
2. A Joint Regime for the Access to Antarctica and Intra-Continental Air Traffic 417
3. The Lessons from Beattie et al. 420
4. Antarctic: A New Joint Regime 422
Roberto Puceiro Ripoll: Comment: Air Traffic in Antarctica 424
I. The Importance of Air Traffic in Antarctica 424
II. The Legal Regime of Overflight in the Antarctic Area 426
III. The Regime of Air Traffic Services in the Antarctic Zone 429
General Discussion 432
E. Imre Friedmann: Micro-organisms in the Antarctic Desert: A Model for Possible Life on Early Mars 445
General Discussion 451
Boleslaw Adam Boczek: The Legal Status of Visitors, Including Tourists, and Non-Governmental Expeditions in Antarctica 455
I. lntroduction 455
II. Tourism and Non-Govemmental Expeditions in Antarctica 457
1. Tourism 457
2. Non-Governmental Expeditions since 1961 460
III. Terminological and Conceptual Problems 462
IV. Two Preliminary Issues: Third Parties and Jurisdiction 465
1. Third Parties 466
2. Jurisdiction 469
a. In General 469
b. Territorial Jurisdiction 472
c. Nationality Principle 473
d. Nationality: Ships 474
e. \"Constructive\" Nationality of Stations 475
V. The Sources of the Antarctic Regime Rules on Visitors and Non-Governmental Expeditions: An Overall Review 476
VI. Access to the Treaty Area and the Stations; Monttoring the Presence of Visitors (Information Exchange) 479
1. Access to Antarctica; Information Exchange 479
2. Visits to Stations 481
VII. Environmental Regulations 483
VIII. Assistance to Non-Govemmental Expeditions 484
IX. Conclusions 488
James N. Barnes/Peter J. Lipperman/Kelly Rigg: Waste Management in Antarctica 491
I. Introduction 491
II. Legal Framework 493
1. Global 493
a) The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Dumping Convention) 494
b) The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL Convention) 494
c) The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS Convention) 494
2. The Antarctic Treaty Systemt 495
a) The Consultative Process and the Code of Conduct 495
b) The Antarctic Seals Convention 497
c) The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) 497
d) The Minerals Negotiations 498
3. U.S. Waste Management Policy 499
a) U.S. Policies Based on the Antarctic Treaty System 500
i) The Antarctic Conservation Act 500
ii) The Antarctic Marine Living Resources Act 501
iii) lmplementation of the Code of Conduct 502
b) Domestic Policies 503
i) The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 503
ii) Executive Order 12114 504
iii) The Ocean Dumping Act 506
III. The Waste Management Process\r 506
1. The Regulation of Imported Materials 507
a) General Practice 507
b) U. S. Practice 508
2. Regional Disposal - Dumping 509
a) Solid Waste Dumps 509
i) General Practice 509
ii) U. S. Practice 510
b) Ocean Dumping of Solid Waste 513
i) General Practice 514
ii) U. S. Practice 514
c) Sewage Disposal on Land and Sea 515
i) General Practice 516
ii) U.S. Practice 517
3. Burning and Incineration (of Waste) 518
a) General Practice 518
b) U.S. Practice 520
4. Retrograding of Waste 521
a) General Practice 521
b) U.S. Practice 523
IV. The Beginnings of a Model Program 524
1. Observations 524
2. Recommendations 524
3. The Energy Linkage 526
Appendix 528
Roberto Puceiro Ripoll: Comment: Waste Disposal: Need for Further Regulation? 530
Sudhir Chopra: Comment 536
Panel Discussion 538
Patricia Birnie 538
Rahmatullah Khan 540
Ian Nicholson 541
Nicolas Mettra 544
Roger Wilson 545
General Discussion and Closing 548
Annex 563
Jörn Thiede/Leonard Johnson/Yngve Kristoffersen/Steven Blasco/Lawrence Mayer: Deep Sea Drilling in the Ice-Covered Arctic: Scientific, Environmental, Technical and Political Challenge, or The Call for C.O.N.D. 563
Abstract 564
I. Introduction: Why drill the deep Arctic for science? 564
II. On the Geological Properties of the Arctic Deep-Sea Floors 566
1. Bathymetry of the Arctic Deep-Sea Floors 566
2. Age and Nature of the Major Structural Units 567
3. Evolution of the Paleoenvironment, Paleogeography and Paleobathymetry 568
III. Feasibility of Arctic Deep-Sea Drilling 571
1. Technical Feasibility: Choice of Platforms, Drilling Techniques 571
2. Scientific Feasibility: the Problem of Site Surveying; Drilling Targets 574
3. Environmental Protection 575
4. Financial Feasibility 576
5. Political Feasibility 576
IV. Call for a Large International, Interdisciplinary Expedition to Explore the Nature of the Deep Arctic: C.O.N.D. - Centennial of F. Nansen's Drift 1893-1896 576
Acknowledgements 580
List of Participants 583