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German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht

Vol. 61 (2018)

Editors: Arnauld, Andreas von | Decken, Kerstin von der | Matz-Lück, Nele

German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 61

(2019)

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Abstract

The German Yearbook of International Law, founded as the ›Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht‹, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the Kiel University. Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavored to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law. In 1976, the Yearbook adopted its current title and began to publish contributions written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience. This editorial decision has enabled the Yearbook to successfully overcome traditional language barriers and inform an international readership about current research in German academic institutions and, at the same time, to present international viewpoints to its German audience. Fully aware of the paramount importance of international practice, the Yearbook publishes contributions from active practitioners of international law on a regular basis. The Yearbook also includes critical comments on German state practice relating to international law, as well as international reactions to that practice.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Table of Contents\r 5
Forum:\rThe Trump Administration and International Law 9
Jack Goldsmith and Shannon Togawa Mercer: International Law and Institutions in the Trump Era 11
I. The Trump Onslaught 12
A. Trade 12
B. Investment 17
C. Climate 19
D. Arms Control 20
E. Diplomacy and Recognition 22
F. War 23
G. Human Rights 25
H. Performance at International Conferences 28
II. Trump’s Impact 29
A. Much Remains Unchanged 30
B. Particular International Law Regimes 31
C. The Bigger Picture 35
Focus: International Health Law\r 41
Lena Matz-Lück: \rIntroduction 43
Pedro A. Villarreal: \rPublic International Law and Human Health: Bridging Conceptual Gaps Through Governance 45
I. Introduction: The Birth of a Specialised Field? 45
II. International Health Law: An Autonomous or a Subsidiary Field? 48
A. Health Law: Global or International 49
B. Main Legal Instruments of International Health Law 50
C. Limits of the Legal Instruments of International Health Law 52
III. Human Health and Other Fields of Public International Law: Conflict, Parallelism, and Harmony 54
A. Human Health and International Economic Law 55
1. Tobacco Control and International Investment Law 56
a) Philip Morris v. Australia 57
b) Philip Morris v. Uruguay 58
2. Tobacco Control and International Trade Law 60
3. Problems With the Multiplicity of Fora: The FCTC’s Divergent Legal Status 62
B. Health and International Environmental Law: Mirror Fields? 64
C. International Health Law and Human Rights Law 66
IV. Bridging the Gaps in Health Law Through Governance 67
V. Conclusions: Coupling Human Health and Public International Law Through Governance 70
Anika Klafki: \rInternational Health Regulations and Transmissible Diseases 73
I. The Underestimated Threat of Infectious Diseases 73
II. International Health Regulations 2005 – A First Step Towards the Establishment of a Global Health Regime 76
A. Covering All Future Health Threats With the Notion 'Public Health Emergency of International Concern’ 77
B. New Investigation Rights of the WHO 80
C. Obligation to Build and Maintain Core Capacities 81
III. Continuing Weaknesses of the International Health Regulations in Fighting Transmissible Diseases and Reactionsto the Ebola Outbreak 81
A. Pandemic Prevention: Ineffectiveness of Notification Obligations 81
B. Pandemic Preparedness: Sluggish Development of Medical Core Capacities 84
C. Pandemic Response: Lack of Emergency Competencies 85
IV. Current Approaches to Advance Global Health Security 87
A. Preparedness at the National Level 87
1. WHO Joint External Evaluation Tool 87
2. Further Public and Private Initiatives 88
B. Emergency Response 89
1. WHO Health Emergencies Programme 89
2. Emergency Response Systems Within the UN 91
3. Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility of the World Bank 93
C. Research and Development 93
1. WHO Research and Development Blueprint for Action to Prevent Epidemics 93
2. Further Public and Private Initiatives 94
V. Need of a Revised Legal Framework \rfor the New Global Health Regime 95
A. Transaction Costs and Lack of Leadership 96
B. Legitimacy Issues 98
C. Outline of a Reform of the IHR 99
VI. Conclusion 101
Valentin Aichele: Taking out the Magnifier’: Groups in Vulnerable Situations Under Global Health Law 103
I. Introduction 103
II. Proposition and Working Definitions Applied Here 105
III. Vulnerability in Global Health Law: Taking Stock 106
A. Human Rights Law Related to Health 107
B. Vulnerability in WHO Law and Policy Standards 109
C. Vulnerability in International Standards Focusing on Ethics 112
D. Vulnerability in Multilateral Development 112
E. Human Rights Principles and Guidelines 113
F. United Nations Special Mechanisms 114
G. Other Sources of Global Health Law 114
IV. Groups in Vulnerable Situations and Situations in Which Groups Must be Viewed as Potentially Vulnerable 116
A. Groups 116
B. Situations 119
V. A Meaningful Setting: The Human Rights Framework 120
VI. Foundational Issues 123
A. The Two-Fold Concept of ‘Groups in Vulnerable Situations’ 123
B. Language Used 124
C. Prevailing Discrimination and an Envisaged Violation of the Human Right to Health 126
D. Threshold 127
VII. Conclusions 128
Silja Vönekey: Biomedicine – \rFoundations and New Challenges 131
I. Introduction 132
II. Foundations and Current Questions of Legitimate Standard Setting 134
A. Human Rights Treaties 134
B. International Environmental Law: Treaties, Soft Law Rules, and a Proposal for a ‘Humanisation’ of International Environmental Law 137
C. Key Elements of Legitimate Standard Setting in Biomedicine 142
D. UNESCO Soft Law 143
1. Procedural Aspects 144
2. Substantive Rules 145
3. UNESCO as Future Actor 146
III. First Results and Open Questions 147
IV. Private Rule-Making and Codes of Conduct 148
V. Pressing Problems in Biomedicine – the Need for New International Legitimate Standard Setting 148
Philippe Cullet and Hu Yuanquiong: \rMedical Patents and the Right to Health –From Monopoly Control to Open Access Innovation and Provision of Medicines 153
I. Introduction 153
II. Legal Frameworks to Ensure the Development, Manufacture and Access to Medicines 157
A. Patents and Regulatory Framework Governing Medicines 157
1. TRIPS Flexibilities and TRIPS-Plus 159
2. Exclusivity Derived From Regulatory Laws on Medicines 160
B. Human Right to Health and Access to Medicines 161
C. Limited Options for Reconciling the Different Options 163
III. Regulatory Developments Since the Beginning of the Century 165
A. From the TRIPS Agreement to the Doha Health Declaration and Beyond: Limited Attempts to Tame the Patent Regime 165
B. Steps to Foster the Realisation of the Right to Health 168
C. Authors’ Rights, Right to Benefit from Science and the Right to Health: New Battlegrounds in Human Rights 170
D. Shortcomings of Medical Innovation and Alternative Pathways 173
IV. Towards Prioritising Access and Innovation to Realise the Right to Health 175
A. Right to Health: Rethinking the Obligations of the Duty Holders 175
1. Duty of State to Fund Research, Manufacture, or Regulate Prices 175
2. Sharing Duties and the Private Sector: Rethinking Obligations of Duty Holders in International Law 177
B. Redefining Openness in Medical Innovation to Ensure Access to Medicines for All 178
C. Preferential Treatment: Ensuring Provision of Necessary Medicines in the Global South 179
V. Conclusion 181
Walther Schücking Lecture\r 183
Christine Chinkin: \rWomen, Peace, and Security: Tackling Violence Against Womenin the Contemporary World? 185
General Articles\r 207
Riccardo Pisillo Mazzeschi: \rCoordination of Different Principles andValues in International Law 209
I. Introduction 209
II. Resolving Conflicts of Normsin the General Theory of Law 211
A. The General Question of Antinomies Between Norms 212
B. The Specific Question of Antinomies Between Principles 212
III. Dealing With Conflicts of Norms in International Law 214
A. Is There a Contrast Between ‘Old’ and ‘New’ International Law? 214
B. Examples of Conflict Between Principles 218
C. Three Methods to Coordinate Conflicting Principles 221
IV. The Traditional Positivist Method 221
A. Views That Tend to Deny or Avoid Conflicts 222
B. Conservative Views on International Sources 225
1. Traditional Concept of Custom 225
2. Traditional Concept of General Principles of Law Recognised In Foro Domestico 228
3. Traditional Concept of General Principles of International Law 229
4. Sceptical Views About Jus Cogens 231
C. Results of the Traditional Positivist Method 233
V. The Modern Positivist Method 233
A. Modern Concept of Custom 234
B. Modern Concept of General Principles of Law Recognised In Foro Domestico 236
C. Jus Cogens as a Hierarchical Criterion 237
D. Results of the Modern Positivist Method 240
VI. The Value-Based Method 241
A. The Growing Role of General Principles of International Law 242
B. Balancing Conflicting Principles or Values 245
C. Results of the Value-Based Method 247
VII. Conclusion 248
Annalisa Ciampi: \rThe Divide Between Human Rights, International Trade, Investment and Development Law 251
I. Introduction 251
II. The Aftermaths of WWII and the Cold War 253
A. The Failure of the Unitary Design of the UDH Rand the Split into ‘Generations’ of Rights 253
B. The Failure of the Havana Charter and the ‘Isolation’of International Trade Law 256
III. The Decolonisation Period and the End of the Cold War 258
A. The Failure of the NIEO and the ‘Divorce’ Between the Furtherance of Development and International Cooperation in Economic Matters 258
B. The ‘Influence’ of International Human Rights Law 261
IV. The Last Decade of the XX Century 262
A. The Divide Between the Theory and Practice of International Human Rights 262
B. The ‘Divorce’ Between Trade and Investment 268
V. The New Century 271
A. Human Rights Law, Institutions, and Practice 272
B. FTAs and SDGs as Attempts at Reuniting Trade, Investment, and Development 277
VI. Efforts at Bridging Existing Divides from Within the Human Rights Regime 282
A. The Doctrine of the Universality and Indivisibility of Human Rights 282
B. China’s New International Human Rights Diplomacy 285
VII. Conclusions 290
A. The ‘Effectiveness’ of International Human Rights Law 290
B. The Need to Overcome the Divides 292
Patrizia Vigni: \rState Responsibility for the Destruction of Cultural Property 295
I. Introduction 295
II. The Substantive Aspects of State Responsibility for Wrongful Acts Resulting in the Destruction of Cultural Property 300
A. Defining Cultural Property 300
B. Illicit Conducts Entailing the Destruction of Cultural Property 304
1. General Remarks\r 304
2. The Relevance of Time and Place 305
3. The Intentional Destruction of Cultural Property 309
4. Military Necessity 315
5. The Element of Damage 317
6. Conclusive Remarks 318
III. The Attribution of Wrongful Conducts Entailing the Destruction of Cultural Property to States 319
A. State Responsibility for the Wrongful Conducts of State Organs 319
B. State Responsibility Arising from the Wrongful Conducts of Private Persons 321
C. The Attribution of Responsibility for the Illicit Conducts of Insurrectional Movements 325
D. Joint Responsibility of States 327
IV. Circumstances Precluding State Responsibility 329
V. Consequences Arising from State Responsibility 333
A. Invocation of Responsibility and Injured States 333
B. The Right of a State Other than the Injured State to Invoke Responsibility 336
C. Reparation for Damage to the Cultural Property 339
D. Countermeasures as Response to State Wrongful Acts 343
VI. Conclusions 344
Viljam Engström: Regulating the Baltic Sea – A Showcase of Normative Pluralism 347
I. The Baltic Sea Region Regulatory Scene 347
II. On Post-National Rulemaking 349
III. ‘Actorness’ in the BSR 351
A. General 351
B. Global Actors 353
C. Regional Actors 356
D. The EU as a BSR Actor 359
IV. Legislative Acts 363
A. Variations in ‘Softness’ 363
B. HELCOM Recommendations and Monitoring 365
C. Normative Impact Through Institutional Interaction 368
D. Legislating Through Framework Instruments 370
E. Implementation Through Strategic Planning 373
V. Conclusion 375
Katayoun Hosseinnejad: \rInterpretation in Light of Which ‘Object and Purpose’? 377
I. Introduction 377
II. Reception of the Teleological Approach in International Law 380
III. Current Literature on the Meaning of the Object and Purpose 383
IV. Object and Purpose; Reconsidered 388
A. Anchoring Purpose in Principle Arguments 389
B. ‘Not One, Not Two’ 392
1. International Jurisprudence 394
2. The Emergent Purpose 397
V. Conclusion 401
Sophie Papadileris: \rProtection of Peacekeepers Resortingto Armed Force – A Current Dilemma 403
I. Dilemma of Peace Missions in Today's Conflicts 403
A. Conflicts and Peace Actions in Transition 405
B. Interlinking of Protection Rules with IHL 406
1. General Applicability of IHL to UN Personnel 407
2. Protection of Peacekeepers Through IHL – General Status Qualification 408
II. Protection and Legal Restrictions of the ‘Special Protection Rules’ 411
A. Safety Convention 411
1. Enforcement Action Under Chapter VII UN Charter 411
2. Combatant Status of UN Personnel: the ‘Key Restriction Element’ 413
a) Actual Use of Force and its Required Intensity 415
b) Threshold of Permissible Self-Defence 417
c) Loss of Protection on a Collective Basis 419
3. Applicability in Non-International Armed Conflicts 419
4. Achievements and Weaknesses of the Safety Convention\r 421
B. Article 8(2)(b)(iii) ICC Statute 422
1. The Safety Convention’s Impact on the Scope of Application of Article 8 ICC-Statute 422
2. Analysis of Jurisprudence: Determining Loss of Protection in the Event of Participation in Hostilities by ‘Continuous Evaluation of the Overall Circumstances’ 424
3. Remaining Uncertainties Concerning the ‘Double as long as Clause’ 428
C. Achievements and Weaknesses of the ICC Statute Compared to the Safety Convention 431
III. The Revers Synergy Effect and the Future of the Protection of Personnel of UN Peace Operations 433
German\r Practice 437
Guido Hildner: \rThe Activation of the International Criminal Court’s Jurisdiction over the Crime of Aggression: The Edifice is Completed 439
I. Introduction 439
II. Background 440
III. Germany’s Position 443
IV. The New York Meeting 445
V. Outlook 449
Helmut Philipp Aust and Mehrdad Payandeh: \rGerman Practice With Regard to the Use of Force in Syria 451
I. Introduction 451
II. The German Participation in the AllianceAgainst the Islamic State 453
A. The Position of the German Government 453
B. The Debate Within the German Parliament 456
III. Germany’s Reaction to the Military Strike Against Syria in April 2017 458
IV. Germany’s Reaction to the Military Strike Against Syria in April 2018 459
A. The Position of the German Government 460
B. The Debate in the German Parliament 461
V. Concluding Remarks 462
Sara\rJötten and Felix Machts: Ban on Strike Action for Civil Servants is Constitutional: The Judgment of the Federal Constitutional Courtof 12 June 2018 465
I. Introduction 465
II. Case History 466
III. Judgment by the Federal Administrative Cour tof 27 February 2014 467
IV. Judgment by the Federal Constitutional Court of 12 June 2018 468
V. Evaluation 470
VI. Concluding Remarks 473
Liv Christiansen: \rTurkish Politicians’ Political Campaigns in Germany –The Legality of Public Appearances Under German Law 475
I. Introduction 475
II. Factual Background 477
III. Legal Assessment of Restrictive Measures Against Turkish Politicians 480
A. The Competence of the Federal Government 480
1. The Question Whether or Not the Legal Assessment Would Change if the Politician Wants to Enter the State as a Private Person 482
2. The Possibility to Tie the Permission to Carry Out Campaigns to Certain Conditions 483
3. The Current Rule Governing Campgaings of Foreign Politicians 485
B. The Competence of the Federal States 485
IV. The Relevance to the Fundamental Rights of the Basic Law 487
A. The Fundamental Rights of Foreign State Representatives 487
B. The Fundamental Rights of the Organisers of a Campaign Event 488
V. Conclusion 489
Henning Büttner: \rMuch Ado About Nothing vs. the Opening of Pandora’s Box? –Some (Normative) Aspects of the Migration Compact Regarding its Impact on Germany 491
I. Introduction 491
II. The History of the Migration Compact 493
III. A Brief Overview of the Migration Compact 494
A. Aim, Structure, and Content of the Migration Compact 494
B. The Understanding of (International) Migration in the Migration Compact 496
IV. Normative Analysis of the Migration Compact 498
A. Why the Migration Compact is not an International Treaty in the Sense of Article 38(1)(a) ICJ Statute 499
B. The Hybrid Nature of the Content of the Migration Compact 501
C. The Migration Compact and the Fear of Emerging New Customary Rules of International Migration Law 504
D. The Migration Compact Influencing Decision-Making? 509
V. Questions of Policy Regarding the Migration Compact 512
A. Why All the Fuss? 512
VI. Conclusion 519
Maximilian Jacob and Clemens J. Dorsel: \rThe Case of the Lifeline – A German Perspective on the Dilemma of Private Sea Rescuing in the Mediterranean 523
I. Introduction 523
II. The Law of the Sea 529
A. The High Seas 530
B. Exclusive Economic Zone 530
C. Contiguous Zone 531
D. The Territorial Sea 531
E. Internal Waters 532
F. Ships in Distress at Sea 533
III. Legal Analysis of the Case of the Lifeline 536
IV. Conclusion 539
Thesis Summaries\r 541
Andreas von Arnauld, Kerstin von der Decken, and Nele Matz-Lück: \rEditors’ Note 543
Stefan Martini: \rComparative Constitutional Justice 545
Andreas Orator: \rProspects for and Limits to Establishing Union Agencies 549
Jochen Rauber: \rChange of International Law’s Foundational Principles 553
Hubertus Reinbach:\rThe Monopoly of Trade Unions in German Strike Law: The Strike Between Constitution and International Law 557
Philipp Tamme: \rThe Enforcement of EU Law by the European Court of Human Rights: Vicarious Constitutional Jurisdiction for Improving the Protectionof Individual Rights 561
Johann Justus Vasel: \rThe Emancipation of Regional Human Rights Protection Mechanisms 565
Ferdinand Weber:\rNationality and Status: Static and Dynamic in Political Community-Building 569
Book Reviews\r 573
Edward Chukwuemeke Okeke, Jurisdictional Immunities of States and International Organizations 575
Benoit Mayer, The International Law on Climate Change 579
Henri Decoeur, Confronting the Shadow State: An International Law Perspective on State Organized Crime 582
Leonardo Borlini, Il Consiglio di sicurezza e gli individui 585
Birgit Spiesshofer, Responsible Enterprise: The Emergence of a Global Economic Order 591
Astrid Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, The International Legal Personality of the Individual 594
James Harrison, Saving the Oceans Through Law: The International Legal Framework for the Protection of Marine Environment 597
Paolo Lobba and Triestino Mariniello (eds.), Judicial Dialogue on Human Rights: The Practice \rof International Criminal Tribunals 599
Stefanie Schmahl and Marten Breuer (eds.), The Council of Europe – Its Law and Policies 602