Menu Expand

Cite JOURNAL ARTICLE

Style

Darley, MDölemeyer, A (2020). Caring for Victims of Human Trafficking: Staging and Bridging Cultural Differences in Germany and France. Sociologus, 70(1), 19-38. https://doi.org/10.3790/soc.70.1.19
Darley, Mathilde Dölemeyer, AnneDarley, Mathilde Dölemeyer, Anne (2020). "Caring for Victims of Human Trafficking: Staging and Bridging Cultural Differences in Germany and France" Sociologus, vol. 70no. 1, 2020 pp. 19-38. https://doi.org/10.3790/soc.70.1.19
Darley, MDölemeyer, A (2020). Caring for Victims of Human Trafficking: Staging and Bridging Cultural Differences in Germany and France. Sociologus, Vol. 70 (Issue 1), pp 19-38. https://doi.org/10.3790/soc.70.1.19

Format

Caring for Victims of Human Trafficking: Staging and Bridging Cultural Differences in Germany and France

Darley, Mathilde | Dölemeyer, Anne

Sociologus, Vol. 70 (2020), Iss. 1 : pp. 19–38

Additional Information

Article Details

Pricing

Author Details

CNRS Researcher, CESDIP, 43 Boulevard Vauban, 78280 Guyancourt, France

Researcher, University of Applied Sciences HAWK, Hildesheim. HAWK, Fakultät M, Haarmannplatz 3, 37603 Holzminden

References

  1. Andrijasevic, R. 2007. Problematising Trafficking for the Sex Sector: A Case of Eastern European Women in the EU. In T. Spijkerboer & S. Van Walsum (eds.),Women and Immigration Law: New Variations on Classical Feminist Themes (pp. 86–103). Abington: Routledge.  Google Scholar
  2. Andrijasevic, R. 2014. The Figure of the Trafficked Victim: Gender, Rights and Representation. In Evans, M. et al. (eds.).The SAGE Handbook of Feminist Theory (pp. 359–372). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.  Google Scholar
  3. Baarda, C. S. 2015. Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation from Nigeria into Western Europe: The Role of Voodoo Rituals in the Functioning of a Criminal Network. European Journal of Criminology, 13(2), pp. 1–17.  Google Scholar
  4. Beneduce, R. & Taliani, S. 2006. Embodied Powers, Deconstructed Bodies: Spirit Possession, Sickness, and the Search for Wealth of Nigerian Immigrant Women. Anthropos: International Review of Anthropology and Linguistics, 101(2), pp. 420–449.  Google Scholar
  5. Bierschenk, T., Chauveau, J.-P. & Olivier de Sardan, J.-P. 2001. Politische Makler und Entwicklungsmakler in der Sozialanthropologie: Ein Literaturüberblick. Berlin: Das Arabische Buch.  Google Scholar
  6. BKA (Bundeskriminalamt) 2017. Bundeslagebild Menschenhandel 2016. Available at: >https://www.bka.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Publikationen/JahresberichteUndLagebilder/Menschenhandel/menschenhandelBundeslagebild2016.html> (Accessed 15 April 2019).  Google Scholar
  7. Çağlar, A. S. 1990. The Prison House of Culture in the Studies of Turks in Germany. Berlin: Das Arabische Buch.  Google Scholar
  8. Darley, M. 2006. Le statut de la victime dans la lutte contre la traite des femmes. Critique internationale, 30, pp. 103–122.  Google Scholar
  9. Darley, M. 2014. Les coulisses de la nation: Assignations genrées et racialisées dans les pratiques d’assistance aux étrangers en situation irrégulière. Sociétés contemporaines, 94, pp. 19–39.  Google Scholar
  10. Darley, M. 2017. L’exploitation sexuelle en procès: perspectives comparées franco-allemandes. Cahiers de la Justice, 1, pp. 105–115.  Google Scholar
  11. ECPAT France. 2019. Religious, Social and Criminal Groups in Trafficking of Nigerian Girls and Women. Final report of the Packing Project. Available at: >https//ecpat-france.fr/www.ecpat-france/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/WEB_rapport-nigeria_ENG.pdf> (Accessed 23 November 2019).  Google Scholar
  12. Gauthier, J. 2017. Le policier et le culturel. Police et minorités à Berlin. Cultures & Conflits, 107, pp. 123–141.  Google Scholar
  13. Gerber, S. 2012. “Weg der Wanderhuren” zeigt Roma-Leid in Nordstadt und Bulgarien. Westfälische Rundschau. Available at: >https://www.wr.de/staedte/dortmund/weg-der-wanderhuren-zeigt-roma-leid-in-nordstadt-und-bulgarien-id6218982.html> (Accessed 22 November 2019).  Google Scholar
  14. Giordano, C. 2014. Migrants in Translation: Caring and the Logics of Difference in Contemporary Italy. Oakland: University of California Press.  Google Scholar
  15. Graham, M. 2002. Emotional Bureaucracies: Emotions, Civil Servants, and Immigrants in the Swedish Welfare State. Ethos, 30(3), pp. 199–226.  Google Scholar
  16. Harel, M. 2018. Prostituées nigérianes victimes du “juju”. Le Monde Diplomatique. Available at: >https:/www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2018/11/HAREL/59215> (Accessed 23 November 2019).  Google Scholar
  17. Hess, S. 2015. Jenseits des Kulturalismus. Ein Plädoyer für postkulturalistische Ansätze in der kulturanthropologischen Sozialforschung. In M. Glückmann & F. Sparacio (eds.), Spektrum Migration (pp. 37–64). Tübingen: TVV-Verlag.  Google Scholar
  18. Huntington, S. 2002. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.  Google Scholar
  19. IFRA Nigeria. 2019. Oath Taking in Edo: Usages and Misappropriations of the Native Justice System, Working Paper Series, 55. Available at: >https://www.ifra-nigeria.org/files/54/IFRA-E-papers/147/Oath-taking-in-Edo-Usages-and-Misappropriations-of-the-Native-Justice-System.pdf> (Accessed 28 December 2019).  Google Scholar
  20. Jacobsen, C. M. & Stenvoll, D. 2010. Muslim Women and Foreign Prostitutes: Victim Discourse, Subjectivity, and Governance. Social Politics 17 (3), pp. 270–294.  Google Scholar
  21. Jaksic, M. 2016. La traite des êtres humains en France. De la victime idéale à la victime coupable. Paris: CNRS Editions.  Google Scholar
  22. Lavaud-Legendre, B. (ed.). 2013. Prostitution nigériane. Entre rêves de migration et réalités de la traite. Paris: Karthala.  Google Scholar
  23. Leser, J., Pates, R. & Dölemeyer, A. 2017. The Emotional Leviathan — How Street-Level Bureaucrats Govern Human Trafficking Victims. Digithum, 19. Available at: >https://digithum.uoc.edu/articles/abstract/10.7238/d.v0i19.3088/> (Accessed 15. April 2019).  Google Scholar
  24. Massari, M. 2009. The Other and Her Body: Migrant Prostitution, Gender Relations and Ethnicity. Cahiers de l’Urmis, 12. Available at: >https://journals.openedition.org/urmis/787> (Accessed 19 December 2019).  Google Scholar
  25. Mathieu, L. 2012. De l’objectivation à l’émotion. La mobilisation des chiffres dans le mouvement abolitionniste contemporain. Mots. Les langages du politique, 100, pp. 173–185.  Google Scholar
  26. Mathieu, L. 2014. La fin du tapin. Sociologie de la croisade pour l’abolition de la prostitution. Lormont: éd. François Bourin.  Google Scholar
  27. Mathieu, L. 2015. Sociologie de la prostitution. Paris: La Découverte.  Google Scholar
  28. Mazouz, S. 2017. La République et ses autres. Lyon: ENS Éditions.  Google Scholar
  29. O’Connell-Davidson, J. 2006. Will the Real Sex Slave Please Stand Up? Feminist Review, 83(1), pp. 4–22.  Google Scholar
  30. Pates, R., Dölemeyer, A. & Leser, J. 2016. Schwierige Verhältnisse: Menschenhandelsopfer und Geschlecht in Gerichtsverfahren. FEMINA POLITICA – Zeitschrift für feministische Politikwissenschaft, 25(1), pp. 24–38.  Google Scholar
  31. Pates, R. & Schmidt, D. 2007. Die Verwaltung der Prostitution. Eine vergleichende Studie am Beispiel deutscher, polnischer und tschechischer Kommunen. Bielefeld: transcript.  Google Scholar
  32. Prud‘homme, D. 2016. Du “soin global” au traitement discriminatoire. La prise en charge de personnes identifiées comme roms dans un service de gynéco-obstétrique parisien. Terrains & travaux, 29, pp. 85–104.  Google Scholar
  33. Ragaru, N. 2007. Du bon usage de la traite des êtres humains. Controverses autour d’unproblème social et d’une qualification juridique. Genèses, 1 (66), pp. 69–89.  Google Scholar
  34. Schröer, H. 2007. Interkulturelle Öffnung und Diversity Management. Konzepte und Handlungsstrategien zur Arbeitsmarktintegration von Migrantinnen und Migranten. München: Zentralstelle für die Weiterbildung im Handwerk e.V. (ZWH).  Google Scholar
  35. Siegel, D. & De Blank, S. 2010. Women Who Traffic Women: The Role of Women in Human Trafficking Networks – Dutch Cases. Global Crime, 11(4), pp. 436–447.  Google Scholar
  36. Simoni, V. 2013. “I Swear an Oath”. Serments d’allégeances, coercitions et strategies migratoires chez les femmes nigérianes de Benin City. In Lavaud-Legendre, B (ed.), Prostitution nigériane. Entre rêves de migration et réalités de la traite (pp. 33–60). Paris: Karthala.  Google Scholar
  37. Snajdr, E. 2013. Beneath the Master Narrative: Human Trafficking, Myths of Sexual Slavery and Ethnographic Realities. Dialectical Anthropology, 37(2), pp. 229–256.  Google Scholar
  38. Stoldt, T.-R. 2014. Wenn das laute Stöhnen die Anwohner stört. Welt.de. Available at: >https://www.welt.de/regionales/nrw/article131710790/Wenn-das-laute-Stoehnen-die-Anwohner-stoert.html> (Accessed 22 November 2019).  Google Scholar
  39. Taliani, S. 2012. Coercion, Fetishes and Suffering in the Daily Lives of Young Nigerian Women in Italy. Africa, 82, pp. 579–608.  Google Scholar
  40. Terrio, S. J. 2009. Judging Mohammed. Juvenile Delinquency, Immigration, and Exclusion at the Paris Palace of Justice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  Google Scholar
  41. UNO 2000. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Adopted and Opened for Signature, Ratification and Accession by General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000. Available at: >https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ProtocolTraffickingInPersons.aspx> (Accessed 28 November 2019).  Google Scholar
  42. UNODC. 2018. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2018. Available at: >https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/publications.html> (Accessed 15 April 2019).  Google Scholar
  43. Vassilev, R. 2003. The Roma of Bulgaria: A Pariah Minority. Ethnopolitics, 3(2), pp. 40–51.  Google Scholar
  44. Vuattoux, A. 2016. Le traitement institutionnel d’une minorité par la justice en Ile-de-France: le cas des “jeunes filles roumaines”. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 28 (3), pp. 646–667.  Google Scholar

Abstract

Abstract

According to prosecuting authorities, victims trafficked into sexual exploitation are difficult to identify; it seems even harder to find ‘appropriate’ victims willing to testify in court. This is often ascribed to ‘cultural differences’ rooted in their (supposedly) foreign origin. In our contribution, we show how counselling centres for trafficking victims in France and Germany help to identify victims and to make them more suitable for prosecuting authorities. In doing so, we argue that these counselling centres position themselves as indispensable ‘cultural translators’: they help public authorities understand the victims, and they help the victims understand public authorities, thus providing the basis for any criminal procedure. Despite very different structures and legal circumstances between France and Germany, we found a number of similarities in how staff at German and French counselling centres first establish such cultural differences as a given to then be able to bridge them. In doing so, we argue, they (even unintendedly) contribute to ethnicising and further othering their clients, especially highly marginalized ‘groups’ like ‘Nigerians’ and ‘Roma’.

Keywords: State ethnography, NGOs, human trafficking, construction of cultural differences

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Mathilde Darley / Anne Dölemeyer: Caring for Victims of Human Trafficking: Staging and Bridging Cultural Differences in Germany and France 1
Abstract 1
1. Introduction 1
2. Victim Support Organizations in France and Germany: Different Regulatory Framework, Similar Governing Practices? 5
3. Mediation Work: Making the Victim Exist for the Authorities and Awakening an Awareness of Victimhood 7
4. Knowledge Transfer Between Counselling Offices and Authorities 1
4.1 Germany: Mediation Work as a Reciprocal Adaption Between Victims and Authorities 1
4.2 France: Cultural Expertise as the Bridging of Working Differences Between State and Non-State Actors? 1
5. Conclusion 1
References 1