Menu Expand

Cite JOURNAL ARTICLE

Style

García-Fernández, RRuiz Tobar, C (2020). What Happened to Polarization and Inequality Between 2008 and 2018 in Spain?. Applied Economics Quarterly, 66(3), 209-222. https://doi.org/10.3790/aeq.66.3.209
García-Fernández, Rosa María Ruiz Tobar, CandelaGarcía-Fernández, Rosa María Ruiz Tobar, Candela (2020). "What Happened to Polarization and Inequality Between 2008 and 2018 in Spain?" Applied Economics Quarterly, vol. 66no. 3, 2020 pp. 209-222. https://doi.org/10.3790/aeq.66.3.209
García-Fernández, RRuiz Tobar, C (2020). What Happened to Polarization and Inequality Between 2008 and 2018 in Spain?. Applied Economics Quarterly, Vol. 66 (Issue 3), pp 209-222. https://doi.org/10.3790/aeq.66.3.209

Format

What Happened to Polarization and Inequality Between 2008 and 2018 in Spain?

García-Fernández, Rosa María | Ruiz Tobar, Candela

Applied Economics Quarterly, Vol. 66 (2020), Iss. 3 : pp. 209–222

Additional Information

Article Details

Pricing

Author Details

Rosa María García-Fernández, University of Granada, Spain.

Candela Ruiz Tobar, University of Granada, Spain. Department of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business, University of Granada, 18011 Granada, Spain.

References

  1. Blanco Pérez, C./Ramos, X. (2010): “Polarization and Health,” Review of Income and Wealth 56, 171–85.  Google Scholar
  2. Cowell, F. A./Victoria-Feser, M. P. (2002): “Welfare Rankings in the Presence of Contaminated Data,” Econometrica 70, 1221–33.  Google Scholar
  3. Esteban, J. M./Ray, D. (1994): “On the Measurement of Polarization,” Econometrica 62 (4), 819–851.  Google Scholar
  4. Eurofound (2017): Income inequalities and employment patterns in Europe before and after the Great Recession, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. Retrieved August 4, 2020, from https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/report/2017/income-inequalities-and-employment-patterns-in-europe-before-and-after-the-great-recession.  Google Scholar
  5. Fisher, W. D. (1958): “On grouping for maximum homogeneity,” Journal of the American Statistical Association 53, 789–798.  Google Scholar
  6. García-Fernández, R./Gottlieb, D./Palacios-González, F. (2013): “Polarization, growth and social policy in the case of Israel, 1997 to 2008,” Economics: The Open-Access. Open-Assessment E-Journal 7, 2013–15.  Google Scholar
  7. Gasparini, L./Horenstein, M./Molina, E./Olivieri, S. (2008): “Income Polarization in Latin America: Patterns and Links with Institutions and Conflict.” Oxford Development Studies 36 (4), 461–484.  Google Scholar
  8. Gravelle, H./Sutton, M. (2006): “Income, Relative Income, and Self-Reported Health in Britain 1979–2000,” Center for Health Economics Research Paper 10.  Google Scholar
  9. Hermoso, G. J. A./Hernández, B. A. (2000): Curso básico de estadística descriptiva y probabilidad, Ediciones Némesis, 2000.  Google Scholar
  10. Lorenz, M. O. (1905): “Methods of measuring the concentration of wealth,” Publications of the American Statistical Association 9 (70), 209–219.  Google Scholar
  11. OECD (2014): Focus on Inequality and Growth, Retrieved July 6, 2020, from https://www.oecd.org/social/Focus-Inequality-and-Growth-2014.pdf.  Google Scholar
  12. OECD (2016): “Income Distribution Database (IDD): Gini, poverty, income, Methods and Concepts.”  Google Scholar
  13. Palacios-González, F./García-Fernández, R. M. (2012): “Interpretation of the coefficient of determination of an ANOVA model as a measure of polarization,” Journal of Applied Statistics 39 (7), 1543–1555.  Google Scholar
  14. Palacios-González, F./García-Fernández, R. M./Llorca-Rodríguez, C. M. (2013) : “The Impact of the Crisis on the Polarization of Spanish Wages, Estudios de Economía Aplicada 31(3), 1–16.  Google Scholar
  15. Sánchez-González, C./García-Fernández, R. M. (2020): “A multivariate indicator to compute middle class population,”. Social Indicators Research 147 (1), 1–16.  Google Scholar
  16. Wolfson, M. (1994): “When inequality diverges,” American Economic Review 84, 353–358.  Google Scholar
  17. Wolfson, M. (1997): “Divergent inequalities: theory and empirical results,” Review of Income and Wealth 43(4), 401–421.  Google Scholar
  18. Zhang, X./Kanbur, R. (2011): “What Difference Do Polarization Measure Make? An Application to China,” Journal of Development Studies 37, 85–98.  Google Scholar

Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the dynamics of income distribution in Spain between 2008 and 2018 using SILC data. We consider the concepts of polarization and inequality as different aspects of the income distribution. To compute both aspects, we use the measures of Palacios-González and García-Fernández (2012) and the Gini index respectively. Findings indicate that polarization and inequality fluctuate around an upward trend during these years in Spain. Furthermore, the lower and middle income households have been more adversely affected than those with higher incomes, and the middle class has not benefited from the economic growth in Spain.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Rosa María García-Fernández / Candela Ruiz Tobar: What Happened to Polarization and Inequality Between 2008 and 2018 in Spain? 1
Abstract 1
1. Introduction 1
2. Economic Polarization and Dispersion 2
3. Empirical Application 4
4. Conclusions 9
References 1
Appendix 1