Menu Expand



Uddin, M., Sharif, T., Pillai, R. Revisiting the EKC Hypothesis on the Moderating Role of Human Capital Formation in the Economic Growth-Environment Nexus. Applied Economics Quarterly, 67(1), 71-111.
Uddin, Mirza Md Moyen; Sharif, Taimur and Pillai, Rekha "Revisiting the EKC Hypothesis on the Moderating Role of Human Capital Formation in the Economic Growth-Environment Nexus" Applied Economics Quarterly 67.1, , 71-111.
Uddin, Mirza Md Moyen/Sharif, Taimur/Pillai, Rekha: Revisiting the EKC Hypothesis on the Moderating Role of Human Capital Formation in the Economic Growth-Environment Nexus, in: Applied Economics Quarterly, vol. 67, iss. 1, 71-111, [online]


Revisiting the EKC Hypothesis on the Moderating Role of Human Capital Formation in the Economic Growth-Environment Nexus

Uddin, Mirza Md Moyen | Sharif, Taimur | Pillai, Rekha

Applied Economics Quarterly, Vol. 67 (2021), Iss. 1 : pp. 71–111

3 Citations (CrossRef)

Additional Information

Article Details


Author Details

Mirza Md Moyen Uddin, Corresponding author: UNE Business school, University of New England, Armidale 2351, NSW, Australia.

Taimur Sharif, Newman University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Rekha Pillai, British University in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Cited By

  1. Do low-skilled migrant remittances help achieve SDG 10?

    KRATOU, Hajer | Pillai, Rekha | Sharif, Taimur

    Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Vol. 22 (2024), Iss. 1 P.31 [Citations: 2]
  2. Moderating impact of FDI on the growth-environment nexus in the pre-COVID-19 eras

    Uddin, Mirza Md Moyen | Sharif, Taimur | Islam, Abe Reza Mohammad | Abedin, Mohammad Zoynul

    Research in International Business and Finance, Vol. 67 (2024), Iss. P.102114 [Citations: 0]
  3. Transitioning to low carbon economy among OECD countries: Do renewable energy, globalization and higher economic growth matter?

    Ali, Ernest Baba | Gyamfi, Bright Akwasi | Kwakwa, Paul Adjei | Agbozo, Ebenezer

    Energy & Environment, Vol. (2023), Iss. P.0958305X2311777 [Citations: 2]


  1. Abbasi, F./Riaz, K. (2016): “CO2 Emissions and Financial Development in an Emerging Economy: An augmented VAR approach,” Energy Policy 90, 102–114.  Google Scholar
  2. Al-Hilani, H. (2012): “HDI as a Measure of Human Development: A Better Index than the Income Approach?,” IOSR Journal of Business and Management 2, 24–28.  Google Scholar
  3. Al-mulali, U./Sab, C. N. B. C./Fereidouni, H. G. (2012): “ Exploring the Bidirectional Long Run Relationship Between Urbanization, Energy Consumption, and Carbon Dioxide Emission,” Energy 46, 156–167.  Google Scholar
  4. Angelis, E. M./Di Giacomo, M./Vannoni, D. (2019): “Climate Change and Economic Growth: The Role of Environmental Policy Stringency,” Sustainability 11, 2273.  Google Scholar
  5. Arora, S. (1999): Health and Long-Term Economic Growth: A Multi-Country Study, Ohio State University.  Google Scholar
  6. Arouri, M. E. H./Youssef, A. B./Nguyen-Viet, C./Soucat, A. (2014): Effects of Urbanization on Economic Growth and Human Capital Formation in Africa. PGDA, Working Paper No. 19.  Google Scholar
  7. Aye, G. C./Edoja, P. E. (2017): “Effect of Economic Growth on CO2 Emission in Developing Countries: Evidence from a Dynamic Panel Threshold Model,” Cogent Economics and Finance 5, 1–22.  Google Scholar
  8. Baltagi, B. (2001): Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, second edition, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.  Google Scholar
  9. Baroutian, S./Mohebbi, A./Goharrizi, A. S. (2006): “Measuring and Modeling Particulate Dispersion: A Case Study of Kerman Cement Plant,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 136, 468–474.  Google Scholar
  10. Begum, B. A./Hopke, P. K./Markwitz, A. (2013): “Air Pollution by Fine Particulate Matter in Bangladesh,” Atmospheric Pollution Research 4, 7586.  Google Scholar
  11. Bekhet, H. A./Matar, A./Yasmin, T. (2017): “CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Financial Development in GCC countries: Dynamic Simultaneous Equation Models,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 70, 117–132.  Google Scholar
  12. Bharadwaj, P./Gibson, M./Zivin, G. J./Nielson, C. A. (2014): Gray matters: Fetal pollution exposure and human capital formation, NBER Working Paper Series, 20662. USA: National Bureau of Economic Research.  Google Scholar
  13. Booysen, F. (2002): “An Overview and Evaluation of Composite Indices of Development,” Social Indicators Research 59, 115–151.  Google Scholar
  14. Browne, M. W./Cudeck, R. (1993): “Alternative Ways of Assessing Model Fit,” Sage Focus Editions 154, 136–136.  Google Scholar
  15. Cash, T. A. (2016): “Public Expenditure on Education in India,” Journal of Research & Innovations in Education 2, 124–130.  Google Scholar
  16. Chang, K./Ying, Y. H. (2006): “Economic Growth, Human Capital Investment and Health Expenditure: A Study of OECD Countries,” Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 1–16.  Google Scholar
  17. Chani, M. I./Shahid, M. (2012): “Human Capital Formation and Economic Development in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis,” Actual Problems of Economics 6, 486–495.  Google Scholar
  18. Charron, A./Harrison, R. M. (2005): “Fine (PM2. 5) and Coarse (PM2. 5–10) Particulate Matter on a Heavily Trafficked London Highway: Sources and Processes,” Environmental Science & Technology 39, 7768–7776.  Google Scholar
  19. Chen, C. F./Myagmarsuren, O. (2013): “Exploring the Moderating Effects of Value Offerings Between Market Orientation and Performance in Tourism Industry,” International Journal of Tourism Research 15, 595–610.  Google Scholar
  20. Chen, X./Peterson, M. N./Hull, V./Lu, C./Lee, G. D./Hong, D./Liu, J. (2011): “Effects of Attitudinal and Sociodemographic Factors on Pro-environmental Behaviour in Urban China,” Environmental Conservation 38, 45–52.  Google Scholar
  21. Chijioke, A. K./Amadi, A. I. (2019): “Human Capital Investment as a Catalyst for Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria,” International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration 5, 13–22.  Google Scholar
  22. Chung, S. S./Poon, C. S. (2001): “A Comparison of Waste-Reduction Practices and New Environmental Paradigm of Rural and Urban Chinese Citizens,” Journal of Environmental Management 62, 3–19.  Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, J./Cohen, P./West, S. G./Aiken, L. S. (2003): Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Mahwah, New Jersey.  Google Scholar
  24. Constant, K. (2017): “Environmental Policy and Human Capital Inequality: A Matter of Life and Death,” FAERE Working Paper.  Google Scholar
  25. Costa, L./Rybski, D./Kropp, J. P. (2011): “A Human Development Framework for CO2 Reductions,” PloS one 6, e29262, 1–9.  Google Scholar
  26. Costantini, V./Monni, S. (2008): “Environment, Human Development and Economic Growth,” Ecological Economics 64, 867–880.  Google Scholar
  27. Council of the European Union (2009): Council Conclusions of 12 May 2009 on a Strategic Framework for European Cooperation in Education and Training (ET 2020), C119/2, online at: (accessed on June 22, 2020).  Google Scholar
  28. Datta, A./Das, S./Manjunath, K./Adhya, T. (2012): “Comparison of Two Methods for the Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Flux from Rice Ecosystems in India,” Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management 2, 43–49.  Google Scholar
  29. Destek, M. A./Balli, E./Manga, M. (2016): “The Relationship Between CO2 Emission, Energy Consumption, Urbanization and Trade Openness for Selected CEECs,” Research in World Economy 7, 52–58.  Google Scholar
  30. Devlin, N./Hansen, P. (2001): “Health Care Spending and Economic Output: Granger Causality,” Applied Economics Letters 8, 561–564.  Google Scholar
  31. Ekperiware, M. C./Olatayo, T. O./Egbetokun, A.A. (2017): Human Capital and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: How Can Economic Growth Suffice Environmental Degradation? No. 2017-29. Economics Discussion Papers.  Google Scholar
  32. Emerson, J. W./Esty, D. C./Srebotnjak, T./Connett, D. (2015): Exploring Trade & The Environment: An Empirical Examination of Trade Openness and National Environmental Performance. Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, US: Yale.  Google Scholar
  33. EPA (2017): Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emission. Overview of Greenhouse Gases, United States Environmental Protection Agency.  Google Scholar
  34. Ertugrul, H. M./Cetin, M./Seker, F./Dogan, E. (2016): “The Impact of Trade Openness on Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Evidence from the Top Ten Emitters Among Developing Countries. Ecological Indicators,” 67, 543–555.  Google Scholar
  35. Faisal, S. Q./Abdul, W. (2013): “Human Capital and Economic Growth: Cross-country Evidence from Cross-country Evidence from Low-Middle and High income Countries,” Progress in Development Studies 13, 89–104.  Google Scholar
  36. Fan, Y./Chen, J./Shirkey, G./John, R./Wu, S. R./Park, H./Shao, C. (2016): “Applications of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in Ecological Studies: An Updated Review,” Ecological Processes 5, 1–12.  Google Scholar
  37. Fang, Z./Huang, B./Yang, Z. (2018): “How Does Trade Openness Affect the Environmental Kuznets Curve? Economics, Environment, Industry and Trade,” online at: (accessed on July 13, 2020).  Google Scholar
  38. Farhani, S./Mrizak, S./Chaibi, A./Rault, C. (2014): “The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainability: A Panel Data Analysis,” Energy Policy 71, 189–198.  Google Scholar
  39. Forabosco, F./Chitchyan, Z./Mantovani, R. (2017): “Methane, Nitrous Oxide Emissions and Mitigation Strategies for Livestock in Developing Countries: A Review,” South African Journal of Animal Science 47, 268–280.  Google Scholar
  40. Franco, S./Mandla, V. R./Rao, K. R. M. (2017): “Urbanization, Energy Consumption and Emissions in the Indian Context: A Review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 71, 898–907.  Google Scholar
  41. Friedrich, J./Ge, M./Pickens, A. (2020): “This Interactive Chart Shows Changes in the World’s Top 10 Emitters,” World Resources Institute (WRI), online at:  Google Scholar
  42. Gambardella, A./Panico, C./Valentini, G. (2015): “Strategic Incentives to Human Capital,” Strategic Management Journal 36, 37–52.  Google Scholar
  43. Goetz, S. J./Debertin, D. L./Pagoulatos, A. (1998): “Human Capital, Income, and Environmental Quality: A State-Level Analysis,” Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 27, 200–208.  Google Scholar
  44. Grossman, G. M./Krueger, A. B. (1991): “Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement,” (No. 3914). National Bureau of Economic Research.  Google Scholar
  45. Grossman, G. M./Krueger, A. B. (1995): “Economic Growth and the Environment,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110, 353–377.  Google Scholar
  46. Gulaliyev, M. G./Muradov, R. S./Hajiyeva, L. A. (2019). “Study of Human Capital Development, Economic Indicators and Environmental Quality,” Ekoloji 28, 495–503.  Google Scholar
  47. Guo, L./Ma, H. (2009): “Conflict Between Developing Economic and Protecting Environment,” Journal of Sustainable Development 1, 91.  Google Scholar
  48. Hamilton, K./Liu, G. (2014): “Human Capital, Tangible Wealth, and the Intangible Capital Residual,” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 30, 70–91.  Google Scholar
  49. Hao, Y./Liu, Y. M. (2016): “The Influential Factors of Urban PM2. 5 Concentrations in China: A Spatial Econometric Analysis,” Journal of Cleaner Production 112, 1443–1453.  Google Scholar
  50. Harry, D. M. (2010): “The Centrality of Human Capital Development to the Attainment of Nigeria’s Vision 2020-20 Development Programme,” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 12, 139–155.  Google Scholar
  51. Hettige, H./Lucas, R. E./Wheeler, D. (1992): “The Toxic Intensity of Industrial Production: Global Patterns, Trends, and Trade Policy,” The American Economic Review, 478–481.  Google Scholar
  52. Hippe, R./Fouquet, R. (2015): “The Human Capital Transition and the Role of Policy,” Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 210; Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Working Paper No. 185.  Google Scholar
  53. Hu, L. T./Bentler, P. M. (1998): “Fit Indices in Covariance Structure Modeling: Sensitivity to Underparameterized Model Misspecification,” Psychological Methods 3, 424–453.  Google Scholar
  54. Huang, Y./Xiaochun, C./Huiming, Z./Chuangxia, H./Zhongchu, T. (2019): “The Heterogeneous Effects of FDI and Foreign Trade on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from China,” Mathematical Problems in Engineering 2019, 1–14.  Google Scholar
  55. IPCC (2014): Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  Google Scholar
  56. Jayanthakumaran, K./Verma, R./Liu, Y. (2012): “CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Trade and Income: A Comparative Analysis of China and India,” Energy Policy 42, 450–460.  Google Scholar
  57. Jovanović, M./Kašćelan, L./Despotović, A./Kašćelan, V. (2015): “The Impact of Agro-Economic Factors on GHG Emissions: Evidence from European Developing and Advanced Economies,” Sustainability 7, 16290–16310.  Google Scholar
  58. Jun, W./Mahmood, H./Zakaria, M. (2020): “Impact of Trade Openness on Environment in China,” Journal of Business Economics and Management 21, 1185–1202.  Google Scholar
  59. Katircioğlu, S. T./Taşpinar, N. (2017): “Testing the Moderating Role of Financial Development in an Environmental Kuznets Curve: Empirical Evidence from Turkey,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 68, 572–586.  Google Scholar
  60. Kim, D./Suen, Y./Lin, S. (2019): “Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Trade: Evidence from Disaggregate Trade Data,” Energy Economics 78, 13–28.  Google Scholar
  61. Kirschbaum-Behl, B./Soretz, S. (2018). “The Role of Human Capital and Development for Pollution Control: An Endogenous Growth Model,” online at: (accessed on June 25, 2020).  Google Scholar
  62. Lackéus, M. (2015): “Entrepreneurship in Education: What, Why, When, How,” Entrepreneurship 360 Background Paper, OECD.  Google Scholar
  63. Leal, P. A./Cardoso, M. A. (2019): Rediscovering the EKC hypothesis on the high and low globalized OECD countries. Published in: Energy and Environmental Strategies in the Era of Globalization. Green Energy and Technology, edited by M. Shahbaz and D. Balsalobre. Springer International.  Google Scholar
  64. Lim, S. S./Updike, R. L./Kaldjian, A. S./Barber, R. M./Cowling, K./York, H./Friedman, J./Xu, R./Whisnant, J. L./Taylor, H. J./Leever, A. T. (2018): “Measuring Human Capital: A Systematic Analysis of 195 Countries and Territories 1990–2016,” The Lancet 392, 1217–1234.  Google Scholar
  65. Liu, C. J./Liu, C.-Y./Mong, N. T./Chou, C. C. (2016): “Spatial Correlation of Satellite-Derived PM2. 5 with Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases,” Remote Sensing 8, 1–15.  Google Scholar
  66. Lonska, J./Mietule, I. (2015): “The Impact of Human Capital Development on the Economic and Social Development of a Country: Empirical Study,” Environment, Technology, Resources: Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference 2, 174–180.  Google Scholar
  67. Lutz, W./Butz, W. P./Samir, K. E. (Eds.) (2017): World Population & Human Capital in the Twenty-First Century: An Overview. Oxford University Press.  Google Scholar
  68. Mahmood, H./Furqan, M./Alkhateeb, T./Fawaz, M. (2019): “Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve in Egypt: Role of Foreign Investment and Trade,” International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy 9, 225–228.  Google Scholar
  69. Mahmood, H./Maalel, N./Zarrad, O. (2019a): “Trade Openness and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Tunisia,” Sustainability 11, 3295, 1–14.  Google Scholar
  70. Maitra, B./Mukhopadhyay, C. K. (2012): Public Spending on Education, Health Care and Economic Growth in Selected Countries of Asia and the Pacific. Health Care and Economic Growth in Selected Countries of Asia and the Pacific, 19.  Google Scholar
  71. Maneejuk, N./Ratchakom, S./Maneejuk, P./Yamaka, W. (2020): “Does the Environmental Kuznets Curve Exist? An International Study,” Sustainability, 12, 9117, 1–22.  Google Scholar
  72. Mankiw, N. G./Romer, D./Weil, D. N. (1992): “A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 107, 407–437.  Google Scholar
  73. Monteiro, R. D. A. A./Moretto, E. M./Salinas, D. P./Gomes, C. S. (2014): “Environmental Performance and Human Development in the Municipalities of São Paulo,” Ambiente & Sociedade 17, 221–238.  Google Scholar
  74. Morel, N. (2015): “Servants for the knowledge-based Economy? The Political Economy of Domestic Services in Europe,” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 22, 170–192.  Google Scholar
  75. Mukherjee, S./Chakraborty, D. (2010): Is There Any Relationship Between Environment, Human Development, Political and Governance Regimes? Evidences from a Cross-Country Analysis. MPRA Paper No. 19968.  Google Scholar
  76. Nasibulina, A. (2015): “Education for Sustainable Development and Environmental Ethics,” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 214, 1077–1082.  Google Scholar
  77. Omri, A. (2013): “CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus in MENA Countries: Evidence from Simultaneous Equations Models,” Energy Economics 40, 657–664.  Google Scholar
  78. Pachauri, R. K./Allen, M. R./Barros, V. R./Broome, J./Cramer, W./Christ, R./Dasgupta, P. (2014): Climate Change 2014: Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: IPCC.  Google Scholar
  79. Paho (2013): Health, Environment and Sustainable Development: Towards the Future We Want. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC.  Google Scholar
  80. Panzabekova, A./Satybaldin, A./Alibekova, G./Abilkayir, N. (2019): Human Capital for Sustainable Development: A Comparative Analysis of Regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 317–012013.  Google Scholar
  81. Peykarjou, K./Gollu, R. B./Gashti, H. P./Shahrivar, R. B. (2011): “Studying the Relationship Between Health and Economic Growth in OIC Member States,” Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 3, 1041–1054.  Google Scholar
  82. Poore, J./Nemecek, T. (2018): “Reducing foods environmental impacts through producers and consuumers,” Science 360, 987–992.  Google Scholar
  83. Ritchie, H. (2019): “Food Production is Responsible for One-quarter of the World’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Our World in Data,” online at: (accessed March 22, 2021).  Google Scholar
  84. Roth, S. (2017): Air Pollution, Educational Achievements, and Human Capital Formation. Air pollution, Educational Achievements, and Human Capital Formation. IZA World of Labor, 381.  Google Scholar
  85. Rudra, A./Chattopadhyay, A. (2018): “Environmental Quality in India: Application of Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainable Human Development Index,” Environmental Quality Management 27, 29–38.  Google Scholar
  86. Saleem, N./Rahman, S. U./Jun, Z. (2019): “ The Impact of Human Capital and Biocapacity on Environment: Environmental Quality Measure Through Ecological Footprint and Greenhouse Gases,” Journal of Pollution Effects and Control 7, 237, 1–13.  Google Scholar
  87. Sarker, T./Corradetti, R./Zahan, M. (2012). Energy sources and carbon emissions in the iron and steel industry sector in South Asia. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 3(1), 30–42.  Google Scholar
  88. Sarwar, S./Alsaggaf, M. I./Tingqiu, C. (2019): “Nexus Among Economic Growth, Education, Health, and Environment: Dynamic Analysis of World-Level Data,” Front. Public Health 7, 307.  Google Scholar
  89. Sbia, R./Shahbaz, M./Ozturk, I. (2017): “Economic Growth, Financial Development, Urbanisation, and Electricity Consumption Nexus in UAE,” Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja 30, 527–549.  Google Scholar
  90. Schultz, T. W. (1963): The Economic Value of Education. New York, USA, Columbia University Press.  Google Scholar
  91. Scott, D./Willits, F. K. (1994): “Environmental Attitudes and Behavior: A Pennsylvania Survey,” Environment and Behavior 26, 239–260.  Google Scholar
  92. Sehrawat, M./Giri, A./Mohapatra, G. (2015): “The Impact of Financial Development, Economic Growth and Energy Consumption on Environmental Degradation: Evidence from India,” Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 26, 666–682.  Google Scholar
  93. Selden, T. M./Song, D. (1994): “Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 27, 147–162.  Google Scholar
  94. Shahbaz, M./Sinha, A. (2019): “Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emissions: A Literature Survey,” Journal of Economic Studies 46, 106–168.  Google Scholar
  95. Shahbaz, M./Tiwari, A. K./Nasir, M. (2013): “The Effects of Financial Development, Economic Growth, Coal Consumption and Trade Openness on CO2 Emissions in South Africa,” Energy Policy 61, 1452–1459.  Google Scholar
  96. Sharif, T./Ahmed, J./Abdullah, S. (2013): “HR Development and Economic Growth in Bangladesh: An Econometric Analysis,” European Journal of Business and Management 5, 133–144.  Google Scholar
  97. Soubbotina, T. P. (2004): Beyond Economic Growth: An Introduction to Sustainable Development, Second Edition. World Bank Publications, The World Bank, no. 14865, 06-2020.  Google Scholar
  98. Ssali, M. W./Du, J./Mensah, I. A./Hongo, D. O. (2019): “Investigating the Nexus Among Environmental Pollution, Economic Growth, Energy Use, and Foreign Direct Investment in Six Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26, 11245–11260.  Google Scholar
  99. Stark, O. (1999). Altruism and Beyond: An Economic Analysis of Transfers and Exchanges Within Families and Groups. Cambridge University Press.  Google Scholar
  100. Steinberger, J. K./Roberts, J. T. (2010): “From Constraint to Sufficiency: The Decoupling of Energy and Carbon from Human Needs 1975–2005,” Ecological Economics 70, 425–433.  Google Scholar
  101. Stern, D. I./Zha, D. (2016): “Economic Growth and Particulate Pollution Concentrations in China,” Environmental Economics and Policy Studies 18, 327–338.  Google Scholar
  102. Sterpu, M./Soava, G./Mehedintu, A. (2018): “Impact of Economic Growth and Energy Consumption on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Testing Environmental Curves Hypotheses on EU Countries,” Sustainability 10, 3327.  Google Scholar
  103. Sun, H./Clottey, S. A./Geng, Y./Fang, K./Clifford, J./Amissah, K. (2019): “Trade Openness and Carbon Emissions: Evidence from Belt and Road Countries,” Sustainability 11, 2682.  Google Scholar
  104. Taiwo, A. M./Harrison, R. M./Shi, Z. (2014): “A Review of Receptor Modelling of Industrially Emitted Particulate Matter,” Atmospheric Environment 97, 109–120.  Google Scholar
  105. Tarka, P. (2017): “An Overview of Structural Equation Modeling: Its Beginnings, Historical Development, Usefulness and Controversies in the Social Sciences,” Qual Quant 52, 313–354.  Google Scholar
  106. Uddin, M. M. M. (2020): “Does Financial Development Stimulate Environmental Sustainability? Evidence from a Panel Study of 115 Countries,” Business Strategy and the Environment 29, 2871–2889.  Google Scholar
  107. Uddin, M. T./Akter, H. (2017): “Is Healthier Wealthier? Evidence from Member Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC),” Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research 17(2-E).  Google Scholar
  108. Uddin, M. M. M./Sharif, T. (2017): “Identifying Causal Relationships Among Education, Income and Health Expenditures in South Asian Countries: An Econometric Aanalysis,” New Zealand Journal of Applied Business Research 15, 41–57.  Google Scholar
  109. UN (2007): Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies. United Nations (UN) publication, Third Edition, online at: /  Google Scholar
  110. Vine, D./Ye, J. (2018): Decarbonizing US Industry. Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, 2.  Google Scholar
  111. Wang, S./Li, G./Fang, C. (2017): “Urbanization, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption, and CO2 Emissions: Empirical Evidence from Countries with Different Income Levels,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81, 2144–2159.  Google Scholar
  112. Wu, Y./Sheng, J./Huang, F. (2015): “China’s Future Investments in Environmental Protection and Control of Manufacturing Industry: Lessons from Developed Countries,” Natural Hazards 77, 1889–1901.  Google Scholar
  113. Xu, W./Wan, B./Zhu, T./Shao, M. (2016): “CO2 Emissions from China’s Iron and Steel Industry,” Journal of Cleaner Production 139, 1504–1511.  Google Scholar
  114. Yan, H. (2015): “Provincial Energy Intensity in China: The Role of Urbanization,” Energy Policy 86, 635–650.  Google Scholar
  115. Zepada, L. (Ed.) (2001): Agricultural Investment and Productivity in Developing Countries. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, Series number: 0259–2460.  Google Scholar
  116. Zhang, B./Yang, T./Chen, B./Sun, X. (2016): “China’s Regional CH4 Emissions: Characteristics, Interregional Transfer and Mitigation Policies,” Applied Energy 184, 1184–1195.  Google Scholar
  117. Zi, C./Jie, W./Hong-Bo, C. (2016): “CO2 Emissions and Urbanization Correlation in China Based on Threshold Analysis,” Ecological Indicators 61, 193–201.  Google Scholar
  118. Zimmerle, D. J./Williams, L. L./Vaughn, T. L./Quinn, C./Subramanian, R./Duggan, G. P./Martinez, D. M. (2015): “Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Transmission and Storage System in the United States,” Environmental science & technology 49, 9374–9383.  Google Scholar


This article investigates the moderation effect of human capital formation on the relationship between economic growth and selected significant indicators of environmental degradation. Panel data for 115 countries for the period 1990 – 2016 were collected from World Development Indicators (2018). The Human Development Index (HDI) is employed as a proxy for human capital formation in investigating the growth-environmental pollution nexus. The study employs structural equation modelling (SEM) hypothesis testing with multiple variables and complex causal relationships. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is used to assess the reliability and validity analysis in the measurement model. Results reveal that HDI interaction with GDP degrades the quality of environment while its interaction effect with GDP2 mitigates varied selected emissions for upper-middle and high income countries, all of which show concurrence with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Moreover, interaction effect of HDI reduces both CH4 and PM2.5 emissions in low income countries. Findings provide evidence of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) that GDP and GDP2 growth emit a significant amount of CO2 in low- and lower-middle income countries, highlighting contradictory results with an HDI interaction. The results give rise to several policy implications, all of which point to a need for concerted efforts in implementing prudent economic development initiatives that mitigate environmental degradation. Also, the study pinpoints the need for a serious consideration of placing a global focus on the “education for sustainability” (EfS) principle in consumption and production activities and, accordingly, incorporating SD into national curricula to reap larger benefits of human capital formation in the growth-environment nexus.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Mirza Md Moyen Uddin / Taimur Sharif / Rekha Pillai: Revisiting the EKC Hypothesis on the Moderating Role of Human Capital Formation in the Economic Growth-Environment Nexus 1
Abstract 1
1. Introduction 2
2. Literature Review 4
3. Rationale and Hypothesis Development 7
3.1 Dependent Variable: Environmental Degradation 7
3.2 Explanatory Variables 7
3.2.1 Economic Growth 7
3.2.2 Energy Consumption 8
3.2.3 Urbanization 9
3.2.4 Manufacturing 9
3.2.5 Human Development Index (HDI) as a Moderating Factor 1
4. Data, Econometric Model, and Methodology 1
4.1 Data 1
4.2 Model Specification and Justification of the Variables 1
4.3 Econometric Methods 1
5. Empirical Results 1
5.1 Summary Statistics, Validity Analysis, and CFA 1
5.2 Long-Run Coefficients of Main Effect in Path Analysis 1
5.3 Long-Run Coefficients of Interaction Effect in Path Analysis 1
5.4 Two-Way Interactions 1
5.5 Standardized Total Effect 1
5.6 Hypothesis Testing 2
6. Conclusion, Limitations, and Policy Implications 2
Availability of Data and Materials 2
References 2
Appendix 3