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Legal Linguistics Beyond Borders: Language and Law in a World of Media, Globalisation and Social Conflicts

Relaunching the International Language and Law Association (ILLA)

Editors: Vogel, Friedemann

Sprache und Medialität des Rechts / Language and Media of Law, Vol. 2

(2019)

Additional Information

Book Details

About The Author

Friedemann Vogel ist Professor für computergestützte Sozio- und Diskurslinguistik an der Universität Siegen, Koordinator der 1984 gegründeten Heidelberger Gruppe der Rechtslinguistik sowie Präsident der »International Language and Law Association« (ILLA, 2017-2019). Zuvor studierte er Germanistik, Psychologie und Philosophie, wurde 2011 an der Universität Heidelberg promoviert und war bis 2018 Juniorprofessor für Medienlinguistik an die Universität Freiburg. Er initiierte 2012 den Aufbau des weltweit größten Referenzkorpus des deutschsprachigen Rechts (JuReKo) und leitet gemeinsam mit Hanjo Hamann die »International Research Group Computer Assisted Legal Linguistics«. Zu Vogels Arbeitsschwerpunkten zählt die Fachkommunikation in Rechtswesen und Justiz, linguistische Diskurs- und Imageanalyse, politische und medienvermittelte Kommunikation sowie computergestützte, quantifizierende Zugänge zu sprachlichen Handlungs- und Interaktionsmustern als komplementäre Verfahren zu qualitativer Hermeneutik und Ethnographie. Nähere Informationen unter: www.friedemann-vogel.de.

Abstract

The world of law has changed in the last decades: it has become more globalized, multilingual and digital. The sections and contributions of this volume continue the interdisciplinary discussion about the challenges of this change for theory and practice of law and for the International Language and Law Association (ILLA) relaunched in 2017. First, the book gives a broad overview to the research field of legal linguistics, its history, research directions and open questions in different parts of the world (United States, Africa, Italy, Spain, Germany, Nordic countries and Russia). The second section consists of contributions about the relation of language, law and justice in a globalized world with a focus on multilingual and supranational law in the EU. The third section focuses on digitalization and mediatization of the law, the last section reports about the discussion at the ILLA relaunch conference in 2017.The world of law has changed in the last decades: it has become more globalized, multilingual and digital. The contributions of this volume continue the interdisciplinary discussion about the challenges of this change for theory and practice of law and for the International Language and Law Association (ILLA) relaunched in 2017, introducing the research field of legal linguistics in different parts of the world and considering multilingualism, power abuse and mediatization of the law.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Legal Linguistics Beyond Borders: Language and Law in a World of Media, Globalisation and Social Conflicts 1
R. Alexander Lorz: Preface: Creating Law with Language – Crossing Borders and Connecting Disciplines from the Perspective of Legislative Practice 5
Table of Contents 9
Friedemann Vogel: Introduction 11
Literature 16
Legal Linguistics Around the World 17
Lawrence M. Solan: Legal Linguistics in the US. Looking Back, Looking Ahead 19
Abstract 19
I. Linguistics and Law Realize that they have Discovered Each Other 19
II. Forensic Linguistics Becomes a Field 23
III. Some Areas of Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration 25
IV. Some Encouraging Trends 27
V. Conclusion 34
VI. Literature 34
Gatitu Kiguru: Legal Linguistics in Africa. Framing the Agenda for an Emerging Discipline in a Nebulous Space 39
Abstract 39
I. Introduction 39
II. An Inheritance of Laws 41
III. The Power Structure in Customary Law Systems 43
IV. An Inheritance of Languages 45
V. Themes in Budding Research 48
1. Court Interpreting – Kenya 49
2. Power in Courtroom Discourse – Nigeria 51
VI. The Emergence of a Discipline: Challenges and Opportunities 52
VII. Conclusions 54
VIII. Literature 55
Gianluca Pontrandolfo: Legal Linguistics in Italy 59
Abstract 59
I. Introduction 59
II. Research in Italian Legal Linguistics 60
1. Early studies on Italian legal language 60
2. Studies on the simplification of legalese 61
3. Legal language as LSP: features and genres 62
4. Theories of legal linguistics: philosophy, semantics, sociolinguistics 63
5. Legal translation theory and comparative law 63
6. Legal discourse and stylistics 64
7. Legal linguistics and computer science 64
8. Legal translation & interpreting research 65
III. Research activities 67
1. Research groups and projects in Italy 67
2. Research scholars working in Italy in legal languages different than Italian 69
IV. Legal Linguistic in Italian academia 71
1. Departments Law & Language 71
2. Teaching of legal linguistics 71
3. Editorial panorama 72
V. Old and new directions in LL in Italy 73
VI. Literature 74
Gianluca Pontrandolfo: Legal Linguistics in Spain 81
Abstract 81
I. Introduction 81
II. Topics and directions 82
1. Traditional studies on legal language 83
2. Research on legal genres 84
3. Discourse analysis 84
4. Simplification of legalese 85
5. Forensic Linguistics 87
6. Legal translation & interpreting 87
III. Research activities 88
IV. Editorial panorama 91
V. Training initiatives 91
VI. Concluding remarks 92
VII. Literature 93
Friedemann Vogel: Legal linguistics in Germany. History, Working Groups, Concepts 99
Abstract 99
I. The linguistic constitution of society and law 99
II. To the professionalization of research, teaching and practice 103
1. Research interests and objectives of legal linguistics 103
2. Issues of legal linguistics professionalization 104
a) Interdisciplinary working groups on language and law 104
b) Milestones of publications and resources in German Legal Linguistics 106
c) Study paths 106
d) Legal linguists in the context of legislation 107
III. Established working areas of German legal linguistics 107
1. Terminology, general language and their conflicting relation to each other 108
2. Legal semantics: legal work as textual work 108
3. Communication in court 109
IV. Pending issues and new research fields 110
1. Digitization of the law 110
2. Computer-assisted methods to explore legal semantics 111
3. Legislation and norm-genesis 112
4. Multilingualism in the supranational legal sphere 113
V. Literature 114
Emilia Lindroos: Legal Linguistics in the Nordic Countries. Past Developments and Future Directions 123
Abstract 123
I. Introduction 123
II. Finland 125
1. General developments in Legal Linguistics 126
2. Research in Legal Linguistics 127
3. Didactics of Legal Linguistics 132
III. Legal Linguistics in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark 134
IV. Concluding remarks 137
V. Literature 138
Svetlana Takhtarova / Diana Sabirova: Russian Juridical Linguistics. History and Modernity 147
Abstract 147
I. Introduction 147
II. The main scientific paradigms of Russian legal science 149
III. Leading Scientific Schools of Russian Juridical Linguistics 155
IV. Concluding remarks 158
V. Literature 159
Language, Law and Justice in a Globalized World 165
Ninon Colneric: Multilingual and Supranational Law in the EU: ˋUnited in Diversity' or ˋTower of Babelˋ? 167
I. Introduction 167
II. The present language regime of the EU 169
1. Fundamental rights 169
2. The basic regulatory framework of the EU language regime 169
3. Communications between the EU institutions and Member States or citizens 172
4. Intra- and interinstitutional communications of the EU 175
a) Intra-institutional communications 175
aa) The European Parliament 175
bb) The Council of the EU 176
cc) The European Commission 178
dd) The Court of Justice of the European Union 178
b) Interinstitutional communications 179
III. Drafting multilingual supranational law 180
IV. Interpreting multilingual supranational law 181
V. Perspectives 182
1. The consequences of the Brexit for the present language regime of the EU 182
2. English as the only working language? 182
3. Weak multilingualism with only one authentic language? 183
VI. Conclusions 184
VII. Literature 186
Peter Schiffauer / Izabela Jędrzejowska-Schiffauer: Triumph of Law over Language. Case Studies on Multilingually Negotiated EU-Law 187
Abstract 187
I. Introduction 187
II. The limited multilingual character of EU-legislative provisions 189
III. Selected examples 191
1. Erreur matérielle, Ordnungspolitik, Moral hazard, Bail out, National ownership 191
a) Erreur matérielle 191
b) Ordnungspolitik 192
c) Moral hazard 194
d) Bail-out 195
e) National ownership 196
2. Reimbursement of expenses 199
3. Tofu-cheese 200
IV. Lessons to be drawn – theoretical considerations 202
1. The use of idiomatic expressions 202
2. Is genuinely multilaterally negotiated legislation imaginable? 203
3. The triumph of historically stabilised legal practice and “sedimented” law over the ties of language 205
V. Literature 206
Łucja Biel / Vilelmini Sosoni: EU Legal Culture and Translation in the Era of Globalisation. The Hybridisation of EU Terminology on the Example of Competition Law 207
Abstract 207
I. Introduction 207
II. The EU Legal Culture and Translation Panel at the ILLA relaunch conference 208
III. EU Competition Law: globalisation, Europeanisation and localisation 211
IV. EU competition terminology and translation: The side effects of multilingualism and hybridisation 215
V. Conclusion 222
VI. Literature 224
Stefan Höfler: Making the Law More Transparent. Text Linguistics for Legislative Drafting 229
Abstract 229
I. Introduction 229
II. Transparent drafting: Theory and practice 230
III. Text linguistics at work 232
1. Functional structure 233
a) Statements of purpose 234
b) Modality 235
c) Definitions of terms 237
2. Thematic structure 238
a) Linearisation 238
b) Signposting 241
3. Propositional structure 243
a) Relations 243
b) Reference 246
IV. Transparent drafting in a globalised world 248
V. Literature 249
Frances Olsen: Law, Language and Justice 253
Abstract 253
I. Introduction 253
II. James B. White: When Words Lose Their Meaning 256
III. Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War and the Degradation of Language, Culture and Values 259
1. The Corcyrean Debate 259
2. The Mytilene Debates 260
3. The Melian Dialogue 262
4. The Syracuse Expedition 264
IV. Parallels to the U.S. Today 265
1. Euphemisms and their Opposite 266
2. The Particular Case of Torture and “Enhanced Interrogation” 272
3. Replacing Hypocrisy with Realism or Shifting from Mytilene to Melos? 275
4. Reckless Imperial Greed and Pride Sideline Democracy 278
5. American Exceptionalism 279
V. Harold Pinter – Nobel Acceptance Speech 280
VI. A Dissenting View and Conclusion 283
VII. Literature 288
The Mediatization of the Law 289
Ruth Breeze: The Practice of the Law Across Modes and Media. Exploring the Challenges and Opportunities for Legal Linguists 291
Abstract 291
I. Introduction 291
II. Theoretical framework 292
III. Method and sample 293
IV. Case studies 294
1. ADR blogs 294
2. Face-to-face ODR 297
3. Automated ODR platforms 301
V. Concluding thoughts 304
VI. Literature 305
VII. Appendix 307
Appendix 1 307
Appendix 2 310
Appendix 3 312
Victoria Guillén Nieto: Gender-based Violence and the Mediatization of the Law 315
Abstract 315
I. Introduction 315
II. Gender-based violence in the Spanish law 316
III. A linguistic perspective of the overarching concept of gender-based violence 318
1. Approaching gender-based violence through Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) 318
2. A multidimensional approach to the analysis of heteropatriarchal culture 320
a) Level 1: Gender as a value dimension 321
b) Level 2: Ideology 321
c) Level 3: Social practices 322
d) Level 4: Discursive practices 322
IV. The mediatization of the law 326
1. The case of Ana Orantes and the creation of the Organic Law 1/2004, of December 28th, on Comprehensive Protection Measures against Gender-based Violence 327
2. The case of La manada and the revision of sexual offences in the Spanish Penal Law 328
3. The case of Harvey Weinstein and the ME TOO bill in the United States Congress 330
4. Judge Brett M. Kavanaugh's confirmation hearing 332
V. Conclusions 334
VI. Literature 335
Laws 338
Stanisław Goźdź-Roszkowski / Monika Kopytowska: Courts, Constitutionality and Conflicts in Media Representations. A Case Study in Polish Rule of Law Crisis 339
Abstract 339
I. Introduction 339
II. The conflict in context 340
III. Institutional Context: Poland's Constitutional Tribunal (Trybunał Konstytucyjny) 342
IV. Theoretical framework of the study 343
V. Material and Method 349
VI. Results and discussion 350
1. The Guardian and the EU crisis frame 351
2. Niezalezna.pl and responsibility frame 354
VII. Conclusions 356
VIII. Literature 358
Reports from the ILLA Relaunch Conference 2017 in Freiburg 363
Carole E. Chaski / Victoria Guillén Nieto / Dieter A. Stein: Report on the Workshop on Forensic Linguistics at the ILLA Relaunch Conference in September 2017 365
I. Introduction 365
II. Author Identification 366
III. Speaker Identification 367
IV. Spanish Forensic Corpus 368
V. Forensic Computational Linguistics 368
VI. Court Testimonies / Courtroom interaction 369
VII. Language Crimes 370
VIII. Conclusion 371
IX. Literature 371
Dieter Stein: The Freiburg Relaunch Conference on Language and Law in a World of Media, Globalisation and Social Conflicts. A brief Conference Comment 375
Literature 378
Yinchun Bai / Isabelle Gauer / Jana Werner: Report from the first ILLA Junior Research Panel at the ILLA Relaunch Conference in September 2017 379
Notes on Contributors 383