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The First World War as a Caesura?

Demographic Concepts, Population Policy, and Genocide in the Late Ottoman, Russian, and Habsburg Spheres

Editors: Pschichholz, Christin

Gewaltpolitik und Menschenrechte, Vol. 3

(2020)

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About The Author

Christin Pschichholz ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Lehrstuhl für Militärgeschichte/Kulturgeschichte der Gewalt der Universität Potsdam. Ihr aktuelles Forschungsprojekt befasst sich mit der deutschen Rezeption ethnischer Gewalt während des Ersten Weltkriegs. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte sind das Deutsche Kaiserreich, der Erste Weltkrieg, Genozidforschung und historiographische Perspektiven auf Massengewalt.

Abstract

During the phases of mobile warfare, the ethnically and religiously very heterogeneous population in the border regions of the multi-ethnic empires suffered in particular. Even if the real military situation in the course of the war hardly gave cause for concern, the image of disloyal ethnic and national minorities was widespread. This was particularly the case when ethnic groups lived on both sides of the border and social and political tensions had already established themselves along ethnic or religious lines of conflict before the war. Displacements, deportations and mass violence were the result. The genocide of the Armenian population is the most extreme example of this development.

This anthology examines the border regions of the Ottoman, Russian and Habsburg empires during the First World War with regard to radical population policy and genocidal violence from a comparative perspective in order to draw a more precise picture of escalating and deescalating factors.

Table of Contents

Section Title Page Action Price
Inhaltsverzeichnis 5
Christin Pschichholz: The First World War as a Caesura? 7
Ronald Grigor Suny: Imperial Choices: Perceiving Threats and the Descent to Genocide 13
The Great War and the Clash of Empires 16
World War I and Ethnicity 19
The Armenian Genocide 21
Mark Levene: Deadly Geopolitics, Ethnic Mobilisations, and the Vulnerability of Peoples, 1914–18 33
The Great War and ˋNational' Peoples 35
Blaming the Jews: A Special Case 39
Perfidious Albion? 42
National Actors: Vision and Hubris 45
ˋMinorities': The Fateful Legacy of the Great War 47
Arno Barth: The Securitization of Minorities as a Bedrock of Population Policy 49
Psychological Approach (Affect Heuristics) 49
Political Science Approach (Securitization) 51
Securitization of Minorities during World War One 53
Siegfried Lichtenstaedter (Central Powers) 54
Buxton Brothers (Entente) 56
Georges Montandon (Neutral Countries) 57
Summary 59
Outlook 61
Hans-Lukas Kieser: Empire Overstretched Nation-state Enforced: The Young Turks Inaugurated the Europe of Extremes 65
Introduction: The Threshold of 1913 65
Late Ottoman Background 66
Reforms and Social Revolution Versus Reactionary Violence and Restored Empire 68
Ideological Radicalisation and Large-scale Demographic Engineering 70
Genocide 74
Removal of Muslims and Jews 77
Conclusion: The Lausanne Treaty Endorsed Extremes and Abandoned Minorities 78
Oktay Özel: The Role of Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa (Special Organization) in the Armenian Genocide 81
CUP, Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa and the War 83
Tehcir and the Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa 85
An Attempt at Reconstruction – The Teşkilât-ı Mahsusa (re-activated on 3 August 1914) 86
Dr Sakir as the Mastermind of Annihilation 87
Armenians Perceived as ˋFifth Column' 89
Decision for Tehcir and Destruction (March 1915) 91
From Teşkilât-ı Mahsusa to Umur-ı Şarkiye Dairesi (5 April 1915) 93
“New SO” as a Criminal Organization 95
The CUP, the Government and the Harbiye: Institutional Responsibility 97
“SO Çetes” or Militia Bands 100
Official and Civilian Involvement and Complicity 102
In Lieu of Conclusion 105
Hilmar Kaiser: Zor District During the Initial Monthsof the Armenian Genocide 109
Rasulain 119
Conclusion 123
Hannes Leidinger: Systematization of Hatred 125
General Developments and the Dual Monarchy 125
The Mentality of the Habsburg Army and Notably of its Officers 126
Entanglements of International Tensions and Internal Conflicts, 1903–1914 126
The Triggering Event – 28 June 1914 127
Radicalization Through the Effects of the (new) War 127
Military Criminal Law and Command Structures 128
Mobile Warfare, Thrusts into Foreign Countries and ˋToils' of Occupation Regimes 129
The Imbalance of Forces 130
Ideas of Superiority 131
Heterogeneous Societies 131
Critical and Limiting Closing Remarks 132
Heiko Brendel: “Our land is small and it's pressed on all sides. Not one of us can live here peacefully.” 135
Introduction 135
Welcomed Liberators 135
Language, Religion, and Territory in Austro-Hungarian Occupied Montenegro 136
Montenegro's “Predatory” Socio-Economic Tradition 138
The Emergence of Anti-Muslim Nationalism in Montenegro 139
Nicholas's Muslim Subjects 142
The Balkan Wars and the Acquisition of “New Montenegro” 145
Under Austro-Hungarian Occupation 147
Religions under Austro-Hungarian Occupation 150
Justice and Education in Occupied Montenegro 151
Emigration and Immigration under Austro-Hungarian Rule 152
Conclusions 155
Serhiy Choliy: War as a Model of Population Movement in the Modern World: The Galician Perspectives in the First World War 159
Historical Background: Galicia before World War I 161
Historical Background: The Austro-Hungarian and Russian Claims Before World War I 163
World War I Begins: The Austrian Activities During the First Phase of the War 165
Mobilization: Everything for the Front 166
Mobilization: To Preserve Law and Order 168
The World War Goes on: The Russian Occupation of Galicia 170
Pacification: Administration and Security 171
Painful Retreat: Evacuation and Political Aims 174
Conclusions 176
Konrad Zieliński: The Jews and the Bolsheviks 179
Peter Holquist: The Soviet Policy of De-cossackization During the Russian Civil War (1919) 191
Decossackization: ˋLiquidating' the Cossackry 195
Bibliography 217
Contributors 245